keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

how to interpret scientific articles

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290744/understanding-and-interpreting-funnel-plots-for-the-clinician
#1
Charles Godavitarne, Alastair Robertson, David M Ricketts, Benedict A Rogers
Funnel plots are an increasingly common graphical tool which are widely used in the literature. They were first introduced by Light and Pillemer in 1984 . In scientific literature, funnel plots are used to identify the probability of bias in meta-analyses and compare institutional performance. The ability to identify variation is better with graphical than tabular display. In addition, the way data are presented can directly influence the interpretation of results. This was demonstrated by Marshall et al (2004) , who presented institutional mortality data in both a league table and control chart format...
October 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230420/how-to-train-your-oracle-the-delphi-method-and-its-turbulent-youth-in-operations-research-and-the-policy-sciences
#2
Christian Dayé
Delphi is a procedure that produces forecasts on technological and social developments. This article traces the history of Delphi's development to the early 1950s, where a group of logicians and mathematicians working at the RAND Corporation carried out experiments to assess the predictive capacities of groups of experts. While Delphi now has a rather stable methodological shape, this was not so in its early years. The vision that Delphi's creators had for their brainchild changed considerably. While they had initially seen it as a technique, a few years later they reconfigured it as a scientific method...
September 19, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226278/ethical-issues-in-research-on-substance-dependent-parents-the-risk-of-implicit-normative-judgements-by-researchers
#3
Anke Snoek, Dorothee Horstkötter
When doing research among vulnerable populations, researchers are obliged to protect their subjects from harm. We will argue that traditional ethical guidelines are not sufficient to do this, since they mainly focus on direct harms that can occur: for example, issues around informed consent, fair recruitment and risk/harm analysis. However, research also entails indirect harms that remain largely unnoticed by research ethical committees and the research community. Indirect harms do not occur during data collection, but in the analysis of the data, and how the data is presented to the scientific and wider societal community...
September 18, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30148453/a-gentle-introduction-to-the-comparison-between-null-hypothesis-testing-and-bayesian-analysis-reanalysis-of-two-randomised-controlled-trials-and-a-call-for-reanalysis-papers
#4
Marcus Bendtsen
The debate on the use and misuse of P values has risen and fallen throughout their almost century long existence in scientific discovery. Over the past few years the debate has again received front-page attention, particularly through the public reminder by the American Statistical Association on how P values should be used and interpreted. At the core of the issue lies a fault in the way that scientific evidence is dichotomised and research is subsequently reported, and this fault is exacerbated by researchers giving license to statistical models to do scientific inference...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094697/examining-grounded-theory-through-the-lens-of-rationalist-epistemology
#5
Mathieu Albert, Maria Mylopoulos, Suzanne Laberge
The objective of scientific, or more broadly, academic knowledge is to provide an understanding of the social and natural world that lies beyond common sense and everyday thinking. Academics use an array of techniques, methods and conceptual apparatuses to achieve this goal. The question we explore in this essay is the following: Does the grounded theory approach, in the constructivist version developed by Kathy Charmaz, provide the necessary methodological tools for the creation of knowledge and theories beyond everyday thinking? To conduct our analysis, we have drawn on the rationalist epistemology originally developed by Gaston Bachelard and taken up a few decades later by Pierre Bourdieu and colleagues to look at the epistemological foundation of the CGT methods as defined by Charmaz...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038801/the-public-reception-of-putative-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-the-transgenerational-effects-of-trauma
#6
Rachel Yehuda, Amy Lehrner, Linda M Bierer
There has been great interest in the possibility that effects of trauma might be passed from parent to offspring through epigenetic mechanisms. This topic has stimulated discussion and controversy in the scientific literature, the popular press, and culture at large. This article describes the initial observations that have led to recent examinations of epigenetic mechanisms in association with effects of parental trauma exposure on offspring. Epigenetic research in animals has provided models for how such effects might be transmitted...
April 2018: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955272/traditional-ecological-knowledge-and-flood-risk-management-a-preliminary-case-study-of-the-rwenzori
#7
Bosco Bwambale, Moses Muhumuza, Martine Nyeko
The shift from flood protection to flood risk management, together with recent arguments on incorporating culture in managing risk, underscores the application of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in managing disasters from flood hazards. Yet, documentation and incorporation of TEK into practice remains a challenge. This article contributes to addressing this challenge by exploring the existence of TEK to flooding in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda. Using semi-structured interviews, data were collected from residents of the Nyamwamba watershed where intense flash floods caused deadly impacts in May 2013...
2018: Jàmbá: journal of disaster risk studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909655/intangible-machines-patent-protection-for-software-in-the-united-states
#8
Brad Sherman
Intellectual property law has been interacting with software for over sixty years. Despite this, the law in this area remains confused and uncertain: this is particularly evident in patent law. Focusing on U.S. patent law from the 1960s through to the mid-1970s, this article argues that a key reason for this confusion relates to the particular way that the subject matter was construed. While the early discussions about subject matter eligibility were framed in terms of the question "is software patentable?", what was really at stake in these debates was the preliminary ontological question: what is software? Building on work that highlights the competing ways that software was construed by different parts of the information technology industry at the time, the article looks at the particular way that the law responded to these competing interpretations and how in so doing it laid the foundation for the confusion that characterizes the area...
June 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904978/nasal-cytology-methodology-with-application-to-clinical-practice-and-research
#9
REVIEW
E Heffler, M Landi, C Caruso, S Fichera, F Gani, G Guida, M T Liuzzo, M P Pistorio, S Pizzimenti, A M Riccio, V Seccia, M Ferrando, L Malvezzi, G Passalacqua, M Gelardi
Nasal cytology is an easy, cheap, non-invasive and point-of-care method to assess nasal inflammation and disease-specific cellular features. By means of nasal cytology, it is possible to distinguish between different inflammatory patterns that are typically associated with specific diseases (ie, allergic and non-allergic rhinitis). Its use is particularly relevant when other clinical information, such as signs, symptoms, time-course and allergic sensitizations, is not enough to recognize which of the different rhinitis phenotypes is involved; for example, it is only by means of nasal cytology that it is possible to distinguish, among the non-allergic rhinitis, those characterized by eosinophilic (NARES), mast cellular (NARMA), mixed eosinophilic-mast cellular (NARESMA) or neutrophilic (NARNE) inflammation...
September 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897666/an-international-collaborative-study-to-compare-different-von-willebrand-factor-glycoprotein-ib-binding-activity-assays-the-compass-vwf-study
#10
A Szederjesi, L Baronciani, U Budde, G Castaman, A S Lawrie, Y Liu, R Montgomery, F Peyvandi, R Schneppenheim, A Várkonyi, J Patzke, I Bodó
Essentials New VWF activity assays are increasingly used but information on their comparability is limited. This is an ISTH SSC-organized study (expert labs, 5 countries) to compare all available assays. VWF activity by six assays correlated well with each other. The new assays show improved characteristics - minor differences are noted. SUMMARY: Background Several new assays have become available to measure von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity. The new assays appear to have improved performance characteristics compared with the old reference standard, ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo), but information is limited about how they compare with VWF:RCo and each other...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796261/listening-to-and-letting-pain-speak-poetic-reflections
#11
Richard B Hovey, Valerie Curro Khayat, Eugene Feig
The humanities invite opportunities for people to describe through their metaphors, symbols and language a means in which to interpret their pain and reinterpret their new lived experiences. The patient and family all live with pain and can only use their pain narratives of that experience to confront or even to begin to understand the quantifiable discipline of medicine. The patient and family narratives act to retain meaning within a lived pained experience. These narratives add meaning to the person as a stay against only having a clinical-pathological understanding of what is happening to our body and as a person...
May 2018: British Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790167/beware-of-memes-in-the-interpretation-of-your-results-lessons-from-gene-disrupted-mice-in-fertilization-research
#12
EDITORIAL
Masaru Okabe
For decades, researchers in the fertilization field reported various candidate factors involved in sperm-egg interaction through experiments using enzyme inhibitors and/or antibodies. However, almost all of these factors have been shown to be nonessential by gene disruption experiments. Recently, attention has focused on the low reproducibility of papers in many research fields. In this Review, I retrospectively revisit how fertilization factors were misinterpreted and led to wrong hypotheses in relation to the reportedly low reproducibility of scientific papers...
August 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708024/how-american-nurses-association-code-of-ethics-informs-genetic-genomic-nursing
#13
Audrey Tluczek, Marie E Twal, Laura Curr Beamer, Candace W Burton, Leslie Darmofal, Mary Kracun, Karen L Zanni, Martha Turner
Members of the Ethics and Public Policy Committee of the International Society of Nurses in Genetics prepared this article to assist nurses in interpreting the American Nurses Association (2015) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements (Code) within the context of genetics/genomics. The Code explicates the nursing profession's norms and responsibilities in managing ethical issues. The nearly ubiquitous application of genetic/genomic technologies in healthcare poses unique ethical challenges for nursing...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698553/anticipating-or-accommodating-to-public-concern-risk-amplification-and-the-politics-of-precaution-reexamined
#14
Jamie K Wardman, Ragnar Löfstedt
Regulatory use of the precautionary principle (PP) tends to be broadly characterized either as a responsible approach for safeguarding against health and environmental risks in the face of scientific uncertainties, or as "state mismanagement" driven by undue political bias and public anxiety. However, the "anticipatory" basis upon which governments variably draw a political warrant for adopting precautionary measures often remains ambiguous. Particularly, questions arise concerning whether the PP is employed preemptively by political elites from the "top down," or follows from more conventional democratic pressures exerted by citizens and other stakeholders from the "bottom up...
September 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610378/implications-of-possible-interpretations-of-greenhouse-gas-balance-in-the-paris-agreement
#15
J Fuglestvedt, J Rogelj, R J Millar, M Allen, O Boucher, M Cain, P M Forster, E Kriegler, D Shindell
The main goal of the Paris Agreement as stated in Article 2 is 'holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C'. Article 4 points to this long-term goal and the need to achieve 'balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases'. This statement on 'greenhouse gas balance' is subject to interpretation, and clarifications are needed to make it operational for national and international climate policies...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544912/cutibacterium-acnes-molecular-typing-time-to-standardize-the-method
#16
REVIEW
M-A Dagnelie, A Khammari, B Dréno, S Corvec
BACKGROUND: The Gram-positive, anaerobic/aerotolerant bacterium Cutibacterium acnes is a commensal of healthy human skin; it is subdivided into six main phylogenetic groups or phylotypes: IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II and III. To decipher how far specific subgroups of C. acnes are involved in disease physiopathology, different molecular typing methods have been developed to identify these subgroups: i.e. phylotypes, clonal complexes, and types defined by single-locus sequence typing (SLST). However, as several molecular typing methods have been developed over the last decade, it has become a difficult task to compare the results from one article to another...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463187/finding-keys-a-systematic-review-of-barriers-and-facilitators-for-refugee-children-s-disclosure-of-their-life-stories
#17
E C C Carla van Os, A E Elianne Zijlstra, E J Erik Knorth, W J Wendy Post, M E Margrite Kalverboer
The systematic review presented in this article aims to reveal what supports and hampers refugee children in telling their, often traumatic, life stories. This is important to ensure that migration decisions are based on reliable information about the children's needs for protection. A systematic review was conducted in academic journals, collecting all available scientific knowledge about the disclosure of life stories by refugee minors in the context of social work, guardianship, foster care, asylum procedures, mental health assessment, and therapeutic settings...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453778/-i-m-happy-to-own-my-implicit-biases-public-encounters-with-the-implicit-association-test
#18
Jeffery Yen, Kevin Durrheim, Romin W Tafarodi
The implicit association test (IAT) and concept of implicit bias have significantly influenced the scientific, institutional, and public discourse on racial prejudice. In spite of this, there has been little investigation of how ordinary people make sense of the IAT and the bias it claims to measure. This article examines the public understanding of this research through a discourse analysis of reactions to the IAT and implicit bias in the news media. It demonstrates the ways in which readers interpreted, related to, and negotiated the claims of IAT science in relation to socially shared and historically embedded concerns and identities...
July 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438006/statistics-refresher-for-molecular-imaging-technologists-part-2-accuracy-of-interpretation-significance-and-variance
#19
Mary Beth Farrell
This article is the second part of a continuing education series reviewing basic statistics that nuclear medicine and molecular imaging technologists should understand. In this article, the statistics for evaluating interpretation accuracy, significance, and variance are discussed. Throughout the article, actual statistics are pulled from the published literature. We begin by explaining 2 methods for quantifying interpretive accuracy: interreader and intrareader reliability. Agreement among readers can be expressed simply as a percentage...
June 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431464/the-effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-on-young-adult-women-s-identification-of-risk-for-sexual-assault-a-systematic-review
#20
Alexander J Melkonian, Lindsay S Ham
Alcohol-related sexual assault among young adult women continues to present a public health concern. Social information-processing theory provides an organizing framework for understanding how alcohol intoxication can impair the processing of sexual assault risk cues and behavioral responding in sexual assault scenarios. The aim of the present article was to systematically review the extant research on the effects of alcohol intoxication on sexual assault risk information processing among young adult women...
March 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
keyword
keyword
167014
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"