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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517268/effects-of-cochlear-implantation-on-adulthood
#1
Sheila de Souza Vieira, Giselle Dupas, Brasilia Maria Chiari
PURPOSE: To understand the benefits of cochlear implantation in adulthood under the perspective of users. METHODS: Qualitative study using Symbolic Interactionism and Straussian Grounded Theory as theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the aforementioned Institution (Opinion no. 482,019). Sixteen adult cochlear implant (CI) users aged 28-58 years participated in the study. The data collection instrument was a semi-structured interview with questions about changes caused by CI in the social relations, communication, family system, and personal, academic and professional spheres of life of users...
November 29, 2018: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515984/a-superior-method-for-constructing-electrical-percolation-network-of-nanocomposite-fibers-in-situ-thermally-reduced-silver-nanoparticles
#2
C Muhammed Ajmal, Seonghyun Bae, Seunghyun Baik
Nanocomposite fibers, composed of conductive nanoparticles and polymer matrix, are crucial for wearable electronics. However, the nanoparticle mixing approach results in aggregation and dispersion problems. A revolutionary synthesis method by premixing silver precursor ions (silver ammonium acetate) with polyvinyl alcohol is reported here. The solvation of ions-prevented aggregation, and uniformly distributed silver nanoparticles (in situ AgNPs, 77 nm) are formed after thermal reduction (155 °C) without using additional reducing or dispersion agents...
December 4, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514867/antimicrobial-resistance-prediction-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-using-the-oxford-nanopore-minion-sequencer
#3
Daniel Golparian, Valentina Donà, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Sunniva Foerster, Simon Harris, Andrea Endimiani, Nicola Low, Magnus Unemo
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is common, compromising gonorrhoea treatment internationally. Rapid characterisation of AMR strains could ensure appropriate and personalised treatment, and support identification and investigation of gonorrhoea outbreaks in nearly real-time. Whole-genome sequencing is ideal for investigation of emergence and dissemination of AMR determinants, predicting AMR, in the gonococcal population and spread of AMR strains in the human population. The novel, rapid and revolutionary long-read sequencer MinION is a small hand-held device that generates bacterial genomes within one day...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514527/one-no-one-and-a-hundred-thousand-brains-j-c-eccles-j-z-young-and-the-establishment-of-the-neurosciences-1930s-1960s
#4
Fabio De Sio
Contemporary neurosciences have grown beyond the limits of a natural science. To its most vocal advocates, the study of the human brain can provide nothing short of the basis for a new science of man-the link between the "natural" and "human" sciences-as a simple consequence of the growing mass of facts relating to this most marvelous organ, accumulated in the last four decades. This straightforward picture of the growing import of the neurosciences simplifies and obscures the myriad different interpretations and images of "the brain" that have inspired the development of the neurosciences...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514386/chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-hematologic-malignancies-clinical-perspective-and-significance
#5
REVIEW
Michael M Boyiadzis, Madhav V Dhodapkar, Renier J Brentjens, James N Kochenderfer, Sattva S Neelapu, Marcela V Maus, David L Porter, David G Maloney, Stephan A Grupp, Crystal L Mackall, Carl H June, Michael R Bishop
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell therapies - adoptive T cell therapies that have been genetically engineered for a new antigen-specificity - have displayed significant success in treating patients with hematologic malignancies, leading to three recent US Food and Drug Administration approvals. Based on the promise generated from these successes, the field is rapidly evolving to include new disease indications and CAR designs, while simultaneously reviewing and optimizing toxicity and management protocols...
December 4, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511631/crispr-cas9-a-robust-technology-for-producing-genetically-engineered-plants
#6
Rimsha Farooq, Khadim Hussain, Shahid Nazir, Muhammad Rizwan Javed, Nazish Masood
CRISPR/Cas9 is a technology evolved from modified type II immune system of bacteria and archaea. Exploitation of this bacterial immune system in all eukaryotes including plants may lead to site-specific targeted genome engineering. Genome engineering is objectively utilized to express/silence a trait harbouring gene in the plant genome. In this review, different genetic engineering techniques including classical breeding, RNAi and genetic transformation and synthetic sequence-specific nucleases (zinc finger nucleases; ZFNs and transcription activator-like effector nuclease; TALENs) techniques have been described and compared with advanced genome editing technique CRISPR/Cas9, on the basis of their merits and drawbacks...
November 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501614/applications-and-potential-of-genome-editing-in-crop-improvement
#7
REVIEW
Yi Zhang, Karen Massel, Ian D Godwin, Caixia Gao
Genome-editing tools provide advanced biotechnological techniques that enable the precise and efficient targeted modification of an organism's genome. Genome-editing systems have been utilized in a wide variety of plant species to characterize gene functions and improve agricultural traits. We describe the current applications of genome editing in plants, focusing on its potential for crop improvement in terms of adaptation, resilience, and end-use. In addition, we review novel breakthroughs that are extending the potential of genome-edited crops and the possibilities of their commercialization...
November 30, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500527/optical-tweezers-a-force-to-be-reckoned-with
#8
Jessica L Killian, Fan Ye, Michelle D Wang
The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded jointly to Arthur Ashkin for the discovery and development of optical tweezers and their applications to biological systems and to Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland for the invention of laser chirped pulse amplification. Here we focus on Arthur Ashkin and how his revolutionary work opened a window into the world of molecular mechanics and spurred the rise of single-molecule biophysics.
November 29, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497200/founder-of-modern-hydrocephalus-diagnosis-and-therapy-walter-dandy-at-the-johns-hopkins-hospital
#9
(no author information available yet)
Because of his exceptional and pioneering contributions to the understanding and treatment of neurosurgical conditions, Walter Dandy is considered to be one of the founders of both neurosurgery and neuroradiology. In the field of hydrocephalus, Dandy developed revolutionary research models, imaging modalities, and operative procedures. His laboratory and clinical experiences at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, including the surgical treatment of hydrocephalus, are well illustrated in the publications he authored...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488732/allergen-immunotherapy-for-food-allergy-from-the-asian-perspective-key-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
Agnes Sze Yin Leung, Nicki Yat Hin Leung, Christine Yee Yan Wai, Ting Fan Leung, Gary Wing Kin Wong
Prevalence of food allergy is rising in different regions of the world. Asia has not been spared from this epidemic, but epidemiological data have revealed a different pattern of food allergens in this continent. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) for food allergy (FA), which has been revolutionary as the main focus of research in recent years, needs to be adapted for the different populations in Asia. Areas covered: Recent evidence shows increasing popularity and superiority of AIT over strict food avoidance as the cornerstone of food allergy management...
November 29, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484444/paper-based-sers-analysis-with-smartphones-as-raman-spectral-analyzers
#11
Fanyu Zeng, Taotao Mou, Chengchen Zhang, Xiaoqing Huang, Bing Wang, Xing Ma, Jinhong Guo
SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) can realize fingerprint recognition of molecular samples with high detection accuracy and sensitivity. However, rapid and convenient measurement of the Raman spectra of analytes for a point-of-care test (POCT) has put forward a high demand for portable Raman spectrometers, as well as reliable SERS substrates. Hereby, we first utilize a smartphone as a miniaturized Raman spectral analyzer, which has the revolutionary advantages of a friendly human-machine interface, fast measurement time, and good sensitivity...
November 28, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484141/prenatal-and-postnatal-urinary-tract-dilation-advantages-of-a-standardized-ultrasound-definition-and-classification
#12
REVIEW
Piernicola Pelliccia, Simone Sferrazza Papa, Federica Cavallo, Veronica Maria Tagi, Marco Di Serafino, Francesco Esposito, Antonello Persico, Norberto Vezzali, Gianfranco Vallone
Urinary tract dilatation is identified sonographically in 1-2% of fetuses and reflects a spectrum of possible nephro-uropathies. There is significant variability in the clinical management of individuals with prenatal urinary tract dilatation to postnatal urinary pathologies, because of a lack of consensus and uniformity in defining and classifying urinary tract dilation. Ultrasonography is the first step to screen and diagnose kidneys and the urinary tract diseases of the children. The need for a correct ultrasound approach led to the realization of algorithms aimed at standardizing the procedures, the parameters and the classifications...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482590/crispr-cas9-gene-editing-research-technologies-clinical-applications-and-ethical-considerations
#13
REVIEW
Fani Memi, Aglaia Ntokou, Irinna Papangeli
Gene therapy carries the potential to treat more than 10,000 human monogenic diseases and benefit an even greater number of complex polygenic conditions. The repurposing of CRISPR/Cas9, an ancient bacterial immune defense system, into a gene-editing technology has armed researchers with a revolutionary tool for gene therapy. However, as the breadth of research and clinical applications of this technology continues to expand, outstanding technical challenges and ethical considerations will need to be addressed before clinical applications become commonplace...
October 2, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482040/functional-optical-coherence-tomography-of-retinal-photoreceptors
#14
Xincheng Yao, Taeyoon Son, Tae-Hoon Kim, Yiming Lu
Retinal photoreceptors are the primary target of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which is the leading cause of severe vision loss and legal blindness. An objective method for functional assessment of photoreceptor physiology can benefit early detection and better treatment evaluation of AMD and other eye diseases that are known to cause photoreceptor dysfunctions. This article summarizes in vitro study of IOS mechanisms and in vivo demonstration of IOS imaging of intact animals. Further development of the functional IOS imaging may provide a revolutionary solution to achieve objective assessment of human photoreceptors...
November 27, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475948/biological-background-of-the-genomic-variations-of-cf-dna-in-healthy-individuals
#15
J Liu, X Chen, J Wang, S Zhou, C L Wang, M Z Ye, X Y Wang, Y Song, Y Q Wang, L T Zhang, R H Wu, H M Yang, S D Zhu, M Z Zhou, X C Zhang, H M Zhu, Z Y Qian
Background: Cell-free DNA-based liquid biopsy is emerging as a revolutionary new method in individualized cancer treatment and prognosis monitoring, although detecting early-stage cancers using cell-free DNA remains challenging, partially because of the undefined biological background of cell-free DNA. Materials and methods: We investigated somatic mutations in the cell-free DNA of 259 cancer-free individuals with a median age of 47 years using an endogenous barcoding duplex method with an ultralow base error rate (2 × 10-7) and compared the variant allele frequencies of these mutations between the cell-free DNA and the corresponding blood cell DNA...
November 23, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475356/electrical-switching-properties-and-structural-characteristics-of-gese-gete-films
#16
Kun Ren, Min Zhu, Wenxiong Song, Shilong Lv, Mengjiao Xia, Yong Wang, Yaoyao Lu, Zhenguo Ji, Zhitang Song
Germanium chalcogenides, especially GeSe and GeTe alloys, have recently gained popularity because of their Ovonic threshold (volatile) and memory (non-volatile) switching properties, with great potential for electric storage applications. Materials designed in a pseudo-binary way may possess superior properties in their phase transition, e.g. GeTe-Sb2Te3 materials, and bring about revolutionary advances in optical storage. However, to date, the electrical switching behaviors of films of pseudo-binary GeSe-GeTe have not yet been studied, and neither have the structural characteristics...
November 26, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473970/welcome-to-the-new-era-a-completely-wireless-interventional-procedure
#17
Jesse T Martin, Paul C Hulsberg, Erik Soule, Michael Shabandi, Jerry Matteo
The number of minimally invasive interventional radiology (IR) and interventional cardiology vascular procedures performed increases every year. As the number of vascular procedures increases, the need for advanced technology and innovative devices increases as well. Traditionally, as a general rule, a catheter is used in conjunction with a guidewire in such procedures. The underlying principle of IR is to always use a guidewire prior to any advancement of a catheter. This article describes a revolutionary theory that utilizes a new technology and contradicts this basic principle...
September 19, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458384/whole-cell-based-synthetic-enzyme-cascades-light-and-shadow-of-a-promising-technology
#18
REVIEW
Florian Rudroff
Mimicking Nature by biocatalytic cascade reactions in a whole-cell environment is a revolutionary development in multistep synthesis for the production of bulk and fine chemicals. In the past decade, several proof of concept success stories demonstrated the power of those synthetic cascades and paved the road for future industrial applications. Although enzymes and their promiscuity are best suited to construct such artificial pathways, the complexity and the lack of understanding of the cellular machinery slowed down this progress significantly...
November 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457180/systematic-review-of-the-applications-of-three-dimensional-printing-in-colorectal-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Sameh Hany Emile, Steven D Wexner
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been recognized as a revolutionary technological innovation that has benefitted numerous disciplines, including medicine. The present systematic review aimed to demonstrate the current applications of 3D printing in colorectal surgery along with the limitations and potential future applications of this innovation. METHODS: A PRISMA-compliant systematic literature search of studies that applied 3D printing in colorectal surgery in the period January 1990 through to July 2018 was conducted...
November 20, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30448857/from-molecules-to-medicines-the-dawn-of-targeted-therapies-for-genetic-epilepsies
#20
REVIEW
Scott T Demarest, Amy Brooks-Kayal
Precision medicine is the treatment of patients with therapy targeted to their specific pathophysiology. This lofty ideal currently has limited application in clinical practice. However, new technological advances in epilepsy models and genomics suggest that the precision medicine revolution is closer than ever before. We are gaining an improved understanding of the true complexity underlying the pathophysiology of genetic epilepsies and the sources of phenotypic variation that continue to frustrate efforts at genotype-phenotype correlation...
December 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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