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Natural Contraceptive

Camille Vatier, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Caroline Storey, Isabelle Jéru, Sophie Christin-Maitre, Bruno Fève, Olivier Lascols, Jacques Beltrand, Jean-Claude Carel, Corinne Vigouroux, Elise Bismuth
Lipodystrophic syndromes are rare diseases of genetic or acquired origin characterized by partial or generalized lack of body fat. Early detection and diagnosis are crucial to prevent and manage associated metabolic dysfunctions, i.e. insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, fatty liver and diabetes, and to provide appropriate genetic counselling. By means of several representative case studies, this article illustrates the diagnostic and management challenges of lipodystrophic syndromes. Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is typically diagnosed at birth, or soon thereafter, with generalized lipoatrophy and hepatomegaly secondary to hepatic steatosis...
October 8, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Mohamad El Amki, Nadine Binder, Riccardo Steffen, Hannah Schneider, Andreas R Luft, Michael Weller, Bruno Imthurn, Gabriele S Merki-Feld, Susanne Wegener
Aims: Effective stroke treatments beyond reperfusion remain scant. The natural steroid hormone progesterone has shown protective effects in experimental models of brain injury and cardiovascular disease. However, unfavorable bioavailability limits its clinical use. Desogestrel and drospirenone are new generation progestins with progesterone-like properties, developed as oral contraceptives with excellent bioavailability and safety profile. We investigated the neuroprotective properties of these progestins in vivo using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and in vitro using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model in primary neuronal cells...
October 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Lakshmi Sreedharan Pillai, Saikant Regidi, Shiny Deena Varghese, Shilpa Ravindran, Vani Maya, Jesline Varghese, Kartik Ramaswami, Rajmohan Gopimohan, Manoj Gopi
Breast cancer is the most common type of diagnosed cancers in women, difficult to treat, and has received international attention because of its aggressive nature and inherent drug resistance mechanisms. Development of a better selective estrogen receptor modulator with good therapeutic profile and less toxicity is very crucial in this scenario. This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of ormeloxifene with other clinically used breast cancer drugs. Cytotoxic activity of ormeloxifene was compared with standard drugs, 4-hydroxytamoxifene and Adriamycin...
October 4, 2018: Drug Development Research
Jia Zeng, Jianxing Chen, Liangkang Chen, Wei Zheng, Yunfeng Cao, Ting Huang
Chlormadinone acetate (CMA) is a derivative of the naturally secreted hormone progesterone and exhibits reliable contraceptive and non-contraceptive benefits. Although the marketed product of CMA as oral tablets under the trade name Belara® has been highly successful, there is still room for further improvements in oral bioavailability and a reduction in the clinical dose to decrease related adverse effects. In the current study, a CMA-based self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed using 32% ethyl oleate as an oil phase, 40% Tween-80 as a surfactant, and 12% Transcutol P combined with 16% PEG400 as a cosurfactant, resulting in spherical droplets with a z-average particle size of 38...
October 2, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Leila Lujan-Barroso, Karina Gibert, Mireia Obón-Santacana, María Dolores Chirlaque, María-Jose Sánchez, Nerea Larrañaga, Aurelio Barricarte, Jose Ramón Quirós, Elena Salamanca-Fernández, Sandra Colorado-Yohar, Basilio Gómez-Pozo, Antonio Agudo, Eric J Duell
OBJECTIVE: To determinate the role of lifestyle factors, recent diet, menstrual factors, and reproductive history in age at natural menopause in adult Spanish women. METHODS: In total, 12 562 pre-menopausal women were available for analysis from the EPIC-Spain sub-cohort. Women were recruited between 1992 and 1996 in five regions of Spain (Asturias, Granada, Murcia, Navarra, and San Sebastian) and, for these analyses, were followed for 3 years. Questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, and reproductive and exogenous hormones history were collected at baseline...
September 24, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Sean G Brown, Melissa R Miller, Polina V Lishko, Douglas H Lester, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does a man (patient 1) with a previously described deficiency in principle cation channel of sperm (CatSper) function have a mutation in the CatSper-epsilon (CATSPERE) and/or CatSper-zeta (CATSPERZ) gene? SUMMARY ANSWER: Patient 1 has a homozygous in-frame 6-bp deletion in exon 18 (c.2393_2398delCTATGG, rs761237686) of CATSPERE. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: CatSper is the principal calcium channel of mammalian spermatozoa. Spermatozoa from patient 1 had a specific loss of CatSper function and were unable to fertilize at IVF...
October 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Jocelyn E Finlay, Iván Mejía-Guevara, Yoko Akachi
In this paper, we examine the inequality in the dynamics of the total fertility rate within 21 sub-Saharan African countries by wealth quintiles. We also examine the associated inequality within each country in the proximate determinants of fertility-marriage, contraception, and breastfeeding. Applying Bongaarts' proximate determinants of fertility framework, for 14/21 countries we analyze, we find that those in the richest wealth quintiles have had a more rapid decline in fertility rates than those in the poorest wealth quintiles...
2018: PloS One
Carlota Batres, Aurélie Porcheron, Gwenaël Kaminski, Sandra Courrèges, Frédérique Morizot, Richard Russell
Hormonal contraception is known to cause subtle but widespread behavioral changes. Here, we investigated whether changes in cosmetic habits are associated with use of the hormonal contraceptive pill. We photographed a sample of women ( N = 36) who self-reported whether or not they use the contraceptive pill, as well as their cosmetic habits. A separate sample of participants ( N = 143) rated how much makeup these target women appeared to be wearing. We found that women not using the contraceptive pill (i.e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Karlee M Quinn, François Billaut, Andrew C Bulmer, Clare L Minahan
PURPOSE: To compare prefrontal cortex oxygenation in recreationally-active women using oral contraceptives (WomenOC; n = 8) to women with a natural menstrual cycle (WomenNC; n = 8) during incremental exercise to exhaustion. METHODS: Participants performed incremental cycling to exhaustion to determine lactate threshold 1 (LT1) and 2 (LT2) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). Prefrontal cortex oxygenation was monitored via near-infrared spectroscopy through concentration changes in oxy-haemoglobin (Δ[HbO2 ]), deoxy-haemoglobin (Δ[HHb]), total-haemoglobin (Δ[tHb]) and tissue saturation index (TSI)...
November 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Belinda Rina Marie Spagnoletti, Linda Rae Bennett, Michelle Kermode, Siswanto Agus Wilopo
BACKGROUND: Despite several decades of investment into family planning and maternal health systems strengthening, Indonesia's maternal mortality ratio remains among the highest in Southeast Asia. Among postpartum women unmet need for family planning is greater than at any other time, thus there is great potential to improve the reproductive health outcomes of Indonesian women through enhanced postpartum family planning access. This article explores the socially embedded nature of family planning choices in the Indonesian context, drawing on the experiences of a sample of urban dwelling and predominantly middle class women...
August 30, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sumana Gurunath, Sriprada Vinekar, Reeta Biliangady
We report a patient with a history of venous thrombosis following oral contraceptive pills who was planned for in vitro fertilization (IVF)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male factor infertility. This article discusses the mechanisms for predisposition to thrombosis during assisted reproduction in patients at high risk. Assessment of risk before commencement of treatment, use of mild stimulation, antagonist protocol, avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation, use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger and avoiding exposure to human chorionic gonadotropin, frozen embryo transfer in a natural cycle, single embryo transfer, avoiding multiple pregnancy, and use of prophylactic or therapeutic anticoagulation are the various risk-reduction strategies that must be adopted during IVF treatment to reduce the risk of thrombosis to that of natural conception...
April 2018: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
Ruben C Arslan, Katharina M Schilling, Tanja M Gerlach, Lars Penke
Previous research reported ovulatory changes in women's appearance, mate preferences, extra- and in-pair sexual desire, and behavior, but has been criticized for small sample sizes, inappropriate designs, and undisclosed flexibility in analyses. In the present study, we sought to address these criticisms by preregistering our hypotheses and analysis plan and by collecting a large diary sample. We gathered more than 26,000 usable online self-reports in a diary format from 1,043 women, of which 421 were naturally cycling...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Emily C White, Bronwyn M Graham
Low estradiol is associated with impaired extinction of conditioned physiological fear responses (e.g. skin conductance) in females. As fear extinction is the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, it has been speculated that estradiol may be related to the effectiveness of treatment for anxiety. The present study extended past research by examining whether estradiol is related to physiological and subjective fear responses during the impromptu speech task, where participants perform a surprise speech to camera...
July 25, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Steven E Bosinger, Gregory K Tharp, Nirav B Patel, Chunxia Zhao, Tamika L Payne, Sharon Dietz Ostergaard, Katherine Butler, Shanon Ellis, Ryan L Johnson, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl, Sundaram A Vishwanathan
PROBLEM: In women, the use of progestin-based contraception may increase the risk of vaginal HIV acquisition. We previously showed in macaques that there is a significantly higher simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition rate in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which presents a naturally high-progesterone state, and this may be attributable to altered expression of innate immune factors. We hypothesized that progestin-based contraception, especially depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), would, in a similar way, affect mucosal immune factors that influence HIV acquisition risk...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Sergio Barroilhet, Camila Señoret, Ximena Mallea, Rosemarie Fritsch, Paul Vöhringer, José-Antonio Arraztoa
Objective: To compare dyadic (marital) functioning between users of natural family planning (NFP) and users of artificial methods of contraception (AMC). Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in healthy, over eighteen-year-old couples living in stable relationships recruited from primary and secondary health centers in Santiago, Chile. Participants were assessed using a structured interview on sociodemographic and sexual aspects. Primary outcome, marital functioning, was studied using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS)...
May 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Angela Lanfranchi
This article will review Humanae Vitae 's predictions of the effect of oral contraceptives (the pill) on male-female relationships and societal behaviors. A scientific, biochemical basis underpinning these predictions is made. Evidence of human pheromones will be given. Evidence for the changes in male and female pheromones caused by the pill is given. Observational and experimental evidence of changes in primate and human behaviors by pheromones is detailed. The role these changes have caused in attractiveness and selection of mate by both males and females in preferences concerning major histocompatibility genes is examined...
May 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Patrick Cardinal O'Boyle
In 1969, Cardinal O'Boyle addressed many questions people had about the teachings of Pope Paul VI's encyclical Humanae vitae . Topics covered then are still of interest today to new generations: questions on revelation, conscience, infallibility, contraception, natural family planning, religious assent, government involvement in birth control, faith, morality, natural law, the ends of marriage, the spirit of Vatican II, receiving the sacraments, overpopulation, responsible parenthood, and disagreement among theologians, among others...
May 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Amy Hough, Maggie Bryce, Simon Forrest
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Yong Un Shin, Eun Hee Hong, Min Ho Kang, Heeyoon Cho, Mincheol Seong
Purpose: We investigated associations between female reproductive factors and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in Korean females using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods: A nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted. We enrolled 23,376 participants from the KNHANES who had undergone ophthalmologic exams from 2010 through 2012. Associations between undiagnosed OAG and female reproductive factors such as age at menarche and menopause, parity, history of lactation, and administration of oral contraceptives (OC) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were determined using stepwise logistic regression analyses...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Pritam Sukul, Jochen K Schubert, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch
Natural menstrual cycle and/or oral contraception diversely affect women metabolites. Longitudinal metabolic profiling under constant experimental conditions is thereby realistic to understand such effects. Thus, we investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exhalation throughout menstrual cycles in 24 young and healthy women with- and without oral contraception. Exhaled VOCs were identified and quantified in trace concentrations via high-resolution real-time mass-spectrometry, starting from a menstruation and then repeated follow-up with six intervals including the next bleeding...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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