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Ocular HIV

Aiemeeza Rajali, Yusnidar Tajul Ariffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
L De Simone, L Belloni, R Aldigeri, A Zerbini, V Mastrofilippo, A Sangiovanni, M Parmeggiani, L Fontana, Luca Cimino
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients requires confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and/or intraocular antibody index (AI) assay. In this study, we analyzed the different contributions of PCR and AI to CMV diagnosis by performing one single aqueous tap. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of HIV-negative patients attending the Ocular Immunology Unit of Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy, from March 2015 to April 2018 with a diagnosis of hypertensive anterior granulomatous uveitis compatible with suspected CMV etiology...
November 3, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
J A Shaw, D P Smit, S Griffith-Richards, C F N Koegelenberg
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and sarcoidosis commonly present with pulmonary and ocular involvement. Routine chest radiography (CXR) is recommended in the workup for suspected intraocular TB (IOTB) or intraocular sarcoidosis (IOS); however, data on the utility of CXR in this setting are lacking. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was performed of a prospectively collected data set comprising 104 patients with uveitis of unknown cause. A pulmonologist and thoracic radiologist, blinded to the final diagnosis, independently reported these CXRs as being in keeping with TB or sarcoidosis...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Rachel R Atherton, Jayne Ellis, Fiona V Cresswell, Joshua Rhein, David R Boulware
Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons, accounting for 15% of AIDS-related deaths. Visual disturbance is commonly reported, and a wide range of ophthalmic signs may be present on examination. There is limited published literature to date describing the range and incidence of ophthalmic signs in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Nested within the Adjunctive Sertraline for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis (ASTRO-CM) trial (ClinicalTrials...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Ainat Klein, Naomi Fischer, Michaella Goldstein, Shiri Shulman, Zohar Habot-Wilner
PURPOSE: Ocular manifestations of syphilis have been reported in 2-10% of systemic infection. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of ocular syphilis and various ocular manifestations, particularly optic nerve involvement, in newly diagnosed cases. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Medical records of newly diagnosed syphilis patients between January 2009 and January 2017 in a tertiary medical centre were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 123 new systemic syphilis cases out of 569,222 (0...
October 17, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Elizabeth R Duvall, Jennifer Pan, Kim Tien T Dinh, Majd Al Shaarani, Golden Pan, Marlyn P Langford, William A Byrd
Purpose: To show the utility of MRI and histology in diagnosing rare cases of trigeminal hypertrophic interstitial neuropathy (HIN). Observations: A 57-year-old African-American woman presented with a 4-year history of right eye proptosis with tearing, headaches, and worsening right-sided trigeminal neuralgia symptoms and jaw pain. HIV and diabetes tests were negative and thyroid function was normal. MRI identified abnormal thickening of all trigeminal nerve divisions and proptosis secondary to right trigeminal nerve V1 division enlargement...
December 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Ashlin Joye, John A Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent studies that have increasingly implicated cytomegalovirus (CMV) as a significant cause of keratouveitis and retinitis in immunocompetent hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular testing has identified that CMV infection is frequently present in cases of Posner-Schlossman and Fuchs, keratouveitis syndromes previously presumed to be idiopathic conditions. Ocular hypertension and endothelial cell loss are important complications of CMV keratouveitis and are likely mediated by viral invasion of the trabecular meshwork and corneal endothelium...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Aniki Rothova, Anass Hajjaj, Joeri de Hoog, Alberta A H J Thiadens, Virgil A S H Dalm
PURPOSE: The advances in medicine have led to an increased number of people living with some form of immunodeficiency. Most ocular infections in immunocompromised patients may lead to irreversible blindness. We identify the causes of uveitis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1354 consecutive patients. All patients underwent a standard work-up for uveitis. RESULTS: An immunocompromised state was identified in 171/1354 patients (13%), of whom 40 had Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, 52 received immunosuppressive medications, 28 had concurrent malignant disorder and 20 had other causes for their immunosuppression...
September 21, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Mohammed Saadulla, Anass Hajjaj, Aniki Rothova, Sylvie R Steenmeijer
A 29-year-old male presented at the ER with a red and painful left eye with sudden and progressive loss of vision within a week. His visual acuity was 1/60. Slit lamp investigation showed inflammatory cells throughout the anterior chamber and vitreous body, and a hyperaemic and swollen optic disc with retinal lesions, indicating a panuveitis combined with multifocal chorioretinitis. Due to the progressive nature, an infectious cause was suspected: positive syphilis serology and HIV serology confirmed this. The diagnosis of ocular syphilis was a first manifestation of a syphilis infection...
August 30, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Chongfei Jin, Hamza Minhas, Amandeep Kaur, Sreenath Kodali, Vladimir Gotlieb
BACKGROUND Ocular Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) involving the conjunctiva and ocular adnexa is uncommon and is usually treated with cryotherapy or surgical excision. We report a case of ocular KS successfully treated with HAART combined with 8 cycles of weekly docetaxel. CASE REPORT Our patient was a 24-year-old, treatment-naïve, HIV-positive (CD4 cell count 198 cells/mm3), homosexual man treated as having atypical hordeolum and subconjunctival hemorrhage, and later confirmed with pathology to have ocular KS with immunohistochemistry study showing KS with positive HHV8, CD34, CD31, and focal positive staining with Factor VIIIRA...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Chui-Lien Tsen, Yao-Shen Chen, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Hung-Chin Tsai, Ya-Hsin Chen, Ying-Yen Lee, Shwu-Jiuan Sheu
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of ocular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in patients treated at a tertiary referral center in Taiwan during a time of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study in Taiwan was performed between January 2006 and July 2016. Ocular examination and systemic information were recorded from the HIV-infected patients. RESULTS: 1242 patients with HIV/AIDS were identified...
September 6, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Anna B Cope, Victoria L Mobley, Sara E Oliver, Mara Larson, Nicole Dzialowy, Jason Maxwell, Jessica L Rinsky, Thomas A Peterman, Aaron Fleischauer, Erika Samoff
BACKGROUND: Ocular syphilis (OS) has been associated with HIV coinfection previously. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics of syphilis patients with and without HIV to identify risk factors for developing OS. METHODS: We reviewed all syphilis cases (early and late) reported to the North Carolina (NC) Division of Public Health during 2014-2016 and categorized HIV status (positive, negative, unknown) and OS status based on report of ocular symptoms with no other defined etiology...
August 31, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Wipada Laovirojjanakul, Onsiri Thanathanee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to highlight recent changes in opportunistic ocular infections (OOIs) in the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in the setting of HIV-infected patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Improvements in modern cART has led to a progressive decline in the incidence of OOIs and mortality among patients with AIDS. Not only has there been a decreasing incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, but there also has been a decline in progression of such retinitis when it does occur in AIDS patients, since the introduction of cART...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
João M Furtado, Tiago E Arantes, Heloisa Nascimento, Daniel V Vasconcelos-Santos, Natalia Nogueira, Rafael de Pinho Queiroz, Luana P Brandão, Thaís Bastos, Ricardo Martinelli, Rodrigo C Santana, Cristina Muccioli, Rubens Belfort, Justine R Smith
Recent reports from different world regions suggest ocular syphilis is re-emerging, in parallel with an increasing incidence of the systemic infection globally. We conducted a large observational study of 127 persons consecutively treated for ocular syphilis at public medical centers in Brazil over a 2.5-year period ending July 2015. Of 104 individuals serologically tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 34.6% were positive. Ophthalmological evaluations included measurement of Snellen visual acuity and intraocular pressure, and assessment of inflammation by slit lamp examination and dilated posterior eye examination...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christina M Marra, Khalil G Ghanem
Despite over a century of clinical experience in diagnosing and managing patients with syphilis, many thorny clinical questions remain unanswered. We focus on several areas of uncertainty for the clinician: the role of serologic tests in diagnosing syphilis and assessing syphilis treatment responses, and the risk of neurosyphilis and ocular syphilis in patients with syphilis. We also address whether clinical approaches should differ in patients who are, and are not, infected with HIV. The current increases in syphilis rates in the United States and elsewhere underscore our urgent need to definitively address these issues...
September 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Mukta Sharma, Anil Chauhan, Gaurav Sharma, Vivek Chauhan
Background & objectives: Ocular manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients range from adnexal disorders to the posterior segment disease. This study was aimed to evaluate the ocular manifestations, including vision-threatening manifestations in HIV-positive patients attending an antiretroviral therapy centre (ART) of a tertiary care hospital in north India and its association with the CD4+ cell count. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology in collaboration with the ART centre...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Matthew R Pennington, Ian E H Voorhees, Heather M Callaway, Shannon D Dehghanpir, Joel D Baines, Colin R Parrish, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Alphaherpesvirus-associated ocular infections in humans, caused by human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), remain challenging to treat due to the frequency of drug application required and the potential for the selection of drug resistant viruses. Repurposing on-the-market drugs is a viable strategy to accelerate the pace of drug development. It has been reported that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitor raltegravir inhibits HHV-1 replication by targeting the DNA polymerase accessory factor and limits terminase-mediated genome cleavage of the human betaherpesvirus 5 (HHV-5)...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Matthew M Hamill, Louise Seppings, Vivienne Kit, Sheelah Antao
We believe this to be the first report of co-existing PCR-confirmed primary genital and ocular syphilis in a patient with penicillin allergy treated with doxycycline. The case examines the use of non-penicillin and corticosteroid treatment of ocular syphilis and highlights the risk of eye involvement early in the disease process.
July 24, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Hsin Chien, Christine I Alston, Richard D Dix
AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis remains the leading cause of blindness among untreated HIV/AIDS patients worldwide. To study mechanisms of this disease, we used a clinically relevant animal model of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) retinitis with retrovirus-induced murine AIDS (MAIDS) that mimics the progression of AIDS in humans. We found in this model that MCMV infection significantly stimulates ocular suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3, host proteins which hinder immune-related signaling by cytokines, including antiviral type I and type II interferons...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Filipe Sousa Neves, Joana Braga, João Cardoso da Costa, Joaquim Sequeira, Sandra Prazeres
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this case report is to describe a conjunctiva and eyelid Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. There are only 3 reported cases of ocular KS as an initial manifestation of HIV infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year old white man presented to our department with a 1 month history of eye redness. The patient had an enlarged violet-coloured mass on the right superior eyelid which had evolved over the course of 1 week...
July 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
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