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Alexander N Orekhov, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Yumiko Oishi, Nikita G Nikiforov, Andrey V Zhelankin, Larisa Dubrovsky, Vsevolod J Makeev, Kathy Foxx, Xueting Jin, Howard S Kruth, Igor A Sobenin, Vasily N Sukhorukov, Emile R Zakiev, Anatol Kontush, Wilfried Le Goff, Michael Bukrinsky
High density lipoproteins (HDL) are key components of reverse cholesterol transport pathway. HDL removes excessive cholesterol from peripheral cells, including macrophages, providing protection from cholesterol accumulation and conversion into foam cells, which is a key event in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The mechanism of cellular cholesterol efflux stimulation by HDL involves interaction with the ABCA1 lipid transporter and ensuing transfer of cholesterol to HDL particles. In this study, we looked for additional proteins contributing to HDL-dependent cholesterol efflux...
August 14, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Myat Su Bo, Whye Lian Cheah, Soe Lwin, Tin Moe Nwe, Than Than Win, Myint Aung
Background: Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was found to be one of the strongest markers in predicting the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study was to determine the AIP and its relationship with other CVD risk factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among 349 staff of a public university in Sarawak. Data were collected using questionnaire, blood sampling, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurement. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Acsa Nara A B Barros, Mário Emílio T Dourado, Lucia de Fatima C Pedrosa, Lucia Leite-Lais
Oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Copper can affect cellular oxidation and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of copper status with lipid profile and functional status in patients with ALS. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 27 patients with ALS (case group) and 26 healthy individuals (control group). Copper status was evaluated by habitual dietary copper intake, plasma copper, and serum ceruloplasmin concentrations...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Jianbo Huang, Yangpeng Wang, Chao Ying, Lei Liu, Zhaohuan Lou
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Mulberry leaf (ML) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine used to treat hyperlipidemia in clinical settings. The aim of the present study was to identify the potential effect and possible target of ML in anti-hypercholesterolemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high-fat diet and treated with ML for 5 weeks. Blood lipid levels, total cholesterol (TC) and total bile acid (TBA) in the liver and feces were measured to assess the effects of ML on hypercholesterolemia...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
James G Boyle, Rachel Livingstone, John R Petrie
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) carries risks of both cardiovascular (CV) (myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease) and microvascular (retinopathy/nephropathy/neuropathy) complications. Glucose-lowering is an effective strategy for preventing microvascular complications, but the extent to which it can reduce CV complications is less certain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists are potent glucose-lowering agents but also have potentially beneficial effects on other traditional (body weight, blood pressure (BP), and LDL cholesterol) and non-traditional risk factors (low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction)...
August 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Brett R Loman, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Ruopeng An, R Scott Rector
Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent and underdiagnosed comorbidity of many chronic diseases that is associated with altered intestinal bacterial communities. This association has prompted research into alternative treatments aimed at modulating intestinal microbiota. Given the novelty of these treatments, scarce evidence regarding their effectiveness in clinical populations exists. Objective: This meta-analysis sought to systemically review and quantitatively synthesize evidence on prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic therapies for patients with NAFLD in randomized controlled trials...
August 3, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Bhooma Vijayaraghavan, Kavitha Danabal, Giri Padmanabhan, Kumaresan Ramanathan
Combating and preventing abnormality in lipid metabolism becomes a pivotal criterion for research. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating protein; it promotes the degradation of low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDL-R) and hence increases LDL-C levels. Silencing the gene PCSK9 at post-transcriptional level with the help of small interfering Ribo nucleic acid (siRNA) gives a new insight and a novel therapeutic way to regulate LDL-C metabolism. Designing and selecting an efficient siRNA for silencing PCSK9 at post transcriptional level through computational approach...
2018: Bioinformation
Emma L Feeney, Rebecca Barron, Victoria Dible, Zita Hamilton, Yvonne Power, Linda Tanner, Cal Flynn, Paul Bouchier, Tom Beresford, Nessa Noronha, Eileen R Gibney
Background: Dairy fat consumed as cheese has different effects on blood lipids than that consumed as butter. It is unknown whether the effect is specific to fat interaction with other cheese nutrients (calcium, casein proteins), or to the cheese matrix itself. Objective: We aimed to test the effect of 6 wk daily consumption of ∼40 g dairy fat, eaten within macronutrient-matched food matrices, on markers of metabolic health, in overweight adults aged ≥50 y. Design: The study was a 6-wk randomized parallel intervention; 164 volunteers (75 men) received ∼40 g of dairy fat/d, in 1 of 4 treatments: (A) 120 g full-fat Irish cheddar cheese (FFCC) (n = 46); (B) 120 g reduced-fat Irish cheddar cheese + butter (21 g) (RFC + B) (n = 45); (C) butter (49 g), calcium caseinate powder (30 g), and Ca supplement (CaCO3) (500 mg) (BCC) (n = 42); or (D) 120 g FFCC, for 6 wk (as per A) (n = 31)...
August 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Vladimír Pavlík, Jana Fajfrová, Václav Šafka, Lucie Pravdová, Miroslav Urban, Pavla Krutišová, Milan Tuček
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to describe current prevalence of selected risk factors in the Czech general population in a particular region and to compare the data with recently published results in the selected population of Czech soldiers. The work also deals with the advantages and disadvantages of methods determining overweight and obesity. METHODS: Within medical preventive examinations the data of 1,051 individuals (482 men, 569 women) were obtained...
June 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
Wei Luo, Yong He, Fei Ding, Xin Nie, Xiao-Ling Li, Hao-Lan Song, Gui-Xing Li
BACKGROUND: The main risk factors for atherosclerosis patients are not fully explicated. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of blood lipid and glycosylated lipoprotein in patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis and healthy individuals and to study the relationship between the glycosylated lipoprotein and atherosclerosis. METHODS: The study involved 200 patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction caused by coronary atherosclerosis as case group and 230 healthy individuals as control group...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Sofia Shaikh, Jessica L Waxler, Hang Lee, Kathy Grinke, Jamie Garry, Barbara R Pober, Takara L Stanley
OBJECTIVE: We assessed body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), glucose, and lipids in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare microdeletion disorder. DESIGN: Individuals with WS had outpatient assessment at Massachusetts General Hospital. Controls were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2006). PATIENTS: 22 individuals with WS, each matched by age, sex, and race to 4 NHANES controls. MEASUREMENTS: Blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan...
August 12, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Catherine M Phillips, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Ivan J Perry
Accumulating evidence identifies diet and inflammation as potential mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic risk. However, inconsistent reports regarding dietary inflammatory potential, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk exist. Our objective was to examine the relationships between a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII® ), biomarkers of lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and glucose homeostasis and MetS risk in a cross-sectional sample of 1992 adults...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
Isabelle Ruel, Diane Brisson, Sumayah Aljenedil, Zuhier Awan, Alexis Baass, Alexandre Bélanger, Jean Bergeron, David Bewick, James M Brophy, Liam R Brunham, Patrick Couture, Robert Dufour, Gordon A Francis, Jiri Frohlich, Claude Gagné, Daniel Gaudet, Jean C Grégoire, Milan Gupta, Robert A Hegele, G B John Mancini, Brian W McCrindle, Jing Pang, Paolo Raggi, Jack V Tu, Gerald F Watts, Jacques Genest
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal codominant lipoprotein disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Definitions for FH rely on complex algorithms that are on the basis of levels of total or LDL-C, clinical features, family history, and DNA analysis that are often difficult to obtain. We propose a novel simplified definition for FH. Definite FH includes: (1) elevated LDL-C (≥ 8.50 mmol/L); or (2) LDL-C ≥ 5...
May 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Ewa Podolecka, Grzegorz Wystrychowski, Władysław Grzeszczak, Ewa Żukowska-Szczechowska
BACKGROUND: LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process, initiated by the damage of the vascular endothelium, which leads to remodelling the artery wall. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between LDL-cholesterol and arterial wall elasticity indices. METHODS: The study group comprised of 315 men and women at mean age of 55.84 ± 9...
August 9, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
Pankaj Hari, Priyanka Khandelwal, Amit Satpathy, Smriti Hari, Ranjeet Thergaonkar, R Lakshmy, Aditi Sinha, Arvind Bagga
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Efficacy of statins for treatment of hyperlipidemia in children with SRNS is unclear. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial enrolled 30 patients with SRNS, aged 5-18 years, with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between 130 and 300 mg/dl, to receive a fixed dose of atorvastatin (n = 15, 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 15) by block randomization in a 1:1 ratio...
August 8, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Carmen G Vinagre, Fatima R Freitas, Carlos H de Mesquita, Juliana C Vinagre, Ana Carolina Mariani, Roberto Kalil-Filho, Raul C Maranhão
Dietary fats absorbed in the intestine are transported in the circulation as chylomicrons and remnants that have atherogenic potential. Although postprandial lipidemia is increased in older subjects, the specific chylomicron metabolism has not been explored in older subjects nor compared to young subjects, which is the focus of this study. After a 12 h fast, artificially-made emulsions similar to lymph chylomicrons and doubly labeled with radioactive cholesteryl esters and triglycerides were intravenously injected in 23 older (66±4 years) and 20 young (24±3 years) subjects...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
Josi Arend, Aline Kegler, Ana Letícia Fornari Caprara, Camila Almeida, Patricia Gabbi, Eduardo T Pascotini, Lori Ane Vargas de Freitas, Cinara Miraglia, Taíse Leitemperger Bertazzo, Raphael Palma, Patrícia Arceno, Marta M M F Duarte, Ana Flavia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Gary W Mathern, Michele Rechia Fighera
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive function and depressive traits most frequently associated with the clinical assessment of patients with epilepsy and if these clinical parameters are linked to glycolipid levels and inflammatory and apoptotic markers. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy (n = 32) and healthy subjects (n = 41) were recruited to participate in this study. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed in both groups through a battery of cognitive tests...
August 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Robert A Huggins, Andrea R Fortunati, Ryan M Curtis, David P Looney, Chris A West, Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Mathew L Hall, Douglas J Casa
Huggins, RA, Fortunati, AR, Curtis, RM, Looney, DP, West, CA, Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Hall, ML, and Casa, DJ. Monitoring blood biomarkers and training load throughout a collegiate soccer season. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This observational study aimed to characterize the responses of a comprehensive panel of biomarkers, observed ranges, training load (TL) metrics, and performance throughout the collegiate soccer season (August-November). Biomarkers (n = 92) were collected before the start of pre-season (PS), in-season weeks (W)1, W4, W8, and W12 in NCAA Division I male soccer players (n = 20, mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 1 years, height = 180 ± 6 cm, body mass = 78...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lucia Taramasso, Paola Tatarelli, Elena Ricci, Giordano Madeddu, Barbara Menzaghi, Nicola Squillace, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Canio Martinelli, Roberto Gulminetti, Paolo Maggi, Giancarlo Orofino, Francesca Vichi, Antonio Di Biagio, Paolo Bonfanti
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia represents a significant non-infectious comorbidity among people living with HIV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact on lipid profile of switches from an efavirenz (EFV) or protease inhibitor/ritonavir (PI/r)-based regimen to a rilpivirine (RPV) or a once-daily integrase inhibitor-based regimen. METHODS: We analyzed data from SCOLTA prospective database. All patients with HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml in therapy with two NRTI + EFV or PI/r were included if they switched from EFV to dolutegravir (group EFV-DTG), elvitegravir (EFV-EVG), or RPV (EFV-RPV) and from PI/r to DTG (PI/r-DTG), PI/r to EVG (PI/r-EVG), or PI/r to RPV (PI/r-RPV)...
July 31, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Gilbert R Thompson
A phenocopy is an environmentally-defined phenotype that mimics another, genetically-determined phenotype. The severity of hypercholesterolaemia, extent of down regulation of LDL receptor expression and aortic root localisation of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits strikingly resemble the cardinal features of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in humans, suggesting that the former is a phenocopy of the latter. This review compares the metabolic and pathological consequences of induced hypercholesterolaemia in rabbits with those of homozygous FH and contrasts their ease of reversibility on resumption of a normal diet with the refractoriness to lipid-lowering therapy of homozygotes, in whom major adverse cardiovascular events and survival depend upon the prevailing level of serum cholesterol...
July 26, 2018: Atherosclerosis
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