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Natural Contraceptive

Emily C White, Bronwyn M Graham
Low estradiol is associated with impaired extinction of conditioned physiological fear responses (e.g. skin conductance) in females. As fear extinction is the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, it has been speculated that estradiol may be related to the effectiveness of treatment for anxiety. The present study extended past research by examining whether estradiol is related to physiological and subjective fear responses during the impromptu speech task, where participants perform a surprise speech to camera...
July 25, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Steven E Bosinger, Gregory K Tharp, Nirav B Patel, Chunxia Zhao, Tamika L Payne, Sharon Dietz Ostergaard, Katherine Butler, Shanon Ellis, Ryan L Johnson, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl, Sundaram A Vishwanathan
PROBLEM: In women, the use of progestin-based contraception may increase the risk of vaginal HIV acquisition. We previously showed in macaques that there is a significantly higher simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition rate in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which presents a naturally high-progesterone state, and this may be attributable to altered expression of innate immune factors. We hypothesized that progestin-based contraception, especially depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), would, in a similar way, affect mucosal immune factors that influence HIV acquisition risk...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Sergio Barroilhet, Camila Señoret, Ximena Mallea, Rosemarie Fritsch, Paul Vöhringer, José-Antonio Arraztoa
Objective: To compare dyadic (marital) functioning between users of natural family planning (NFP) and users of artificial methods of contraception (AMC). Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in healthy, over eighteen-year-old couples living in stable relationships recruited from primary and secondary health centers in Santiago, Chile. Participants were assessed using a structured interview on sociodemographic and sexual aspects. Primary outcome, marital functioning, was studied using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS)...
May 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Angela Lanfranchi
This article will review Humanae Vitae 's predictions of the effect of oral contraceptives (the pill) on male-female relationships and societal behaviors. A scientific, biochemical basis underpinning these predictions is made. Evidence of human pheromones will be given. Evidence for the changes in male and female pheromones caused by the pill is given. Observational and experimental evidence of changes in primate and human behaviors by pheromones is detailed. The role these changes have caused in attractiveness and selection of mate by both males and females in preferences concerning major histocompatibility genes is examined...
May 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Patrick Cardinal O'Boyle
In 1969, Cardinal O'Boyle addressed many questions people had about the teachings of Pope Paul VI's encyclical Humanae vitae . Topics covered then are still of interest today to new generations: questions on revelation, conscience, infallibility, contraception, natural family planning, religious assent, government involvement in birth control, faith, morality, natural law, the ends of marriage, the spirit of Vatican II, receiving the sacraments, overpopulation, responsible parenthood, and disagreement among theologians, among others...
May 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Amy Hough, Maggie Bryce, Simon Forrest
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Yong Un Shin, Eun Hee Hong, Min Ho Kang, Heeyoon Cho, Mincheol Seong
Purpose: We investigated associations between female reproductive factors and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in Korean females using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods: A nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted. We enrolled 23,376 participants from the KNHANES who had undergone ophthalmologic exams from 2010 through 2012. Associations between undiagnosed OAG and female reproductive factors such as age at menarche and menopause, parity, history of lactation, and administration of oral contraceptives (OC) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were determined using stepwise logistic regression analyses...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Pritam Sukul, Jochen K Schubert, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch
Natural menstrual cycle and/or oral contraception diversely affect women metabolites. Longitudinal metabolic profiling under constant experimental conditions is thereby realistic to understand such effects. Thus, we investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exhalation throughout menstrual cycles in 24 young and healthy women with- and without oral contraception. Exhaled VOCs were identified and quantified in trace concentrations via high-resolution real-time mass-spectrometry, starting from a menstruation and then repeated follow-up with six intervals including the next bleeding...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amy Fischer, Valerie Aw Benka, Joyce R Briggs, Joanne Maki, Kevin N Morris, Kayla A Myers, Linda Rhodes, George Robert Weedon, Julie K Levy
OBJECTIVES: Non-surgical contraceptives are under development to provide accessible, affordable and humane alternatives for the management of free-roaming cat populations. The objective of this project was to develop a research approach for promising non-surgical contraceptives using outbred cats in a simulated free-roaming setting, meeting high standards for both animal welfare and scientific rigor. METHODS: A facility, specially constructed with indoor and outdoor living areas, was approved and regulated as both an animal shelter and a United States Department of Agriculture research facility...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
S J Morin, G Patounakis, C R Juneau, S A Neal, R T Scott, E Seli
STUDY QUESTION: Do infertile women aged <38 years with quantitative evidence of diminished ovarian reserve and/or poor response to stimulation also exhibit poor oocyte quality as measured by blastulation rates, aneuploidy rates, and live birth rates? SUMMARY ANSWER: Young women with evidence of accelerated follicular depletion, either by precycle ovarian reserve testing or postcycle evidence of low oocyte yield, exhibit equivalent blastulation rates, aneuploidy rates and live birth rates per euploid embryo transfer as age-matched controls with normal precycle and postcycle parameters...
July 11, 2018: Human Reproduction
Meegle S Mathew, Joyal Davis, Kuruvilla Joseph
Fluorescent copper quantum clusters (CuQCs) have received great interest in recent times due to their attractive features, such as water solubility, low cost, wide availability of Cu and good biocompatibility. Recently, considerable efforts have been devoted to the preparation and applications of CuQCs. Herein, we report a simple one-pot green method for the preparation of fluorescent CuQCs using a plant-derived protein, gluten, as a stabilizing agent. Gluten, a naturally abundant, low-cost and sustainable plant-protein derived from wheat, was employed both as a reducing and stabilizing agent to produce blue emitting CuQCs...
August 6, 2018: Analyst
Valery M Dembitsky, Tatyana A Gloriozova, Nick Savidov
Steroid phosphate esters are very rare natural lipids that have been comparatively recently isolated from fractions of polar lipids of marine sponges and starfish. These steroids exhibit interesting biological activities. When using the PASS computer program, we showed that many of steroid phosphate esters showed antifungal, antihypercholesterolemic, anesthetic, and other activities with a confidence of 73 to 93%. In addition, some of them can be used as inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis and show hepatoprotection properties...
July 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Scott E Denmark
This perspective represents a (highly personal) examination of the past, present and future of synthetic organic chemistry. The central thesis posits that the confluence of factors that led to the "Golden Age of Natural Product Synthesis" in the second half of the twentieth century can be traced back to the identification of the therapeutic potential of steroid hormones culminating in the introduction of oral contraceptives. The tremendous benefits of those activities to the development of organic synthesis as a vibrant discipline led to the exponential increase in strategies and methods and the ability to tackle, larger and larger molecules of greater and greater complexity...
February 2018: Israel Journal of Chemistry
Marie-Cécile Valéra, Emmanuelle Noirrit-Esclassan, Marion Dupuis, Coralie Fontaine, Françoise Lenfant, Anne Briaux, Cendrine Cabou, Cedric Garcia, Olivier Lairez, Jean-Michel Foidart, Bernard Payrastre, Jean-François Arnal
Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver, and the physiological role of this hormone is unknown. Interestingly, E4 was recently evaluated in preclinical and phase II-III clinical studies in combination with a progestin, with the advantage to not increase the circulating level of coagulation factors, at variance to oral estradiol or ethinylestradiol. Here, we evaluated the effect of E4 on hemostasis and thrombosis in mouse. Following chronic E4 treatment, mice exhibited a prolonged tail-bleeding time and were protected from arterial and also venous thrombosis in vivo...
June 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Susan Walker, Victoria Louise Newton, Lesley Hoggart, Michael Parker
AIM: To explore, in a general practice setting, the concerns, beliefs and attitudes about intrauterine contraception (IUC) reported by women, who had never used the methods. METHODS: We used a sequential mixed-method (QUAL/quant) approach. A pragmatic, self-selecting sample of 30 women, aged 18-46 years, who had never used IUC), was recruited through seven general practices in South East England. Themes arising from qualitative interviews were used to construct a quantitative survey, completed by a pragmatic sample of 1195 women, aged 18-49 years, attending 32 general practices in the same region, between February and August 2015...
April 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Rosemary Talbot Behmer Hansen, Kavita Shah Arora
Since USA constitutional precedent established in 1976, adolescents have increasingly been afforded the right to access contraception without first obtaining parental consent or authorisation. There is general agreement this ethically permissible. However, long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods have only recently been prescribed to the adolescent population. They are currently the most effective forms of contraception available and have high compliance and satisfaction rates. Yet unlike other contraceptives, LARCs are associated with special procedural risks because they must be inserted and removed by trained healthcare providers...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Anette Tønnes Pedersen, Line Cleemann, Katharina M Main, Anders Juul
Hypogonadism may be suspected if puberty is delayed. Pubertal delay may be caused by a normal physiological variant, by primary ovarian insufficiency (Turner syndrome), or reflect congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH; genetic) or acquired HH (brain lesions). Any underlying chronic disease like inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, malnutrition (anorexia or orthorexia), or excessive physical activity may also result in functional HH. Thus, girls with delayed puberty should be evaluated for an underlying pathology before any treatment, including oral contraception, is initiated...
2018: Endocrine Development
Setegn Tigabu, Tesfa Demelew, Awol Seid, Bisrate Sime, Tsegahun Manyazewal
BACKGROUND: Despite the large-scale investment in access to contraceptives, high population growth and unintended pregnancies are posing pressures in Ethiopia where the economy is incapable of holding overpopulation. The aim of this study was to assess and explore socioeconomic and religious differentials in contraceptive uptake. METHODS: A mixed-methods phenomenological study was conducted in western Ethiopia, Oromia region. Data were collected through survey with 1352 mothers of reproductive age, interviews with 37 key informants, and 13 focus group discussions with family planning service providers, college instructors and mothers of reproductive age...
June 5, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Marie Amouroux, Roger Mieusset, Raoul Desbriere, Pierre Opinel, Gilles Karsenty, Marine Paci, Sara Fernandes, Blandine Courbiere, Jeanne Perrin
BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, international research has actively pursued hormonal male contraception (HMC) and, to a lesser extent, thermal male contraception (TMC). Although the efficacy of TMC has been confirmed in limited populations, its acceptability has not been studied in either potential users or potential prescribers. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive multicentre study of potential male users of TMC (new fathers) and potential prescribers of TMC (new providers) was conducted between November 2016 and February 2017...
2018: PloS One
Jane Cover, Jeanette Lim, Allen Namagembe, Justine Tumusiime, Jennifer Kidwell Drake, Carie Muntifering Cox
CONTEXT: In Uganda, an estimated one in four adolescent women have begun childbearing. Many adolescent pregnancies are unintended because of substantial barriers to contraceptive access. The injectable contraceptive is the most commonly used method in Uganda, and a new subcutaneous version offers the possibility of reducing access barriers by offering a self-injection option. However, more information about adolescent attitudes toward and interest in self-injection is needed. METHODS: In 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 46 adolescent women aged 15-19 from rural and urban areas of Gulu District...
December 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
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