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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306644/vista-expression-by-microglia-decreases-during-inflammation-and-is-differentially-regulated-in-cns-diseases
#1
Malte Borggrewe, Corien Grit, Wilfred F A Den Dunnen, Saskia M Burm, Jeffrey J Bajramovic, Randolph J Noelle, Bart J L Eggen, Jon D Laman
V-type immunoglobulin domain-containing suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA) is a negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) involved in inhibition of T cell-mediated immunity. Expression changes of other NCRs (PD-1, PD-L1/L2, CTLA-4) during inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) were previously demonstrated, but VISTA expression in the CNS has not yet been explored. Here, we report that in the human and mouse CNS, VISTA is most abundantly expressed by microglia, and to lower levels by endothelial cells...
October 11, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175783/globo-a-binds-to-the-recombinant-natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-nkp44
#2
Kenichiro Ito, Ryo Shiraishi, Koji Higai
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in tumor immunity and infection control. The natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30 are involved in the control of the activation of NK cells. Few reports have investigated the ligands of NCRs. We previously reported the NCRs binding affinity to heparin and glycosaminoglycans. We also showed that multimeric sialyl Lewis X-expressing transferrin, secreted by human hepatoma HepG2 cells, binds to NKp46 and NKp44, but not to NKp30. In this study, we investigated the binding between NCRs and glycolipids...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149635/analysis-of-the-variability-in-the-non-coding-regions-of-influenza-a-viruses
#3
Jessica Benkaroun, Gregory J Robertson, Hugh Whitney, Andrew S Lang
The genomes of influenza A viruses (IAVs) comprise eight negative-sense single-stranded RNA segments. In addition to the protein-coding region, each segment possesses 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCR) that are important for transcription, replication and packaging. The NCRs contain both conserved and segment-specific sequences, and the impacts of variability in the NCRs are not completely understood. Full NCRs have been determined from some viruses, but a detailed analysis of potential variability in these regions among viruses from different host groups and locations has not been performed...
August 25, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085012/comparative-mitochondrial-genomics-reveals-a-possible-role-of-a-recent-duplication-of-nadh-dehydrogenase-subunit-5-in-gene-regulation
#4
Runsheng Li, Xiaoliang Ren, Yu Bi, Qiutao Ding, Vincy Wing Sze Ho, Zhongying Zhao
Mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) carries not only well-conserved protein coding, tRNA and rRNA genes, but also highly variable non-coding regions (NCRs). However, the NCRs show poor conservation across species, making their function and evolution elusive. Identification and functional characterization of NCRs across species would be critical for addressing these questions. To this end, we devised a computational pipeline and performed de novo assembly and annotation of mtDNA from 19 Caenorhabditis species using next-generation sequencing (NGS) data...
August 6, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065740/impact-of-plant-peptides-on-symbiotic-nodule-development-and-functioning
#5
REVIEW
Attila Kereszt, Peter Mergaert, Jesús Montiel, Gabriella Endre, Éva Kondorosi
Ribosomally synthesized peptides have wide ranges of functions in plants being, for example, signal molecules, transporters, alkaloids, or antimicrobial agents. Legumes are an unprecedented rich source of peptides, which are used to control the symbiosis of these plants with the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Here, we discuss the function and the evolution of these peptides playing an important role in the formation or functioning of the symbiotic organs, the root nodules. We distinguish peptides that can be either cell-autonomous or secreted short-range or long-range signals, carrying messages in or between plant cells or that can act as effectors interacting with the symbiotic bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061357/a-role-for-grga-in-regulation-of-%C3%AF-28-dependent-transcription-in-the-obligate-intracellular-bacterial-pathogen-chlamydia-trachomatis
#6
Malhar Desai, Wurihan Wurihan, Rong Di, Joseph D Fondell, Bryce E Nickels, Xiaofeng Bao, Huizhou Fan
The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis has a unique developmental cycle consisting of two contrasting cellular forms. Whereas the primary Chlamydia sigma factor, σ66 , is involved in the expression of the majority of chlamydial genes throughout the developmental cycle, expression of several late genes requires the alternative sigma factor σ28 In prior work, we identified GrgA as a Chlamydia- specific transcription factor that activates σ66 -dependent transcription by binding DNA and interacting with a non-conserved region (NCR) of σ66 Here, we extend these findings by showing GrgA can also activate σ28 -dependent transcription through direct interaction with σ28 We measure the binding affinity of GrgA for both σ66 and σ28 , and we identify regions of GrgA important for σ28 -dependent transcription...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30011283/measles-virus-genotype-d4-strains-with-non-standard-length-m-f-non-coding-region-circulated-during-the-major-outbreaks-of-2011-2012-in-spain
#7
Horacio Gil, Aurora Fernández-García, María Mar Mosquera, Judith M Hübschen, Ana M Castellanos, Fernando de Ory, Josefa Masa-Calles, Juan E Echevarría
In recent decades, vaccination has substantially reduced the number of measles cases to levels close to the elimination stage. However, major measles outbreaks occurred in Europe during 2010-2012, after the introduction of the D4-Enfield lineage. We have performed a molecular characterization of 75 measles virus genotype D4 strains from patients infected in Spain between 2004 and 2012 by sequencing the N-450 region and the M-F non-coding region (M-F NCR) in order to identify genetic features of these viruses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740448/working-in-nk-mode-natural-killer-group-2-member-d-and-natural-cytotoxicity-receptors-in-stress-surveillance-by-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#8
REVIEW
Bruno Silva-Santos, Jessica Strid
Natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) are germline-encoded transmembrane proteins that regulate the activation and homeostasis of NK cells as well as other lymphocytes. For γδ T cells, NKRs play critical roles in discriminating stressed (transformed or infected) cells from their healthy counterparts, as proposed in the "lymphoid stress-surveillance" theory. Whereas the main physiologic role is seemingly fulfilled by natural killer group 2 member D, constitutively expressed by γδ T cells, enhancement of their therapeutic potential may rely on natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), like NKp30 or NKp44, that can be induced selectively on human Vδ1+ T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667574/genomic-non-coding-regions-reveal-hidden-patterns-of-mumps-virus-circulation-in-spain-2005-to-2015
#9
Ana M Gavilán, Aurora Fernández-García, Angel Rueda, Ana Castellanos, Josefa Masa-Calles, Noemí López-Perea, María V Torres de Mier, Fernando de Ory, Juan E Echevarría
BackgroundSince mumps vaccination was introduced in 1981 in Spain, the incidence of the disease has dropped significantly. However, cyclic epidemic waves and outbreaks still occur, despite high vaccination coverage. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends genotyping to trace the pattern of mumps virus (MuV) circulation. Genotype H was predominant in Spain, but was replaced in 2005 by genotype G which has subsequently remained dominant. Of the small hydrophobic protein gene sequences, 78% are identical and belong to the MuVi/ Sheffield...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447242/a-novel-ligand-on-astrocytes-interacts-with-natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-nkp44-regulating-immune-response-mediated-by-nk-cells
#10
Kelly E Bowen, Stephen O Mathew, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Porunelloor A Mathew
NK cells play important role in immunity against pathogens and cancer. NK cell functions are regulated by inhibitory and activating receptors binding corresponding ligands on the surface of target cells. NK cells were shown to be recruited to the CNS following several pathological conditions. NK cells could impact CNS physiology by killing glial cells and by secreting IFN-γ. Astrocytes are intimately involved in immunological and inflammatory events occurring in the CNS and reactive astrogliosis is a key feature in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401921/nonlinear-cherenkov-radiations-modulated-by-mode-dispersion-in-a-ti-in-diffused-linbo-3-planar-waveguide
#11
Yan Chen, Zhilin Ye, Yaodong Wu, Yunfei Niu, Rui Ni, Xiaopeng Hu, Yong Zhang, Shining Zhu
We report nonlinear Cherenkov radiations (NCRs) in a Ti in-diffused LiNbO3 planar waveguide. The radiations were modulated exploiting different polarizations and orders of the guided modes, the fundamental wavelengths and the working temperatures. Some characteristics related to NCRs, such as radiation angles and relative intensities were investigated in detail. The experimental results matched well with theoretical calculations.
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085357/targeting-multiple-tumors-using-t-cells-engineered-to-express-a-natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-2-based-chimeric-receptor
#12
Vasyl Eisenberg, Katerina Shamalov, Shimrit Meir, Shiran Hoogi, Rhitajit Sarkar, Shirel Pinker, Gal Markel, Angel Porgador, Cyrille J Cohen
Recent developments in cancer treatment are demonstrating the increasing and powerful potential of immunotherapeutic strategies. In this regard, the adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T-lymphocytes approaches can lead to tumor regression in cancer patients. More recently, the use of T-cells genetically engineered to express cancer-specific receptors such as the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) continues to show promise for the treatment of hematological malignancies. Still, there is a crucial need to develop efficient CAR-T cell approaches for the treatment of solid tumors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057900/mitochondrial-genomes-of-the-key-zooplankton-copepods-arctic-calanus-glacialis-and-north-atlantic-calanus-finmarchicus-with-the-longest-crustacean-non-coding-regions
#13
Agata Weydmann, Aleksandra Przyłucka, Marek Lubośny, Katarzyna S Walczyńska, Ester A Serrão, Gareth A Pearson, Artur Burzyński
We determined the nearly complete mitochondrial genomes of the Arctic Calanus glacialis and its North Atlantic sibling Calanus finmarchicus, which are key zooplankton components in marine ecosystems. The sequenced part of C. glacialis mitogenome is 27,342 bp long and consists of two contigs, while for C. finmarchicus it is 29,462 bp and six contigs, what makes them the longest reported copepod mitogenomes. The typical set of metazoan mitochondrial genes is present in these mitogenomes, although the non-coding regions (NCRs) are unusually long and complex...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026144/increased-nk-cell-immunity-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-nkp46-overexpression
#14
Ariella Glasner, Batya Isaacson, Sergey Viukov, Tzahi Neuman, Nehemya Friedman, Michal Mandelboim, Veronika Sexl, Jacob H Hanna, Ofer Mandelboim
Natural Killer (NK) cells employ activating receptors like the Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCRs: NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46), of which only NKp46 has a mouse orthologue (Ncr1), to eliminate abnormal cells. NKp46/Ncr1 is considered a selective marker for NK cells, although it is also found on a subset of ILCs, where it appears to be without function. The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) was the first ligand identified for Ncr1/NKp46 followed by other viral, bacterial and even fungal ligands. NKp46/Ncr1 also recognizes unknown self and tumor ligands...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994628/effects-of-total-flavonoids-of-sea-buckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-on-cytotoxicity-of-nk92-mi-cells
#15
Diandong Hou, Decheng Wang, Xiande Ma, Wenna Chen, Shengnan Guo, Hongquan Guan
Sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) has multifarious medicinal properties including immunoregulatory effect. The total flavonoids of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (TFH) are the main active components isolated from berries of sea buckthorn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TFH on the cytotoxicity of NK92-MI cells and its possible mechanisms. NK92-MI cells were treated with TFH (2.5 or 5.0 mg/L) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 24 h, the cytotoxicity against K562 was detected by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), expression levels of NCRs (NKp30, NKp44, NKp46) and NKG2D were detected by flow cytometry, and expression levels of perforin and granzyme B were detected by western blot...
December 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815077/salvage-esophagectomy-safe-therapeutic-strategy
#16
REVIEW
Sara Jamel, Sheraz R Markar
The objectives of this review were to assess both the short- and long-term clinical outcomes in patients managed with definitive chemoradiotherapy, and salvage esophagectomy subsequently in comparison to those neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by planned esophagectomy (NCRS) for esophageal cancer from published literature. Eleven studies comprising 1,906 patients were included, 563 in the salvage group and 1,343 in the NCRS group. Pooled analysis showed no significant difference between salvage and NCRS groups in overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) =1...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655342/the-complete-mitochondrial-dna-of-three-monozoic-tapeworms-in-the-caryophyllidea-a-mitogenomic-perspective-on-the-phylogeny-of-eucestodes
#17
Wen X Li, Dong Zhang, Kellyanne Boyce, Bing W Xi, Hong Zou, Shan G Wu, Ming Li, Gui T Wang
BACKGROUND: External segmentation and internal proglottization are important evolutionary characters of the Eucestoda. The monozoic caryophyllideans are considered the earliest diverging eucestodes based on partial mitochondrial genes and nuclear rDNA sequences, yet, there are currently no complete mitogenomes available. We have therefore sequenced the complete mitogenomes of three caryophyllideans, as well as the polyzoic Schyzocotyle acheilognathi, explored the phylogenetic relationships of eucestodes and compared the gene arrangements between unsegmented and segmented cestodes...
June 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607056/microsymbiont-discrimination-mediated-by-a-host-secreted-peptide-in-medicago-truncatula
#18
Shengming Yang, Qi Wang, Elena Fedorova, Jinge Liu, Qiulin Qin, Qiaolin Zheng, Paul A Price, Huairong Pan, Dong Wang, Joel S Griffitts, Ton Bisseling, Hongyan Zhu
The legume-rhizobial symbiosis results in the formation of root nodules that provide an ecological niche for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, plant-bacteria genotypic interactions can lead to wide variation in nitrogen fixation efficiency, and it is not uncommon that a bacterial strain forms functional (Fix+ ) nodules on one plant genotype but nonfunctional (Fix- ) nodules on another. Host genetic control of this specificity is unknown. We herein report the cloning of the Medicago truncatula NFS1 gene that regulates the fixation-level incompatibility with the microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm41...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494343/gene-end-like-sequences-within-the-3-non-coding-region-of-the-nipah-virus-genome-attenuate-viral-gene-transcription
#19
Akihiro Sugai, Hiroki Sato, Misako Yoneda, Chieko Kai
The regulation of transcription during Nipah virus (NiV) replication is poorly understood. Using a bicistronic minigenome system, we investigated the involvement of non-coding regions (NCRs) in the transcriptional re-initiation efficiency of NiV RNA polymerase. Reporter assays revealed that attenuation of NiV gene expression was not constant at each gene junction, and that the attenuating property was controlled by the 3' NCR. However, this regulation was independent of the gene-end, gene-start and intergenic regions...
August 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438996/morphotype-of-bacteroids-in-different-legumes-correlates-with-the-number-and-type-of-symbiotic-ncr-peptides
#20
Jesús Montiel, J Allan Downie, Attila Farkas, Péter Bihari, Róbert Herczeg, Balázs Bálint, Peter Mergaert, Attila Kereszt, Éva Kondorosi
In legume nodules, rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing forms called bacteroids, which are enclosed by a plant membrane in an organelle-like structure called the symbiosome. In the Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade (IRLC) of legumes, this differentiation is terminal due to irreversible loss of cell division ability and is associated with genome amplification and different morphologies of the bacteroids that can be swollen, elongated, spherical, and elongated-branched, depending on the host plant. In Medicago truncatula , this process is orchestrated by nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptides (NCRs) delivered into developing bacteroids...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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