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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307491/neural-stem-cell-lineage-specific-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-regulates-neurogenesis-and-plasticity-in-the-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#1
Tina Zimmermann, Mattia Maroso, Annika Beer, Sarah Baddenhausen, Susann Ludewig, Wenqiang Fan, Constance Vennin, Sebastian Loch, Benedikt Berninger, Clementine Hofmann, Martin Korte, Ivan Soltesz, Beat Lutz, Julia Leschik
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse hippocampus occur in a specific neurogenic niche, where a multitude of extracellular signaling molecules converges to regulate NSC proliferation as well as fate and functional integration. However, the underlying mechanisms how NSCs react to extrinsic signals and convert them to intracellular responses still remains elusive. NSCs contain a functional endocannabinoid system, including the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1). To decipher whether CB1 regulates adult neurogenesis directly or indirectly in vivo, we performed NSC-specific conditional inactivation of CB1 by using triple-transgenic mice...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298064/translational-investigation-of-the-therapeutic-potential-of-cannabidiol-cbd-toward-a-new-age
#2
REVIEW
José A Crippa, Francisco S Guimarães, Alline C Campos, Antonio W Zuardi
Background: Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical subjective effects of marijuana. Objectives: The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry. Methods: A non-systematic search was performed for studies dealing with therapeutic applications of CBD, especially performed by Brazilian researchers. Results: CBD was shown to have anxiolytic, antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297193/coma-seizures-atrioventricular-block-and-hypoglycemia-in-an-adb-fubinaca-body-packer
#3
Nicholas Nacca, Rachel Schult, Robert Loflin, Adam Weltler, Rachel Gorodetsky, Sherri Kacinko, Jeffery Moran, Alex Krotulski, Timothy Wiegand
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoid intoxication has become difficult to diagnose and manage in the United States, in part due to varying clinical effects within this heterogeneous group of compounds. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man was admitted with altered mental status and bradycardia. He demonstrated progressive encephalopathy, seizure activity, second-degree atrioventricular block type I, respiratory failure, hypotension, hypothermia, and hypoglycemia. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed multiple packages in the patient's stomach and rectum...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290188/cannabinoids-in-depressive-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Ewa Poleszak, Sylwia Wośko, Karolina Sławińska, Aleksandra Szopa, Andrzej Wróbel, Anna Serefko
Cannabis sativa is one of the most popular recreational and medicinal plants. Benefits from use of cannabinoid agents in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and others have been suggested. It seems that the endocannabinoid system is also involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression, though its role in this mental disease has not been fully understood yet. Both the pro- and antidepressant activity have been reported after cannabis consumption and a number of pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that both agonist and antagonist of the endocannabinoid receptors act similarly to antidepressants...
October 2, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281175/a-systematic-review-on-the-neuroprotective-perspectives-of-beta-caryophyllene
#5
REVIEW
Keylla da Conceição Machado, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Eunüs S Ali, Razina Rouf, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Shrabanti Dev, Jamil A Shilpi, Manik Chandra Shill, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Asish Kumar Das, Subrata Shaw, Mohammad S Mubarak, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, Ana Amelia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Beta (β)-caryophyllene (BCAR) is a major sesquiterpene of various plant essential oils reported for several important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, nephroprotective, antimicrobial, and immune-modulatory activity. Recent studies suggest that it also possesses neuroprotective effect. This study reviews published reports pertaining to the neuropharmacological activities of BCAR. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MedLine Plus, and Google Scholar with keywords "beta (β)-caryophyllene" and other neurological keywords were searched...
October 3, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194657/ameliorative-effect-of-xiaoyao-jieyu-san-on-post-stroke-depression-and-its-potential-mechanisms
#6
Changde Wang, Chunlan Wu, Zhenguo Yan, Xiao Cheng
A stroke is a severe life-threatening disease with high fatality and disability rate. This investigation aimed to study the effect of Xiaoyao-jieyu-san (XYJY) on post-stroke depression (PSD) and its potential mechanisms. PSD rats were prepared using middle cerebral artery embolization (MCAO) and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and divided into six groups (n = 10)-sham; MCAO; MCAO + CUMS (PSD); PSD + fluoxetine (1.84 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks); and PSD + XYJY (450 mg/kg/day and 900 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks)...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126012/faah-variant-pro129thr-modulates-subjective-effects-produced-by-cocaine-administration
#7
Marguerite M Patel, David A Nielsen, Thomas R Kosten, Richard De La Garza, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA), an agonist at type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The common variant rs324420 C->A within the FAAH gene on chromosome 1 codes for a missense substitution (Pro129Thr), resulting in decreased FAAH activity and increased endocannabinoid potentiation. This FAAH variant has been linked to alterations in mood and stress reactivity, as well as being independently linked to increased risk for addiction...
August 20, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109642/cannabinoid-based-therapies-and-brain-development-potential-harmful-effect-of-early-modulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system
#8
Patrícia Schonhofen, Ivi Juliana Bristot, José Alexandre Crippa, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio Hallak, Antônio Waldo Zuardi, Richard B Parsons, Fábio Klamt
The endocannabinoid retrograde signaling pathway is widely expressed in the central nervous system, where it plays major roles in regulating synaptic plasticity (excitatory and inhibitory) through long-term potentiation and long-term depression. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) components-cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and synthesis/degradation enzymes-are expressed and are functional from early developmental stages and throughout adolescent cortical development, regulating progenitor cell fate, neural differentiation, migration and survival...
August 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105471/fatal-poisonings-associated-with-new-psychoactive-substances
#9
Robert Kronstrand, Davide Guerrieri, Svante Vikingsson, Ariane Wohlfarth, Henrik Gréen
This chapter describes how new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been involved in fatal intoxications from 2010 and onwards. It summarizes the circumstances, antemortem symptoms, and adverse effects that have led to death after ingestion of one or more NPS and tabulates concentrations, and postmortem findings from these intoxications.Consumption of NPS exerts health problems and unknown risks for the users. Data on toxicity of many NPS are scarce or nonexistent and long-term toxicity and risks are still largely unknown...
August 14, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099006/selective-up-regulation-of-cannabinoid-cb-1-receptor-coupling-to-go-proteins-in-suicide-victims-with-mood-disorders
#10
Susana Mato, Fuencisla Pilar-Cuéllar, Elsa M Valdizán, Javier González-Maeso, Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas, Javier Meana, Joan Sallés, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Ángel Pazos
Brain endocannabinoid system is proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the functionality of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) at different transduction levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of depressed suicide victims. We examined stimulation of [35 S]GTPγS binding, activation of Gα protein subunits and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2, as well as [3 H]CP55,940 binding, in PFC homogenates from suicide victims with major depression (MD) and matched control subjects...
August 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086564/-a-lot-of-hot-steam-the-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome
#11
Maximilian Gericke, Dirk Hartmann
HISTORY:  The 43-year-old patient was admitted because of vomiting and abdominal pain. He had a history of depression and multiple discus prolapses. He reported the consumption of three beers per day. FINDINGS:  The patient presented diffuse abdominal pain. The serume-kreatine was elevated (205 µmol/l), there was a leucocytosis (18,4^3/µl) and a mild elvation of y-GT (2,3µkat/l). Stool culture was negative. An abdominal ultrasound and a gastroscopy did not show groundbreaking findings...
August 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071829/gene-expression-analysis-indicates-reduced-memory-and-cognitive-functions-in-the-hippocampus-and-increase-in-synaptic-reorganization-in-the-frontal-cortex-3-weeks-after-mdma-administration-in-dark-agouti-rats
#12
Peter Petschner, Viola Tamasi, Csaba Adori, Eszter Kirilly, Romeo D Ando, Laszlo Tothfalusi, Gyorgy Bagdy
BACKGROUND: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a widely used entactogenic drug known to impair cognitive functions on the long-run. Both hippocampal and frontal cortical regions have well established roles in behavior, memory formation and other cognitive tasks and damage of these regions is associated with altered behavior and cognitive functions frequently described in otherwise healthy MDMA users. Meanwhile, in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients seem to benefit from therapeutic application of the drug, where damage in hippocampal cue extinction may play a role...
August 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042304/cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-gene-and-environmental-interaction-in-the-development-of-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Hiroki Ishiguro, Yasue Horiuchi, Koichi Tabata, Qing-Rong Liu, Tadao Arinami, Emmanuel S Onaivi
CB2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) gene is associated with depression. We investigated the gene-environment interaction between CB2R function and diverse stressors. First, anxiety-like behavior during chronic-mild-stress (CMS) was evaluated in C57BL/6JJmsSlc mice following treatment with CB2R agonist JWH015 or inverse-agonist AM630. Second, locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were measured following exposure to an immune poly I:C stressor. Gene expressions of HPA axis related molecules, Fkbp5 , Nr3c1 and Crf and pro-inflammatory cytokine Il-1b , as well as Bdnf as a key neurotrophin that supports neuron health, function, and synaptic plasticity, were determined in hippocampus of Cnr2 knockout mice, as indicators of stressful environment...
July 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026022/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-mental-disorders-evidence-from-human-brain-studies
#14
REVIEW
Inés Ibarra-Lecue, Fuencisla Pilar-Cuéllar, Carolina Muguruza, Eva Florensa-Zanuy, Álvaro Díaz, Leyre Urigüen, Elena Castro, Angel Pazos, Luis F Callado
Mental disorders have a high prevalence compared with many other health conditions and are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Several studies performed in the last years support the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the etiopathogenesis of different mental disorders. The present review will summarize the latest information on the role of the endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders, specifically depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. We will focus on the findings from human brain studies regarding alterations in endocannabinoid levels, cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes in patients suffering mental disorders...
July 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026011/chronic-exposure-to-cannabinoids-before-an-emotional-trauma-may-have-negative-effects-on-emotional-function
#15
Brenda Sbarski, Irit Akirav
Chronic direct activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1r) may lead to downregulation of CB1r which may in turn result in a depression-like phenotype in certain individuals. We examined the effects of chronic cannabinoid receptor activation before exposure to an emotional traumatic event on CB1r expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and CA1 and on protracted anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We used exposure to severe shock and situational reminders (SRs) in an inhibitory apparatus as a model for emotional trauma...
August 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002489/integrating-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-anxiety-and-depression
#16
REVIEW
An-Qi Yin, Feng Wang, Xia Zhang
Brain endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling seems to harmonize appropriate behavioral responses, which are essential for the organism's long-term viability and homeostasis. Dysregulation of eCB signaling contributes to negative emotional states and increased stress responses. An understanding of the underlying neural cell populations and neural circuit regulation will enable the development of therapeutic strategies to mitigate behavioral maladaptation and provide insight into the influence of eCB on the neural circuits involved in anxiety and depression...
July 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001569/the-pharmacokinetics-and-the-pharmacodynamics-of-cannabinoids
#17
REVIEW
Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis, Jennifer Schneider
There is increasing interest in the use of cannabinoids for disease and symptom management, but limited information available regarding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to guide prescribers. Cannabis medicines contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is psychoactive, and the nonpsychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis use is associated with both pathological and behavioural toxicity and, accordingly, is contraindicated in the context of significant psychiatric, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic illness...
July 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29990295/a-case-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-poisoning-in-croatia
#18
Davorka Sutlović, Ingrid Prkačin, Fabio Vaiano, Elisabetta Bertol, Maja Veršić Bratinčević, Marija Definis-Gojanović
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS), synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in particular, is growing constantly. Because of the insufficiently explored effects on consumer health, they have become a major problem in the emergency departments. They are difficult to identify, and there are no antidotes that could reverse their detrimental effects. We report a case of poisoning of a young man who used SCs. The patient was admitted to the emergency department of the Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zagreb (Croatia) after sniffing and smoking a herbal product bought on the street...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987693/effects-of-rtms-on-hippocampal-endocannabinoids-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-adolescent-rats
#19
Guoxiang Fang, Ying Wang
Depression is a common mental disorder in adolescents, with a prevalence rate of 5.6%. Current anti-depressive options for adolescents are limited: psychological intervention and conventional antidepressants have low efficacy, a delayed onset of action and increased possibility of suicidal risk. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an effective and noninvasive physical therapy for adult depression has been investigated in recent years. However, whether it also produces similar effects on juvenile depression and the underlying mechanism are not clearly understood...
September 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982505/adult-cellular-neuroadaptations-induced-by-adolescent-thc-exposure-in-female-rats-are-rescued-by-enhancing-anandamide-signaling
#20
B Cuccurazzu, E Zamberletti, C Nazzaro, P Prini, M Trusel, M Grilli, D Parolaro, R Tonini, T Rubino
Background: In rodent models, chronic exposure to cannabis' psychoactive ingredient Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence leads to abnormal behavior in adulthood. In female rats, this maladaptive behavior is characterized by endophenotypes for depressive-like and psychotic-like disorders, as well as cognitive deficits. We have recently reported that most depressive-like behaviors triggered by adolescent THC exposure can be rescued by manipulating endocannabinoid signaling in adulthood with the anandamide inactivating enzyme FAAH inhibitor, URB597...
June 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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