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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640837/identification-and-prediction-of-alternative-transcription-start-sites-that-generate-rod-photoreceptor-specific-transcripts-from-ubiquitously-expressed-genes
#1
Evgenya Y Popova, Anna C Salzberg, Chen Yang, Samuel Shao-Min Zhang, Colin J Barnstable
Transcriptome complexity is substantially increased by the use of multiple transcription start sites for a given gene. By utilizing a rod photoreceptor-specific chromatin signature, and the RefSeq database of established transcription start sites, we have identified essentially all known rod photoreceptor genes as well as a group of novel genes that have a high probability of being expressed in rod photoreceptors. Approximately half of these novel rod genes are transcribed into multiple mRNA and/or protein isoforms through alternative transcriptional start sites (ATSS), only one of which has a rod-specific epigenetic signature and gives rise to a rod transcript...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636933/drosophila-neuropeptide-f-signaling-independently-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#2
Brian Y Chung, Jennifer Ro, Sabine A Hutter, Kylie M Miller, Lakshmi S Guduguntla, Shu Kondo, Scott D Pletcher
Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636682/excited-state-characterization-of-carbonyl-containing-carotenoids-a-comparison-between-single-and-multireference-descriptions
#3
Riccardo Spezia, Stefan Knecht, Benedetta Mennucci
Carotenoids can play multiple roles in biological photoreceptors thanks to their rich photophysics. In the present work, we have investigated six of the most common carbonyl containing carotenoids: echinenone, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, capsanthin and capsorubin. Their excitation properties are investigated by means of a hybrid density functional theory (DFT) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) approach to elucidate the role of the carbonyl group: the bright transition is of ππ* character, as expected, but the presence of a C[double bond, length as m-dash]O moiety reduces the energy of nπ* transitions which may become closer to the ππ* transition, in particular as the conjugation chain decreases...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636018/fluorescence-lifetime-microscopy-reveals-the-biologically-related-photophysical-heterogeneity-of-oxyblepharismin-in-light-adapted-blue-blepharisma-japonicum-cells
#4
G Checcucci, B Storti, F Ghetti, G Signore, R Bizzarri
The step-up photophobic response of the heterotrich ciliate Blepharisma japonicum is mediated by a hypericinic pigment, blepharismin, which is not present in any of the known six families of photoreceptors, namely rhodopsins, phytochromes, xanthopsins, cryptochromes, phototropins, and BLUF proteins. Upon irradiation, native cells become light-adapted (blue) by converting blepharismin into the photochemically stable oxyblepharismin (OxyBP). So far, OxyBP has been investigated mainly from a photophysical point of view in vitro, either alone or complexed with proteins...
June 21, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635593/the-protein-slr1143-is-an-active-diguanylate-cyclase-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-and-interacts-with-the-photoreceptor-cph2
#5
Veronika Angerer, Philipp Schwenk, Thomas Wallner, Volkhard Kaever, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Annegret Wilde
Cyclic-di-GMP is an ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria. Several c-di-GMP receptor proteins have been identified to date, and downstream signalling pathways are often mediated through protein-protein interactions. The photoreceptor Cph2 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 comprises three domains related to c-di-GMP metabolism: two GGDEF and one EAL domain. It has been shown that the C-terminal GGDEF domain acts as blue-light triggered c-di-GMP producer thereby inhibiting motility of the cells in blue light...
June 21, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634860/molecular-chaperone-hsp70-and-its-constitutively-active-form-hsc70-play-an-indispensable-role-during-eye-development-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Ajay Kumar, Anand K Tiwari
In the present study, we demonstrate that molecular chaperone Hsp70 and Hsc70 is essential for normal organization and development of ommatidial cells in Drosophila melanogaster eye. An exogenously expressed dominant negative mutant of Hsp70 (K71E) and Hsc70.4 (K71S and D206S) in an eye-specific manner resulted in eye degeneration that includes loss of eye pigment, disorganized ommatidia, abnormality in bristle cell arrangement and reduction in the eye size. The developmental organization of ommatidial cells (cone, photoreceptor, pigment, and bristle cell complex) was disturbed in Hsp70 and Hsc70 mutants...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634231/hyperactivity-of-the-arabidopsis-cryptochrome-cry1-l407f-mutant-is-caused-by-a-structural-alteration-close-to-the-cry1-atp-binding-sit
#7
Christian Orth, Nils Niemann, Lars Hennig, Lars-Oliver Essen, Alfred Batschauer
Plant cryptochromes (cry) act as UV-A/blue light receptors. The prototype, Arabidopsis thaliana cry1, regulates several light responses during the life cycle, including de-etiolation, and is also involved in regulating flowering time. The cry1 photocycle is initiated by light absorption by its FAD chromophore, which is most likely fully oxidized (FADox) in the dark state and photoreduced to the neutral flavin semiquinone (FADH(o)) in its lit state. Cryptochromes lack the DNA-repair activity of the closely related DNA photolyases, but retain the ability to bind nucleotides such as ATP...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633154/localized-bilateral-juxtafoveal-photoreceptor-loss-in-poems-a-new-association
#8
Christopher K Hwang, Anton M Kolomeyer, Alexander J Brucker, Jessica I W Morgan, Charles W Nichols, Tomas S Aleman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633009/rna-interference-reveals-the-coregulatory-effects-of-cylindromatosis-on-apoptosis-and-necroptosis-of-photoreceptor-cells-in-experimental-retinal-detachment
#9
Kai Dong, Linfeng Han, Jingwen Liu, Fenghua Wang, Xiaodong Sun
Inhibiting only cell apoptosis or necroptosis in photoreceptor cells does not protect them against death after traumatic retinal detachment. This study was designed to evaluate the coregulatory effects of the deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis on the apoptosis and necroptosis of photoreceptor cells in experimental retinal detachment. Lentivirus Cyld shRNA was generated and used to suppress cylindromatosis expression in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three weeks after injection of lentivirus Cyld shRNA, retinal detachment surgery was performed...
June 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632879/reliability-and-agreement-between-metrics-of-cone-spacing-in-adaptive-optics-images-of-the-human-retinal-photoreceptor-mosaic
#10
Daniela Giannini, Giuseppe Lombardo, Letizia Mariotti, Nicholas Devaney, Sebastiano Serrao, Marco Lombardo
Purpose: To assess reliability and agreement among three metrics used to evaluate the distribution of cell distances in adaptive optics (AO) images of the cone mosaic. Methods: Using an AO flood illumination retinal camera, we acquired images of the cone mosaic in 20 healthy subjects and 12 patients with retinal diseases. The three spacing metrics studied were the center-to-center spacing (Scc), the local cone spacing (LCS), and the density recovery profile distance (DRPD)...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632846/suppression-of-hsp27-restores-retinal-function-and-protects-photoreceptors-from-apoptosis-in-a-light-induced-retinal-degeneration-animal-model
#11
Chih-Cheng Chien, Chi-Jung Huang, Lu-Tai Tien, Yu-Che Cheng, Chia-Ying Ke, Yih-Jing Lee
Purpose: We used a light-induced retinal degeneration animal model to investigate possible roles of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in retinal/photoreceptor protection. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the light-induced retinal degeneration animal model. The histology of eye sections was observed for morphologic changes in the retina. Cell apoptosis was examined in each group using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and electroretinography was used to evaluate retinal function...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632317/qm-mm-study-on-the-photoreactions-of-dark-and-light-adapted-states-of-a-blue-light-ytva-lov-photoreceptor
#12
Xue-Ping Chang, Yuan-Jun Gao, Wei-Hai Fang, Ganglong Cui, Walter Thiel
The dark- and light-adapted states of YtvA LOV domains exhibit distinct excited-state behavior. We have employed high-level QM(MS-CASPT2)/MM calculations to study the photochemical reactions of the dark- and light-adapted states. The photoreaction from the dark-adapted state starts with an S1→T1 intersystem crossing followed by a triplet-state hydrogen transfer from the thiol to the flavin moiety that produces a diradical intermediate, and a subsequent internal conversion that triggers a barrierless C-S bond formation in the S0 state...
June 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632034/recombinant-human-nerve-growth-factor-treatment-promotes-photoreceptor-survival-in-the-retinas-of-rats-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#13
Marta Sacchetti, Flavio Mantelli, Maria Luisa Rocco, Alessandra Micera, Laura Brandolini, Laura Focareta, Claudio Pisano, Luigi Aloe, Alessandro Lambiase
PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts protective effects against retinal degeneration in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This study aims at investigating the effects of intravitreal injection of recombinant human NGF (rhNGF) on retinal photoreceptors apoptosis in an animal model of RP, the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. METHODS: Thirty-six RCS rats were treated with intravitreal injection of rhNGF or murine NGF (mNGF) or vehicle at 20 postnatal days (pd) and sacrificed at 40 pd...
March 1, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629848/a-novel-intrinsic-electroretinogram-response-in-isolated-mouse-retina
#14
Motoharu Takao, Yumi Fukuda, Takeshi Morita
Since the discovery of intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC) was reported in 2002, many features specific to this cell type have been described. However, scare information is available on the retinographic components directly reflecting ipRGC activity. In this study, we identified the electroretinogram (microERG) that reflects the photoresponses by ipRGCs in ex vivo preparations of the mouse retina, in which classical photoreceptors (cones and rods) were ablated mechanically and photochemically...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626601/long-term-efficacy-of-gmp-grade-xeno-free-hesc-derived-rpe-cells-following-transplantation
#15
Trevor J McGill, Osnat Bohana-Kashtan, Jonathan W Stoddard, Michael D Andrews, Neelay Pandit, Lior R Rosenberg-Belmaker, Ofer Wiser, Limor Matzrafi, Eyal Banin, Benjamin Reubinoff, Nir Netzer, Charles Irving
PURPOSE: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction underlies the retinal degenerative process in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and thus RPE cell replacement provides an optimal treatment target. We characterized longitudinally the efficacy of RPE cells derived under xeno-free conditions from clinical and xeno-free grade human embryonic stem cells (OpRegen) following transplantation into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. METHODS: Postnatal (P) day 20 to 25 RCS rats (n = 242) received a single subretinal injection of 25,000 (low)-, 100,000 (mid)-, or 200,000 (high)-dose xeno-free RPE cells...
June 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625779/multiple-isoforms-of-nesprin1-are-integral-components-of-ciliary-rootlets
#16
Chloe Potter, Wanqiu Zhu, David Razafsky, Philip Ruzycki, Alexander V Kolesnikov, Teresa Doggett, Vladimir J Kefalov, Ewelina Betleja, Moe R Mahjoub, Didier Hodzic
SYNE1 (synaptic nuclear envelope 1) encodes multiple isoforms of Nesprin1 (nuclear envelope spectrin 1) that associate with the nuclear envelope (NE) through a C-terminal KASH (Klarsicht/Anc1/Syne homology) domain (Figure 1A) [1-4]. This domain interacts directly with the SUN (Sad1/Unc84) domain of Sun proteins [5-7], a family of transmembrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) [8, 9], to form the so-called LINC complexes (linkers of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) that span the entire NE and mediate nuclear positioning [10-12]...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625537/the-developmental-stage-of-adult-human-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-influences-transplant-efficacy-for-vision-rescue
#17
Richard J Davis, Nazia M Alam, Cuiping Zhao, Claudia Müller, Janmeet S Saini, Timothy A Blenkinsop, Francesca Mazzoni, Melissa Campbell, Susan M Borden, Carol J Charniga, Patty L Lederman, Vanessa Aguilar, Michael Naimark, Michael Fiske, Nathan Boles, Sally Temple, Silvia C Finnemann, Glen T Prusky, Jeffrey H Stern
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of central visual loss in the elderly. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell loss occurs early in the course of AMD and RPE cell transplantation holds promise to slow disease progression. We report that subretinal transplantation of RPE stem cell (RPESC)-derived RPE cells (RPESC-RPE) preserved vision in a rat model of RPE cell dysfunction. Importantly, the stage of differentiation that RPESC-RPE acquired prior to transplantation influenced the efficacy of vision rescue...
June 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624895/semaphorin4d-plexinb1-signaling-attenuates-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-reducing-rac1-activity-of-rpe-cells
#18
Ayelen Bulloj, Arvydas Maminishkis, Masayuki Mizui, Silvia C Finnemann
Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624323/post-receptor-neuronal-loss-in-intermediate-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
Enrico Borrelli, Nizar Saleh Abdelfattah, Akihito Uji, Muneeswar Gupta Nittala, David S Boyer, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness and photoreceptor alterations in eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: We collected data from 68 eyes with intermediate AMD from 68 patients with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging. A control group of 50 eyes from 50 healthy subjects was included for comparison...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621420/the-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-basic-developmental-biology-research-to-translational-approaches
#20
Benjamin Amram, Yamit Cohen-Tayar, Ahuvit David, Ruth Ashery-Padan
The development of the eye has been a topic of extensive investigation, from the early studies on tissue induction to more recent breakthroughs in resolving the mechanism regulating progenitor patterning and their gradual and coordinated differentiation into diverse tissue types that function together throughout life. Among the ocular tissue types, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is at the forefront of developmental biology and stem cell research. The growing interest in this lineage stems from its importance for photoreceptor function as well as from its requirement during embryogenesis for the development of the photoreceptors and the choroid...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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