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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339762/light-emitting-metasurfaces-simultaneous-control-of-spontaneous-emission-and-far-field-radiation
#1
Sheng Liu, Aleksandr Vaskin, Sadhvikas Addamane, Benjamin Leung, Miao-Chan Tsai, Yuanmu Yang, Polina Vabishchevich, Gordon A Keeler, George T Wang, Xiaowei He, Younghee Kim, Nicolai F Hartmann, Han Htoon, Stephen K Doorn, Matthias Zilk, Thomas Pertsch, Ganesh Balakrishnan, Michael B Sinclair, Isabelle Staude, Igal Brener
Light emitting sources and devices permeate every aspect of our lives and are used in lighting, communications, transportation, computing and medicine. Advances in multifunctional and "smart lighting" would require revolutionary concepts in the control of emission spectra and directionality. Such control might be possible with new schemes and regimes of light matter interaction paired with developments in light emitting materials. Here we show that all-dielectric metasurfaces made from III-V semiconductors with embedded emitters have the potential to provide revolutionary lighting concepts and devices, with new functionality that goes far beyond what is available in existing technologies...
October 19, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338353/-the-french-revolution-as-moral-shock-on-the-political-dimension-of-the-research-and-therapy-of-the-human-mind-ca-1792-1806
#2
Laurens Schlicht
The paper describes how, in the context of the development of the French human sciences (sciences de l'homme) around 1800, the reference to the Reign of Terror was constitutive for the formulation and legitimation of a procedure, which was based on what Jean-Étienne Esquirol called "moral shocks" (sécousse morale). The psychiatric and pedagogical discussion of non-physical effects on the spirit (esprit) of human subjects and patients essentially dealt with the question: could people have been liberated by the shocking surge of the Revolution from the demeaning and dependent habits of the Old Regime (ancien régime), or could this violent revolution have had a pathological effect? This article shows that, after 1800, the latter interpretation became accepted...
October 18, 2018: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337383/quantum-internet-a-vision-for-the-road-ahead
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie Wehner, David Elkouss, Ronald Hanson
The internet-a vast network that enables simultaneous long-range classical communication-has had a revolutionary impact on our world. The vision of a quantum internet is to fundamentally enhance internet technology by enabling quantum communication between any two points on Earth. Such a quantum internet may operate in parallel to the internet that we have today and connect quantum processors in order to achieve capabilities that are provably impossible by using only classical means. Here, we propose stages of development toward a full-blown quantum internet and highlight experimental and theoretical progress needed to attain them...
October 19, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335264/-diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-review-of-the-2017-revisions-of-the-mcdonald-criteria
#4
REVIEW
Tünde Csépány
The revolutionary progress of research in neuroimmu-nology has led to the introduction of disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis at the end of the last century. The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis originally proposed the 2001 McDonald criteria to facilitate the diagnosis of MS in patients with the first objective neurological symptom(s) suggesting demyelinating event, when magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with clinical and other paraclinical diagnostic methods. New terms have been introduced to substitute clinical information by MRI: dissemination in space - indicating a multifocal central demyelinating process and dissemination in time - indicating the development of new CNS lesions over time...
September 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334173/the-pros-and-cons-of-digital-health-communication-tools-in-neurosurgery-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#5
REVIEW
Abdelrahman Nanah, Ahmed B Bayoumi
Effective communication is critical in healthcare facilitation. Our aim is to illustrate the impact of digital communication tools in the field of neurosurgery based on the cumulative recently published reports to show an evidence-based review of both benefits and limitations. We performed a systematic review of records published from January 2003 to March 2018. A specific set of keywords such as "digital" and "communication" were used on PubMed database to conduct a thorough online search...
October 17, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333452/sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#6
Anna Linda Zignego, Monica Monti, Laura Gragnani
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is major health problem worldwide, with 150 million infected people according to recent epidemiologic estimations. The introduction of direct-acting antivirals made a revolutionary change in the management of HCV infected patients with surprisingly high rates of antiviral response, improved tolerability and reduced time of treatment. Sofosbuvir, in combination with different partner drugs, has been the molecule that led this incredible change. The last generation of SOF-based regimens, namely Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir, represents a single tablet, once a day, pangenotypic and pan-fibrotic combination, demonstrated to be safe and effective in almost all type of HCV infected individuals...
October 8, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327250/proteomics-and-beyond-cell-decision-making-shaped-by-reactive-electrophiles
#7
REVIEW
Xuyu Liu, Marcus J C Long, Yimon Aye
Revolutionary proteomic strategies have enabled rapid profiling of the cellular targets of electrophilic small molecules. However, precise means to directly interrogate how these individual electrophilic modifications at low occupancy functionally reshape signaling networks have until recently been largely limited. We highlight here new methods that transcend proteomic platforms to forge a quantitative link between protein target-selective engagement and downstream signaling. We focus on recent progress in the study of non-enzyme-assisted signaling mechanisms and crosstalk choreographed by native reactive electrophilic species (RES)...
October 13, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323557/copper-64-a-real-theranostic-agent
#8
REVIEW
Bianca Gutfilen, Sergio Al Souza, Gianluca Valentini
Ongoing studies of physiological and pathological processes have led to a corresponding need for new radiopharmaceuticals, especially when studies are limited by the absence of a particular radiolabeled target. Thus, the development of new radioactive tracers is highly relevant and can represent a significant contribution to efforts to elucidate important phenomena in biology. Currently, theranostics represents a new frontier in the fields of medicine and nuclear medicine, with the same compound being used for both diagnosis and treatment...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323186/discovery-of-potential-causative-mutations-in-human-coding-and-noncoding-genome-with-the-interactive-software-baseplayer
#9
Riku Katainen, Iikki Donner, Tatiana Cajuso, Eevi Kaasinen, Kimmo Palin, Veli Mäkinen, Lauri A Aaltonen, Esa Pitkänen
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is routinely applied in life sciences and clinical practice, but interpretation of the massive quantities of genomic data produced has become a critical challenge. The genome-wide mutation analyses enabled by NGS have had a revolutionary impact in revealing the predisposing and driving DNA alterations behind a multitude of disorders. The workflow to identify causative mutations from NGS data, for example in cancer and rare diseases, commonly involves phases such as quality filtering, case-control comparison, genome annotation, and visual validation, which require multiple processing steps and usage of various tools and scripts...
October 15, 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323017/next-generation-sequencing-strategies
#10
Shawn E Levy, Braden E Boone
More than a decade ago, the term "next-generation" sequencing was coined to describe what was, at the time, revolutionary new methods to sequence RNA and DNA at a faster pace and cheaper cost than could be performed by standard bench-top protocols. Since then, the field of DNA sequencing has evolved at a rapid pace, with new breakthroughs allowing capacity to exponentially increase and cost to dramatically decrease. As genome-scale sequencing has become routine, a paradigm shift is occurring in genomics, which uses the power of high-throughput, rapid sequencing power with large-scale studies...
October 15, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319822/crispr-cas9-system-a-bacterial-tailor-for-genomic-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Bilal Ahmad Lone, Shibendra Kumar Lal Karna, Faiz Ahmad, Nerina Shahi, Yuba Raj Pokharel
Microbes use diverse defence strategies that allow them to withstand exposure to a variety of genome invaders such as bacteriophages and plasmids. One such defence strategy is the use of RNA guided endonuclease called CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 protein. The Cas9 protein, derived from type II CRISPR/Cas system, has been adapted as a versatile tool for genome targeting and engineering due to its simplicity and high efficiency over the earlier tools such as ZFNs and TALENs. With recent advancements, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has emerged as a revolutionary tool for modulating the genome in living cells and inspires innovative translational applications in different fields...
2018: Genetics Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319294/expert-opinion-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-c-infection-in-kuwait
#12
EDITORIAL
Motaz Fathy Saad, Saleh Alenezi, Haifaa Asker
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of death, especially in immunocompromised patients. The lack of clear prevalence data in the Middle East makes it difficult to estimate the true morbidity and mortality burden of HCV. In Kuwait, estimating the burden of disease is complicated by the constant flow of expatriates, many of whom are from HCV-endemic areas. The development of new and revolutionary treatments for HCV necessitates the standardization of clinical practice across all healthcare institutions...
2018: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318237/3d-printing-using-plant-derived-cellulose-and-its-derivatives-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Lei Dai, Ting Cheng, Chao Duan, Wei Zhao, Weipeng Zhang, Xuejun Zou, Joseph Aspler, Yonghao Ni
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is classified as a revolutionary, disruptive manufacturing technology. Cellulose (the most abundant natural polymer) and its many derivatives have been widely studied for many applications. The combination of 3D printing with cellulose-based feedstocks is therefore of critical interest. This review highlights many studies on 3D printing applications of plant-derived cellulose and its derivatives. Potential materials include cellulose ethers/esters, microcrystalline cellulose, nanocellulosic materials, and other products...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311729/crispr-gene-editing-in-yeast-an-experimental-protocol-for-an-upper-division-undergraduate-laboratory-course
#14
Nitasha Sehgal, M Eileen Sylves, Ansuman Sahoo, Jacky Chow, Sarah E Walker, Paul J Cullen, James O Berry
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are a revolutionary tool based on a bacterial acquired immune response system. CRISPR has gained widespread use for gene editing in a variety of organisms and is an increasingly valuable tool for basic genetic research, with far-reaching implications for medicine, agriculture, and industry. This lab is based on the premise that upper division undergraduate students enrolled in a Life Sciences curriculum must become familiar with cutting edge advances in biotechnology that have significant impact on society...
October 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310734/assessment-of-genomic-changes-in-a-crispr-cas9-phaeodactylum-tricornutum-mutant-through-whole-genome-resequencing
#15
Monia Teresa Russo, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Walter Sanseverino, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, co-opted from a bacterial defense natural mechanism, is the cutting edge technology to carry out genome editing in a revolutionary fashion. It has been shown to work in many different model organisms, from human to microbes, including two diatom species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana . Transforming P. tricornutum by bacterial conjugation, we have performed CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis delivering the nuclease as an episome; this allowed for avoiding unwanted perturbations due to random integration in the genome and for excluding the Cas9 activity when it was no longer required, reducing the probability of obtaining off-target mutations, a major drawback of the technology...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309858/deep-learning-to-distinguish-recalled-but-benign-mammography-images-in-breast-cancer-screening
#16
Sarah S Aboutalib, Aly A Mohamed, Wendie A Berg, Margarita L Zuley, Jules H Sumkin, Shandong Wu
Purpose: False positives in digital mammography screening lead to high recall rates, resulting in unnecessary medical procedures to patients and health care costs. This study aimed to investigate the revolutionary deep learning methods to distinguish recalled but benign mammography images from negative exams and those with malignancy. Experimental Design: Deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) models were constructed to classify mammography images into malignant (breast cancer), negative (breast cancer free), and recalled-benign categories...
October 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305655/-13-c-pyruvate-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-preclinical-hyperpolarised-mri
#17
Jack J Miller, James T Grist, Sébastien Serres, James R Larkin, Angus Z Lau, Kevin Ray, Katherine R Fisher, Esben Hansen, Rasmus Stilling Tougaard, Per Mose Nielsen, Jakob Lindhardt, Christoffer Laustsen, Ferdia A Gallagher, Damian J Tyler, Nicola Sibson
Hyperpolarised MRI with Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation overcomes the fundamental thermodynamic limitations of conventional magnetic resonance, and is translating to human studies with several early-phase clinical trials in progress including early reports that demonstrate the utility of the technique to observe lactate production in human brain cancer patients. Owing to the fundamental coupling of metabolism and tissue function, metabolic neuroimaging with hyperpolarised [1-13 C]pyruvate has the potential to be revolutionary in numerous neurological disorders (e...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305503/-state-of-the-art-treatment-of-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia
#18
Toru Kiguchi
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with PML-RARA is an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a predominance of abnormal promyelocytes. Both hypergranular (typical) and microgranular (hypogranular) types exist. Previously, APL was associated with an extremely high mortality rate due to hemorrhage. However, since the advent of anthracycline, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been introduced into therapy, resulting in the transformation of APL into AML with a higher probability of cure. Furthermore, for the last 30 years, molecular-targeted drugs, such as arsenic acid (ATO), tamibarotene (Am80), and gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), have been developed in succession in addition to ATRA...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303852/perioperative-use-of-the-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-where-do-we-stand-in-2018
#19
Kay Maeda, Shuichiro Takanashi, Yoshikatsu Saiki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) has been the most widely used device to help patients recover from circulatory disorder mainly because of cardiogenic shock; however, no evidence-based clinical benefit derived from IABP support has been reported in recent clinical trials. This review provides an overview of the current outcomes and challenges in perioperative IABP use for cardiogenic shock patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Although IABP support yielded no significant difference in mortality for myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, perioperative IABP use generated beneficial clinical outcomes for high-risk patients undergoing coronary revascularization...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297064/surgical-implantation-of-intracorporeal-devices-perspective-and-techniques
#20
REVIEW
Colleen Pietras, Pavan Atluri
Surgical maneuvers for implantation of a continuous-flow ventricular assist device are revolutionary concepts that have been associated with a reduction in pump-related complications. With the advancement of technology, surgical implant strategy continues to evolve, incorporating less-invasive approaches into the armamentarium of the experienced surgeon.
November 2018: Cardiology Clinics
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