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B Li, J J Ye
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the leading cause of vision loss in diabetics. The destruction of blood retinal barrier is the primary pathological feature. At present, a large number of animal experiments and clinical studies show that DME not only has abnormal vascular structure, but also is an inflammatory disease. A variety of inflammatory media and chemokine are involved in the process of DME. With the extensive clinical application of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the treatment of DME got a revolutionary breakthrough...
August 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Rajesh Bhatia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Juliana Rosa, Isabella Suzuki, Marcelo Kravicz, Angelo Caron, Ana Vitoria Pupo, Fabiola Garcia Praca, Maria Vitoria Lopes Badra Bentley
BACKGROUND: Gene therapy is a new approach to discover and treat many diseases. It has attracted considerable attention from researchers in the last decades. The gene therapy through RNA interference has been considered one of the most recent and revolutionary approaches used in individualized therapy. In the last years, we have witnessed the rapid development in the field of the gene silencing and knockdown by topical siRNA. Its application in gene therapy has become an attractive alternative for drug development...
August 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ewa Pasquereau-Kotula, Justine Habault, Guido Kroemer, Jean-Luc Poyet
In recent years, immunogenic cell death (ICD) has emerged as a revolutionary concept in the development of novel anticancer therapies. This particular form of cell death is able, through the spatiotemporally defined emission of danger signals by the dying cell, to induce an effective antitumor immune response, allowing the immune system to recognize and eradicate malignant cells. To date, only a restricted number of chemotherapeutics can trigger ICD of cancer cells. We previously reported that a peptide, called RT53, spanning the heptad leucine repeat region of the survival protein AAC-11 fused to a penetrating sequence, selectively induces cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo...
2018: PloS One
Muhammad R Javed, Maria Sadaf, Temoor Ahmed, Amna Jamil, Marium Nawaz, Hira Abbas, Anam Ijaz
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR or more precisely CRISPR-Cas) system has proven to be a highly efficient and simple tool for achieving site-specific genome modifications in comparison to Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs). The discovery of bacterial defense system that uses RNA-guided DNA cleaving enzymes for producing double-strand breaks along CRISPR has provided an exciting alternative to ZFNs and TALENs for gene editing & regulation, as the CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins remain the same for different gene targets and only the short sequence of the guide RNA needs to be changed to redirect the site-specific cleavage...
August 4, 2018: Current Microbiology
Matthew D Durbin, Adrian G Cadar, Young Wook Chun, Charles C Hong
The study of disease pathophysiology has long relied on model systems, including animal models and cultured cells. In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka achieved a breakthrough by reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This revolutionary discovery provided new opportunities for disease modeling and therapeutic intervention. With established protocols, investigators can generate iPSC lines from patient blood, urine, and tissue samples. These iPSCs retain ability to differentiate into every human cell type...
May 30, 2018: Pediatric Research
Cong Dai, Min Jiang, Ming-Jun Sun
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by periods of symptomatic remission and relapse. Diagnosis and assessment of IBD are based on clinical evaluation, serum parameters, radiology, and endoscopy. Fecal markers have emerged as new diagnostic tools to detect and monitor intestinal inflammation. Fecal calprotectin (FC) and lactoferrin (FL) were identified decades ago as potentially revolutionary markers for IBD. Following these discoveries numerous additional markers, including S100A12, M2-PK, metalloproteinases, hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, polymorphonuclear elastase, neopterin, and nitric oxide, have also been suggested as novel markers of IBD...
July 31, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Gabriel Sosne
Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) has important applications in ocular repair and Phase 3 clinical trials using Tβ4 to treat dry eye and neurotrophic keratopathy are currently ongoing. These exciting clinical possibilities for Tβ4 in the eye are the result of seminal basic scientific discoveries and contributions from so many talented investigators. Areas covered: My personal Tβ4 journey began at the NIH in 1998 and propelled my career as a clinician scientist. As a tribute to the amazing individuals who have guided and supported me along with my brilliant colleagues and students who have contributed and collaborated with me over the years, this review will tell the cumulative story of how Tβ4 became a major potential new therapy for corneal wound healing disorders...
July 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Elizabeth Simpson, Andrea J Korecki, Oriol Fornes, Trevor J McGill, Jorge Luis Cueva-Vargas, Jessica Agostinone, Rachelle A Farkas, Jack W Hickmott, Siu Ling Lam, Anthony Mathelier, Lauren M Renner, Jonathan Stoddard, Michelle Zhou, Adriana Di Polo, Martha Neuringer, Wyeth W Wasserman
Retinal gene therapy is leading the neurological gene therapy field, with 32 ongoing clinical trials of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-based therapies. Importantly, over 50% of those trials are using restricted promoters from human genes. Promoters that restrict expression have demonstrated increased efficacy, and can limit the therapeutic to the target cells thereby reducing unwanted off-target effects. Retinal ganglion cells are a critical target in ocular gene therapy; they are involved in common diseases such as glaucoma, rare diseases such as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and in revolutionary optogenetic treatments...
July 31, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Xiaoqiang Sun, Xiangyan Ding, Feilong Li, Shijie Zhou, Yaolu Liu, Ning Hu, Zhongqing Su, Youxuan Zhao, Jun Zhang, Mingxi Deng
The symmetric zero-frequency mode induced by weak material nonlinearity during Lamb wave propagation is explored for the first time. We theoretically confirm that, unlike the second harmonic, phase-velocity matching is not required to generate the zero-frequency mode and its signal is stronger than those of the nonlinear harmonics conventionally used, for example, the second harmonic. Experimental and numerical verifications of this theoretical analysis are conducted for the primary S₀ mode wave propagating in an aluminum plate...
July 28, 2018: Sensors
Monica Girotra, Aaron Hansen, Azeez Farooki, David J Byun, Le Min, Ben C Creelan, Margaret K Callahan, Michael B Atkins, Elad Sharon, Scott J Antonia, Pamela West, Amy E Gravell
Clinical trials in the past decade have established the antitumor effects of immune checkpoint inhibition as a revolutionary treatment for cancer. Namely, blocking antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death 1 or its ligand have reached routine clinical use. Manipulation of the immune system is not without side effects, and autoimmune toxicities often known as immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) are observed. Endocrine IRAEs, such as hypophysitis, thyroid dysfunction, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, can present with unique profiles that are not seen with the use of traditional chemotherapeutics...
July 2018: JNCI cancer spectrum
Lisa M Willis, Hanuel Park, Michael W L Watson, Daniel Majonis, Jessica L Watson, Mark Nitz
Mass cytometry is a revolutionary technology that allows for the simultaneous quantification of >40 different biomarkers with cellular resolution. The biomarkers are detected using metal-labeled antibodies as well as small-molecule probes of cell size, viability, and biochemical status. Barcoding is an important component of sample preparation because it reduces processing time, eliminates sample-to-sample variation, discriminates cell doublets, reduces the amount of antibody needed, and conserves sample...
July 27, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Consuelo C Zumarán, Marcelo V Parra, Sergio A Olate, Eduardo G Fernández, Francisco T Muñoz, Ziyad S Haidar
Platelet-Rich fibrin (PRF) is a three-dimensional (3-D) autogenous biomaterial obtained via simple and rapid centrifugation from the patient's whole blood samples, without including anti-coagulants, bovine thrombin, additives, or any gelifying agents. At the moment, it is safe to say that in oral and maxillofacial surgery, PRFs (particularly, the pure platelet-rich fibrin or P-PRF and leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin or L-PRF sub-families) are receiving the most attention, essentially because of their simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and user-friendliness/malleability; they are a fairly new "revolutionary" step in second-generation therapies based on platelet concentration, indeed...
July 26, 2018: Materials
Shuai Zhen, Xu Li
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNA), a class of transcripts with lengths>200nt, play a master role in the regulation of cancer pathogenesis. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been explored as a revolutionary genome editing tool for molecular biology. Growing evidences show that LncRNAs can be targeted by the CRISPR/Cas9 system used for evaluation the function. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas9 systems provide a novel gene-editing strategy for the modification of LncRNA expression. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the functions and underlying mechanisms of LncRNA by CRISPR/Cas9...
July 26, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Henri J van de Vrugt, Martina C Cornel, Rob M F Wolthuis
CRISPR/Cas gene editing makes it much easier to make targeted changes in the DNA of human cells than other forms of gene therapy. This revolutionary technology offers spectacular opportunities to study gene functions; the clinical consequences of gene variations in patients can be determined much faster. The efficacy and accuracy of CRISPR/Cas is so impressive that a breakthrough to therapeutic applications is approaching fast. CRISPR/Cas is already being used in immunotherapy against cancer, and trials for monogenetic blood disorders, such as beta-thalassemia, have been scheduled...
June 29, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
P V Glybochko, Yu G Alyaev, A V Amosov, D V Enikeev, D V Chinenov, G E Krupinov, K B Puzakov, A V Koshkarev, Yu V Lerner, N V Petrovskii, Z K Dzhalaev, Ya N Chernov
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. The gold standard for the detection of prostate cancer is ultrasound guided transrectal prostate biopsy. The detectability of cancer using this method is from 30 to 50%. As a result, many men undergo multiple repeat biopsies for suspected prostate cancer. The European Association of Urology does not give any recommendations on this matter. A revolutionary new method in the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a targeted prostate biopsy using a fusion of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound...
July 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Amrita Jha, Vivek Gupta, Roopa Adinarayan
Laser has emerged as an adjunct in several treatment modalities in dentistry in the past few decades. This less invasive bladeless technique is bringing revolutionary outcomes in a plethora of periodontal treatment procedures as well. A unique ameliorative approach termed LANAP, described as laser-assisted new attachment procedure was developed by Gregg and McCarthy. In 1990 they introduced an innovative treatment for diseases of gums incorporating pulsed neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) 1064 nm wavelength laser (PerioLase MVP7)...
2018: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
Alyson Weidmann
The discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its development into a genetic tag for monitoring cell fate was transformative for bioscience, and in 2008 the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Tsien for their discoveries. Roger Tsien's development of GFP into an expansive color palette of fluorescent protein tags allowed for the revolutionary ability to monitor different biological processes simultaneously and paved the way for chemical biologists to see into cells like never before...
July 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Jiawen Chen, Wei Yang, Zimu Gong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Krishna Sury, Mark A Perazella, Anushree C Shirali
The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has driven a revolutionary change in cancer treatment. Although traditional chemotherapeutic agents remain the first-line option for most cancers, targeted immune therapies are emerging as standard treatments for advanced-stage cancers. These agents target cell surface checkpoint proteins to stimulate the recognition and destruction of cancer cells by the immune system. Clinical studies have demonstrated these immunotherapeutics to elicit favourable antitumour responses in a variety of chemotherapy-refractory malignancies...
July 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
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