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Cannabinoid depression

Maximilian Gericke, Dirk Hartmann
HISTORY:  The 43-year-old patient was admitted because of vomiting and abdominal pain. He had a history of depression and multiple discus prolapses. He reported the consumption of three beers per day. FINDINGS:  The patient presented diffuse abdominal pain. The serume-kreatine was elevated (205 µmol/l), there was a leucocytosis (18,4^3/µl) and a mild elvation of y-GT (2,3µkat/l). Stool culture was negative. An abdominal ultrasound and a gastroscopy did not show groundbreaking findings...
August 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Peter Petschner, Viola Tamasi, Csaba Adori, Eszter Kirilly, Romeo D Ando, Laszlo Tothfalusi, Gyorgy Bagdy
BACKGROUND: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a widely used entactogenic drug known to impair cognitive functions on the long-run. Both hippocampal and frontal cortical regions have well established roles in behavior, memory formation and other cognitive tasks and damage of these regions is associated with altered behavior and cognitive functions frequently described in otherwise healthy MDMA users. Meanwhile, in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients seem to benefit from therapeutic application of the drug, where damage in hippocampal cue extinction may play a role...
August 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Hiroki Ishiguro, Yasue Horiuchi, Koichi Tabata, Qing-Rong Liu, Tadao Arinami, Emmanuel S Onaivi
CB2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) gene is associated with depression. We investigated the gene-environment interaction between CB2R function and diverse stressors. First, anxiety-like behavior during chronic-mild-stress (CMS) was evaluated in C57BL/6JJmsSlc mice following treatment with CB2R agonist JWH015 or inverse-agonist AM630. Second, locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were measured following exposure to an immune poly I:C stressor. Gene expressions of HPA axis related molecules, Fkbp5 , Nr3c1 and Crf and pro-inflammatory cytokine Il-1b , as well as Bdnf as a key neurotrophin that supports neuron health, function, and synaptic plasticity, were determined in hippocampus of Cnr2 knockout mice, as indicators of stressful environment...
July 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Inés Ibarra-Lecue, Fuencisla Pilar-Cuéllar, Carolina Muguruza, Eva Florensa-Zanuy, Álvaro Díaz, Leyre Urigüen, Elena Castro, Angel Pazos, Luis F Callado
Mental disorders have a high prevalence compared with many other health conditions and are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Several studies performed in the last years support the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the etiopathogenesis of different mental disorders. The present review will summarize the latest information on the role of the endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders, specifically depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. We will focus on the findings from human brain studies regarding alterations in endocannabinoid levels, cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes in patients suffering mental disorders...
July 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Brenda Sbarski, Irit Akirav
Chronic direct activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1r) may lead to downregulation of CB1r which may in turn result in a depression-like phenotype in certain individuals. We examined the effects of chronic cannabinoid receptor activation before exposure to an emotional traumatic event on CB1r expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and CA1 and on protracted anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We used exposure to severe shock and situational reminders (SRs) in an inhibitory apparatus as a model for emotional trauma...
June 29, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
An-Qi Yin, Feng Wang, Xia Zhang
Brain endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling seems to harmonize appropriate behavioral responses, which are essential for the organism's long-term viability and homeostasis. Dysregulation of eCB signaling contributes to negative emotional states and increased stress responses. An understanding of the underlying neural cell populations and neural circuit regulation will enable the development of therapeutic strategies to mitigate behavioral maladaptation and provide insight into the influence of eCB on the neural circuits involved in anxiety and depression...
July 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis, Jennifer Schneider
There is increasing interest in the use of cannabinoids for disease and symptom management, but limited information available regarding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to guide prescribers. Cannabis medicines contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is psychoactive, and the nonpsychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis use is associated with both pathological and behavioural toxicity and, accordingly, is contraindicated in the context of significant psychiatric, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic illness...
July 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Davorka Sutlović, Ingrid Prkačin, Fabio Vaiano, Elisabetta Bertol, Maja Veršić Bratinčević, Marija Definis-Gojanović
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS), synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in particular, is growing constantly. Because of the insufficiently explored effects on consumer health, they have become a major problem in the emergency departments. They are difficult to identify, and there are no antidotes that could reverse their detrimental effects. We report a case of poisoning of a young man who used SCs. The patient was admitted to the emergency department of the Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zagreb (Croatia) after sniffing and smoking a herbal product bought on the street...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Guoxiang Fang, Ying Wang
Depression is a common mental disorder in adolescents, with a prevalence rate of 5.6%. Current anti-depressive options for adolescents are limited: psychological intervention and conventional antidepressants have low efficacy, a delayed onset of action and increased possibility of suicidal risk. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an effective and noninvasive physical therapy for adult depression has been investigated in recent years. However, whether it also produces similar effects on juvenile depression and the underlying mechanism are not clearly understood...
July 9, 2018: Neurochemical Research
B Cuccurazzu, E Zamberletti, C Nazzaro, P Prini, M Trusel, M Grilli, D Parolaro, R Tonini, T Rubino
Background: In rodent models, chronic exposure to cannabis' psychoactive ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence leads to abnormal behavior in adulthood. In female rats, this maladaptive behavior is characterized by endophenotypes for depressive-like and psychotic-like disorders, as well as cognitive deficits. We have recently reported that most depressive-like behaviors triggered by adolescent THC exposure can be rescued by manipulating endocannabinoid signaling in adulthood with the anandamide inactivating enzyme FAAH inhibitor, URB597...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Gabrielle Campbell, Wayne D Hall, Amy Peacock, Nicholas Lintzeris, Raimondo Bruno, Briony Larance, Suzanne Nielsen, Milton Cohen, Gary Chan, Richard P Mattick, Fiona Blyth, Marian Shanahan, Timothy Dobbins, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
BACKGROUND: Interest in the use of cannabis and cannabinoids to treat chronic non-cancer pain is increasing, because of their potential to reduce opioid dose requirements. We aimed to investigate cannabis use in people living with chronic non-cancer pain who had been prescribed opioids, including their reasons for use and perceived effectiveness of cannabis; associations between amount of cannabis use and pain, mental health, and opioid use; the effect of cannabis use on pain severity and interference over time; and potential opioid-sparing effects of cannabis...
July 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Xiang-Hu He, Chloe J Jordan, Kiran Vemuri, Guo-Hua Bi, Jia Zhan, Eliot L Gardner, Alexandros Makriyannis, Yan-Lin Wang, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1 Rs) have been shown to be a promising target in medication development for the treatment of addiction. However, clinical trials with SR141716A (rimonabant, a selective CB1 R antagonist/inverse agonist) for the treatment of obesity and smoking cessation failed due to unwanted side effects, such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal tendencies. Recent preclinical studies suggest that the neutral CB1 R antagonist AM4113 may retain the therapeutic anti-addictive effects of SR141716A in nicotine self-administration models and possibly has fewer unwanted side effects...
July 2, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Yinghao Yao, Yi Xu, Junsheng Zhao, Yunlong Ma, Kunkai Su, Wenji Yuan, Jennie Z Ma, Thomas J Payne, Ming D Li
Background: Several studies have revealed significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cannabinoid receptor 1 ( CNR1 ) gene and a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and schizophrenia. Personality traits that are highly related to susceptibility to these conditions have been associated with the CNR1 variants in subjects of Caucasian origin. However, there are no reported studies regarding the effects of CNR1 polymorphisms on personality traits in the African-American (AA) population...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jenny Ceccarini, Rawaha Ahmad, Laura Van de Vliet, Cindy Casteels, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Wim Vandenberghe, Koen Van Laere
Many Huntington disease (HD) mutation carriers already have cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in the premanifest (premotor) phase of the disease, but the molecular underpinnings of these symptoms are not well understood. Previous work has shown reduced availability of the cerebral type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 R) in manifest HD. Here, we investigated whether CB1 R binding is related to cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in premanifest HD mutation carriers (preHD). Methods: CB1R binding was measured with 18 F-MK-9470 PET in 15 preHD subjects (8M/7F; age 39...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Dusan Kolar
Treatment-resistant mood disorders and anxiety disorders require intensive treatment, but treatment options should balance benefits and adverse effects or other potential detrimental effects on patients, including the risk of developing prescription medication addiction. Some of the newer treatment modalities for mood and anxiety disorders may have similar properties to benzodiazepines. The goal of this review was to identify the potential for developing dependence on the novel treatment approaches to treatment-resistant depression and refractory anxiety disorders...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Mohammad Jafferany, Maryam E Davari
Itch, also referred to as pruritus, is an unpleasant cutaneous sensation provoking the desire to scratch. It is often an uncomfortable, subjective sensation responsible for decreased quality of life in a variety of psychodermatological conditions. Comorbid psychiatric conditions, including depression and anxiety, are frequently associated with itch and scratch cycle. The reciprocal and intricate relationship between the psyche and itch has been widely studied. The neurobiology of itch involves the complexity of specific mediators, itch-related neuronal pathways, and central processing of itch...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Hossein Mohammad-Pour Kargar, Hossein Azizi, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Ali Reza Mani, Saeed Semnanian
Locus coeruleus nucleus (LC) is a major noradrenergic nucleus in the brain. It receives dense orexinergic projections from lateral hypothalamus. Whilst it is known that orexin A increases firing rate of LC neurons, its effect on spontaneous and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and eIPSCs, respectively) has not been yet identified. In this research, we investigated the effect of orexin A on eIPSCs and sIPSCs in LC neurons. Whole-cell recordings revealed that orexin A suppresses eIPSCs amplitude in which this effect was blocked by an orexin type-1 receptors antagonist (SB-334867) and cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors antagonist (AM251)...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Denis Matrov, Tanel Kaart, Laurence Lanfumey, Rafael Maldonado, Trevor Sharp, Rosa M Tordera, Paul A Kelly, Bill Deakin, Jaanus Harro
The psychopathology of depression is highly complex and the outcome of studies on animal models is divergent. In order to find brain regions that could be metabolically distinctively active across a variety of mouse depression models and to compare the interconnectivity of brain regions of wild-type and such genetically modified mice, histochemical mapping of oxidative metabolism was performed by the measurement of cytochrome oxidase activity. We included mice with the heterozygous knockout of the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1 -/+ ), full knockout of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1-/- ), an anti-sense knockdown of the glucocorticoid receptor (GRi) and overexpression of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (h5-HTT)...
June 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Peter F Weed, Lisa R Gerak, Charles P France
Pain is a serious health problem that is commonly treated with opioids, although the doses of opioids needed to treat pain are often similar to those that decrease respiration. Combining opioids with drugs that relieve pain through non-opioid mechanisms can decrease the doses of opioids needed for analgesia, resulting in an improved therapeutic window, but only if the doses of opioids that decrease respiration are not similarly decreased. Using small doses of opioids to treat pain has the potential to reduce the number of overdoses and deaths...
August 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Rachel L Tomko, Amanda K Gilmore, Kevin M Gray
Relative to adults, adolescents are at greater risk of developing a cannabis use disorder (CUD) and risk may be exacerbated by co-occurring depressive symptoms. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter antioxidant, is thought to normalize glutamate transmission. Oxidative stress and glutamate transmission are disrupted in both depression and CUD. Thus, NAC may be particularly effective at promoting cannabis abstinence among adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Secondary analyses were conducted using a sub-sample of adolescents with CUD (N = 74) who participated in an 8-week randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy of NAC for cannabis cessation...
October 2018: Addictive Behaviors
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