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Ocular HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104765/clinical-manifestations-and-ophthalmic-outcomes-of-ocular-syphilis-at-a-time-of-re-emergence-of-the-systemic-infection
#1
João M Furtado, Tiago E Arantes, Heloisa Nascimento, Daniel V Vasconcelos-Santos, Natalia Nogueira, Rafael de Pinho Queiroz, Luana P Brandão, Thaís Bastos, Ricardo Martinelli, Rodrigo C Santana, Cristina Muccioli, Rubens Belfort, Justine R Smith
Recent reports from different world regions suggest ocular syphilis is re-emerging, in parallel with an increasing incidence of the systemic infection globally. We conducted a large observational study of 127 persons consecutively treated for ocular syphilis at public medical centers in Brazil over a 2.5-year period ending July 2015. Of 104 individuals serologically tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 34.6% were positive. Ophthalmological evaluations included measurement of Snellen visual acuity and intraocular pressure, and assessment of inflammation by slit lamp examination and dilated posterior eye examination...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102680/centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-syphilis-summit-difficult-clinical-and-patient-management-issues
#2
Christina M Marra, Khalil G Ghanem
Despite over a century of clinical experience in diagnosing and managing patients with syphilis, many thorny clinical questions remain unanswered. We focus on several areas of uncertainty for the clinician: the role of serologic tests in diagnosing syphilis and assessing syphilis treatment responses, and the risk of neurosyphilis and ocular syphilis in patients with syphilis. We also address whether clinical approaches should differ in patients who are, and are not, infected with HIV. The current increases in syphilis rates in the United States and elsewhere underscore our urgent need to definitively address these issues...
September 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30082574/ocular-manifestations-in-patients-attending-antiretroviral-therapy-centre-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-himachal-pradesh-india
#3
Mukta Sharma, Anil Chauhan, Gaurav Sharma, Vivek Chauhan
Background & objectives: Ocular manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients range from adnexal disorders to the posterior segment disease. This study was aimed to evaluate the ocular manifestations, including vision-threatening manifestations in HIV-positive patients attending an antiretroviral therapy centre (ART) of a tertiary care hospital in north India and its association with the CD4+ cell count. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology in collaboration with the ART centre...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045987/the-hiv-integrase-inhibitor-raltegravir-inhibits-felid-alphaherpesvirus-1-fehv-1-replication-by-targeting-both-dna-replication-and-late-gene-expression
#4
Matthew R Pennington, Ian E H Voorhees, Heather M Callaway, Shannon D Dehghanpir, Joel D Baines, Colin R Parrish, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Alphaherpesvirus-associated ocular infections in humans, caused by human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), remain challenging to treat due to the frequency of drug application required and the potential for the selection of drug resistant viruses. Repurposing on-the-market drugs is a viable strategy to accelerate the pace of drug development. It has been reported that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitor raltegravir inhibits HHV-1 replication by targeting the DNA polymerase accessory factor and limits terminase-mediated genome cleavage of the human betaherpesvirus 5 (HHV-5)...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044340/concurrent-primary-chancre-and-ocular-syphilis-in-an-hiv-negative-man
#5
Matthew M Hamill, Louise Seppings, Vivienne Kit, Sheelah Antao
We believe this to be the first report of co-existing PCR-confirmed primary genital and ocular syphilis in a patient with penicillin allergy treated with doxycycline. The case examines the use of non-penicillin and corticosteroid treatment of ocular syphilis and highlights the risk of eye involvement early in the disease process.
July 24, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976680/suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-socs-1-and-socs3-are-stimulated-within-the-eye-during-experimental-murine-cytomegalovirus-retinitis-in-mice-with-retrovirus-induced-immunosuppression
#6
Hsin Chien, Christine I Alston, Richard D Dix
AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis remains the leading cause of blindness among untreated HIV/AIDS patients worldwide. To study mechanisms of this disease, we use a clinically relevant animal model of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) retinitis with retrovirus-induced murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) that mimics the progression of AIDS in humans. We found in this model that MCMV infection significantly stimulates ocular suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3, host proteins which hinder immune-related signaling by cytokines, including antiviral type I and type II interferons...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970040/kaposi-s-sarcoma-of-the-conjunctiva-and-the-eyelid-leads-to-the-diagnosis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-case-report
#7
Filipe Sousa Neves, Joana Braga, João Cardoso da Costa, Joaquim Sequeira, Sandra Prazeres
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this case report is to describe a conjunctiva and eyelid Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. There are only 3 reported cases of ocular KS as an initial manifestation of HIV infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year old white man presented to our department with a 1 month history of eye redness. The patient had an enlarged violet-coloured mass on the right superior eyelid which had evolved over the course of 1 week...
July 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969370/virus-induced-anterior-uveitis-viau-in-immunocompromised-patients
#8
Alejandra de-la-Torre
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of VIAU in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A critical review of literature was performed. RESULTS: Diagnosis and treatment of VIAU in immunocompromised patients may be a challenge due to atypical clinical-courses, severe presentations, and more frequent recurrences. A conclusive diagnosis can be made by aqueous-humour PCR-analysis. Visual prognosis depends on early diagnosis and prompt treatment...
2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916804/transcriptome-profiling-of-alphaherpesvirus-infected-cells-treated-with-the-hiv-integrase-inhibitor-raltegravir-reveals-profound-and-specific-alterations-in-host-transcription
#9
Matthew R Pennington, Jennifer K Grenier, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Anti-microbial compounds typically exert their action by directly interfering with one or more stages of the pathogen's life cycle. However, some compounds also have secondary effects on the host that aid in pathogen clearance. Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-integrase inhibitor that has been shown to alter the host immune response to HIV in addition to its direct antiviral effect. Interestingly, raltegravir can also directly inhibit the replication of various herpesviruses. However, the host-targeted effects of this drug in the context of a herpesvirus infection have not been explored...
June 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789565/the-wide-utility-of-rabbits-as-models-of-human-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Lbachir BenMohamed, Yuxing Chen, Neil Christensen, Javier González-Gallego, Lorenzo Giacani, Jiafen Hu, Gilla Kaplan, Oliver T Keppler, Katherine L Knight, Xiang-Peng Kong, Dennis K Lanning, Jacques Le Pendu, Ana Lemos de Matos, Jia Liu, Shuying Liu, Ana M Lopes, Shan Lu, Sheila Lukehart, Yukari C Manabe, Fabiana Neves, Grant McFadden, Ruimin Pan, Xuwen Peng, Patricia de Sousa-Pereira, Ana Pinheiro, Masmudur Rahman, Natalie Ruvoën-Clouet, Selvakumar Subbian, Maria Jesús Tuñón, Wessel van der Loo, Michael Vaine, Laura E Via, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage
Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases...
May 22, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786002/eyelid-kaposi-sarcoma-in-an-hiv-negative-patient
#11
Jose Manuel Abalo-Lojo, Ihab Abdulkader-Nallib, Laura Martínez Pérez, Francisco Gonzalez
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade, multicentric vascular neoplasm. Most commonly, it involves the skin, but it can occur at any site on the body. The cutaneous lesions are often located on the lower legs, genitalia, oral mucosa, and face. KS is categorized in four different types: classic, endemic, epidemic or AIDS associated, and transplantation associated. We report a case of HIV-negative, classic KS located on the eyelid. The eyelid lesion was completely excised, and after a 1-year follow-up, no recurrences were observed...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754135/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patient
#12
Ali Hassoun, Neha Mehrotra
A 52-year-old white diabetic male with 4-weeks history of persistent cough followed by headache, drenching night sweats, low-grade fever, worsening photophobia, nausea and vomiting was presented. Examination was significant for photophobia and diminution of vision. His spinal fluid and blood cultures were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans Intravenous fluconazole were given for 2 weeks followed by oral fluconazole. There was significant improvement in systemic and ocular symptoms. HIV serology was negative, but his CD4 counts were low with inverted CD4:CD8 ratio...
May 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679545/the-impact-of-ocular-tuberculosis-on-vision-after-two-months-of-intensive-therapy
#13
Suzana Batista Vereza de Oliveira, Ângelo Ferreira Passos, David Jamil Hadad, Lorena Zbyszynski, Pedro Sousa de Almeida Júnior, Luiz Guilherme Schmidt Castellani, Reynaldo Dietze, Moisés Palaci
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of global importance with major economic and social burden accounting for 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. Extrapulmonary involvement may occur either in association with clinically apparent pulmonary tuberculosis or in isolation. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to evaluate the impact of ocular tuberculosis in visual acuity at baseline and after two months of intensive anti-tuberculous therapy. A sample of 133 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, seven disseminated tuberculosis, and three pleural tuberculosis patients was evaluated...
May 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670789/repeat-intravitreal-dexamethasone-implant-for-refractory-cystoid-macular-edema-in-syphilitic-uveitis
#14
Cassandra C Lautredou, Joshua S Hardin, John R Chancellor, Sami H Uwaydat, Abdallah A Ellabban, Ahmed B Sallam
Purpose: To report the successful utilization of adjunctive repeat intravitreal corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of cystoid macular edema in syphilis-related uveitis. Methods/Patients: An HIV-positive patient with treated ocular syphilis who developed refractory cystoid macular edema (CME) was treated with repeat intravitreal corticosteroid therapy including dexamethasone intravitreal implants. Results: Treatment led to the resolution of CME and improvement in visual acuity...
2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670780/syphilis-related-eye-disease-presenting-as-bilateral-papilledema-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-hemorrhage-and-anterior-uveitis-in-a-penicillin-allergic-patient
#15
Jamie Dietze, Shane Havens
Purpose . Treponema pallidum is known as the "great masquerader" for its many presentations and ocular findings in patients who are infected and develop secondary and tertiary stage of syphilis. Syphilitic ocular manifestations include uveitis, chorioretinitis, retinitis, vasculitis, vitritis, and panuveitis all with or without decreased visual acuity. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is known to expedite the progression of syphilis when patients are coinfected, thus compounding the potential ophthalmic presentations...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604973/other-central-nervous-system-infections-cytomegalovirus-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-treponema-pallidum
#16
Christina M Marra
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are particularly susceptible to several central nervous system infections: human cytomegalovirus, which may cause encephalitis, ventriculitis, polyradiculitis, or polyradiculomyelitis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which can cause meningitis or space-occupying lesions; and Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum), which affects the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial nerves, and vasculature in early neurosyphilis, and additionally the brain and spinal cord parenchyma in late neurosyphilis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563125/sequential-retinal-necrosis-secondary-to-varicella-zoster-in-unrecognised-long-standing-hiv-infection-patient-safety-report
#17
Brigid Ky Ning, Simon P Kelly, Celia Chu, Emile Morgan
A retired woman with left ophthalmic shingles of over 2 years' duration attended with bilateral vision loss and systemic upset. Acute retinal necrosis with detachment was detected on right fundus examination. Cataract in left eye precluded funduscopy. Ocular ultrasonography revealed fibrotic retinal detachment in the left eye. MRI brain and orbits also showed signals of retinal detachment. No abnormal MRI signal within the optic nerve or brain was found. Varicella zoster virus was detected in ocular aqueous and blood samples...
March 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559813/ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia-in-hiv-infected-patients-current-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Shweta Gupta Rathi, Anasua Ganguly Kapoor, Swathi Kaliki
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555477/zidovudine-protects-hyperosmolarity-stressed-human-corneal-epithelial-cells-via-antioxidant-pathway
#19
Hui Liu, Frank Gambino, Crystal Algenio, Charles Bouchard, Liang Qiao, Ping Bu, Shaozhen Zhao
Dry Eye Disease (DED) is a very common disorder that can result in severe disability and vision loss. Although the pathogenesis of DED is not fully understood, hyperosmolarity, inflammation, and tear film instability are recognized as hallmarks of DED. Recently, Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs), a class of medication used to treat HIV, have been shown to inhibit inflammation in a mouse model of retinal atrophy. In this study, we investigated whether Zidovudine (AZT) can inhibit human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) inflammatory responses under hyperosmotic conditions...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534693/severe-eye-complications-from-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-following-initiation-of-nevirapine-based-haart-regimen-in-a-child-with-hiv-infection-a-case-from-cameroon
#20
Xavier Tchetnya, Calypse Asangbe Ngwasiri, Tiayah Munge, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life threatening dermatological disorder characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosion of mucous membranes. It is typically a side effect of some medications. Nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is one of the frequently used components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin rash is its common adverse reaction, usually mild and rarely progressing to TEN. Ophthalmic involvement is common as well but rarely progresses to blindness especially in the pediatric population...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
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