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NK cell receptors

Jiawei Tang, Tengyun Wei, Guowei Ni, Xiang Guo, Yuanjie Wu, Fuli Zhang, Shaoxin Chen
(R)-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) phenyl] ethanol [(R)-3,5-BTPE] is a crucial chiral intermediate for the synthesis of the NK-1 receptor antagonists aprepitant, rolapitant and fosaprepitant. The carbonyl reductase KR01 from Leifsonia sp. S749, discovered by protein sequence alignment, could convert 3',5'-bis(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone (3,5-BTAP) into (R)-3,5-BTPE with excellent activity and enantioselectivity. In order to enhance the conversion efficiency at high substrate concentrations, the reaction conditions were optimized by response surface analysis...
October 20, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Liang Wang, Xi-Wen Bi, Yu-Jia Zhu, Ying-Zhi He, Qiu-Yu Lai, Zhong-Jun Xia, Qing-Qing Cai
BACKGROUND: Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma often resistant to chemotherapy. Serum level of soluble IL-2 receptor α (IL-2Rα) is elevated in NKTCL patients and correlates significantly with treatment response and survival. In the current study we examined the potential role of IL-2Rα by over-expressing IL-2Rα in representative cell lines. METHODS: Levels of IL-2Rα were evaluated in the human natural killer cell line NK-92 and the NKTCL cell line SNK-6...
October 19, 2018: Cancer communications
Marina Garcia-Prat, Daniel Álvarez-Sierra, Aina Aguiló-Cucurull, Sandra Salgado-Perandrés, Sara Briongos-Sebastian, Clara Franco-Jarava, Andrea Martin-Nalda, Roger Colobran, Isabel Montserrat, Manuel Hernández-González, Ricardo Pujol-Borrell, Pere Soler-Palacin, Mónica Martínez-Gallo
BACKGROUND: For the accurate diagnosis of immunodeficiencies is crucial to compare patients' immunology laboratory values with age-sex matched controls, yet there is a paucity of normal values for most populations. OBJECTIVES: To define appropriate reference values of extended lymphocyte subpopulations and T-cell receptor excision circle (TRECs) levels in healthy pediatric donors between 1 month and 18 years of age. METHODS: Extended immunophenotyping values were obtained by analysis of multiparameter flow cytometry panels for the following subpopulations: CD4+ and CD8+ Naive, Effector, Effector Memory and Central Memory, T helper subpopulations and their degrees of activation, T Regulatory cells, Recent Thymic Emigrants (RTE), B Lymphocyte subpopulations (Transitional, Naive, Preswitch-Memory, Switch-Memory, Plasmablasts, CD21low, and Exhausted), and subpopulations for Monocytes, NK cells and Dendritic Cells...
October 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Mihil Patel, Virginia-Maria Vlahava, Simone K Forbes, Ceri A Fielding, Richard J Stanton, Eddie C Y Wang
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is under constant selective pressure from the immune system in vivo . Study of HCMV genes that have been lost in the absence of, or genetically altered by, such selection can focus research toward findings of in vivo significance. We have been particularly interested in the most pronounced change in the highly passaged laboratory strains AD169 and Towne-the deletion of 13-15 kb of sequence (designated the UL /b' region) that encodes up to 22 canonical genes, UL133-UL150. At least 5 genes have been identified in UL /b' that inhibit NK cell function...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cinzia Fionda, Helena Stabile, Rosa Molfetta, Alessandra Soriani, Giovanni Bernardini, Alessandra Zingoni, Angela Gismondi, Rossella Paolini, Marco Cippitelli, Angela Santoni
Natural Killer cells (NK) are innate effector cells with a critical role in immunosurveillance against different kinds of cancer cells, including Multiple Myeloma (MM). However, the number and/or function of these lymphocytes are strongly reduced during MM progression and in advanced clinical stages. A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling both MM and NK cell biology have greatly contributed to develop novel and combined therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this incurable hematologic malignancy...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Olivier Lucar, Mariama Sadjo Diallo, Charles Bayard, Assia Samri, Nadine Tarantino, Patrice Debré, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Françoise Brun-Vézinet, Sophie Matheron, Rémi Cheynier, Vincent Vieillard
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 and HIV-2 differ notably in their epidemiology, with worldwide HIV-1 spread and HIV-2 mainly confined to West Africa. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical antiviral effectors of the immune system; however, limited information is available about these innate effector cells during HIV-2 infection. METHOD: In this study, 24 untreated HIV-2-infected patients were analyzed and compared with 21 long-term nonprogressor and 10 controller HIV-1 patients, and healthy donors...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Bing Lin, Xinju Jia, Zuohua Xie, Ting Su, Ying Wei, Jiping Tang, Chengzhi Yang, Chuanbao Cui, Jinxiang Liu
BACKGROUND This study investigated the effect of supernatant of endothelial cells stimulated by peripheral blood serum from sepsis patients on phenotype and function of peripheral NKT cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-one patients with sepsis and 21 healthy subjects were included. Peripheral blood (5 ml) was collected from all patients and healthy subjects. To isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), Ficoll lymphocyte separation solution was used. Flow cytometry was carried out to determine NKT cell ratio, activity, and cytokine secretion...
October 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Diana Cadena Castaneda, Christine Dhommée, Thomas Baranek, Emilie Dalloneau, Laurie Lajoie, Alexandre Valayer, Christophe Arnoult, Marie-Véronique Demattéi, Delphine Fouquenet, Christelle Parent, Nathalie Heuzé-Vourc'h, Valérie Gouilleux-Gruart
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is responsible for the recycling and transcytosis of IgG and albumin. FcRn level was found altered in cancer tissues and implicated in tumor immunosurveillance and neoplastic cell growth. However, the consequences of FcRn down-regulation in the anti-tumor immune response are not fully elucidated. By using the B16F10 experimental lung metastasis model in an FcRn-deficient microenvironment (FcRn-/- mice), we found lung metastasis associated with an abnormal natural killer (NK) cell phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rafael Moreno, Carlos Alberto Fajardo, Marti Farrera-Sal, Ana Judith Perisé-Barrios, Álvaro Morales-Molina, Ahmed Abdullah Al-Zaher, Javier Garcia-Castro, Ramon Alemany
Several studies have evaluated the efficacy of using human oncolytic adenovirus-loaded mesenchymal stem cells for cancer treatment. For example, we have described the antitumor efficacy of CELYVIR, autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells infected with the oncolytic adenovirus ICOVIR-5, for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Results from this clinical trial point out the role of the immune system in the clinical outcome. In this context, a better understanding of the immunophenotypic changes of human mesenchymal stem cells upon adenoviral infection and how these changes affect human autologous or allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could guide strategies to improve the antitumor efficacy of infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Maneesh K Misra, Danillo G Augusto, Gonzalo Montero Martin, Neda Nemat-Gorgani, Jürgen Sauter, Jan A Hofmann, James A Traherne, Betsy González-Quezada, Clara Gorodezky, Will P Bultitude, Wesley Marin, Cynthia Vierra-Green, Kirsten M Anderson, Antonio Balas, Jose L Caro-Oleas, Elisa Cisneros, Francesco Colucci, Ravi Dandekar, Sally M Elfishawi, Marcelo A Fernández-Viña, Merhan Fouda, Rafael González-Fernández, Arend Große, Maria J Herrero-Mata, Sam Q Hollenbach, Steven G E Marsh, Alex Mentzer, Derek Middleton, Ashley Moffett, Miguel A Moreno-Hidalgo, Ghada I Mossallam, Annettee Nakimuli, Jorge R Oksenberg, Stephen J Oppenheimer, Peter Parham, Maria-Luiza Petzl-Erler, Dolores Planelles, Florentino Sánchez-García, Francisco Sánchez-Gordo, Alexander H Schmidt, John Trowsdale, Luciana B Vargas, Jose L Vicario, Carlos Vilches, Paul J Norman, Jill A Hollenbach
The goals of the KIR component of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW) were to encourage and educate researchers to begin analyzing KIR at allelic resolution, and to survey the nature and extent of KIR allelic diversity across human populations. To represent worldwide diversity, we analyzed 1269 individuals from ten populations, focusing on the most polymorphic KIR genes, which express receptors having three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains (KIR3DL1/S1, KIR3DL2 and KIR3DL3). We identified 13 novel alleles of KIR3DL1/S1, 13 of KIR3DL2 and 18 of KIR3DL3...
October 12, 2018: Human Immunology
Frank J Ward, Lekh N Dahal, Rasha Abu-Eid
Head and neck cancers (HNC) represent a heterogeneous cluster of aggressive malignancies that account for 3% of all cancer cases in the UK. HNC is increasing in frequency particularly in the developing world, which is related to changes in risk factors. Unfortunately, the mortality rate is high, which is chiefly attributed to late diagnosis at stages where traditional treatments fail. Cancer immunotherapy has achieved great successes in anti-tumor therapy. Checkpoint inhibitor (CI) antibodies enhance anti-tumor activity by blocking inhibitory receptors to drive tumor-specific T and NK cell effector responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Beatriz Díaz-Molina, Paula Diaz-Bulnes, Reyes Carvajal Palao, Maria José Bernardo, Ramón M Rodriguez, Viviana Corte-Iglesias, Cesar Moris de la Tassa, Jose Luis Lambert, Beatriz Suarez-Alvarez
The positive long-term effects of conversion to everolimus (EVL) after heart transplantation (HT) have been evaluated in several studies. However, the timing of EVL initiation, the best way to combine it with other immunosuppressive treatments, and the impact of these combinations on the immune response are poorly understood aspects. Here, we analyzed the immune phenotype and function of HT patients ( n = 56) at short and long terms (prospective and retrospective cohorts), taking into account the time of EVL initiation: early (3 months post-transplant, EVL-E group) or late (>1 year post-transplant, EVL-L group) compared with mycophenolate mofetil treatment (MMF group)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Martina Bonacini, Alessandra Soriano, Alessandro Zerbini, Eleonora Calò, Luca Cimino, Francesco Muratore, Luigi Fontana, Luca Braglia, Maria Parmeggiani, Carlo Salvarani, Stefania Croci
Behçet disease (BD) is an inflammatory systemic disease with a fluctuating course, which can affect the skin, eyes, central nervous system, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and vascular systems. No laboratory tests are currently available for the diagnosis of BD and monitoring disease activity. Moreover there is a lack of knowledge on BD pathogenesis. This study focused on circulating Natural Killer (NK), NKT and T cells evaluated as CD3neg CD56pos , CD3pos CD56pos , and CD3pos CD56neg . Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 38 BD patients and 20 healthy controls (HC)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
M H Li, Q F Zhang, W W Yin, D Z Zhang, H Ren
Objective: To study the functional effects of killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G member 1 (KLRG1) expression on natural killer cells (NK cell) in chronic hepatitis B virus infection (HBV). Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were extracted from 120 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and 19 healthy persons. The frequency of NK cells and KLRG1+ NK cells in peripheral blood was detected by flow cytometry. Interferon-γ levels secreted by NK cells were detected in peripheral blood...
August 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Y L Li, Q F Zhang, W W Yin, D Z Zhang
Objective: To explore the relationship between sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 7 (Siglec-7) expressed on NK cells and hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. Methods: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 23 healthy controls and 31 patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A, n = 7; Child-Pugh B, n = 12; Child-Pugh C, n = 12). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained by using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation and the expression of Siglec-7 and NK cells phenotype and their subpopulations were detected by flow cytometry...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Majid Ahmadi, Mahnaz Ghaebi, Samaneh Abdolmohammadi-Vahid, Sanaz Abbaspour-Aghdam, Kobra Hamdi, Sedigheh Abdollahi-Fard, Shahla Danaii, Parisa Mosapour, Ladan Koushaeian, Sanam Dolati, Reza Rikhtegar, Farnaz Dabiri Oskouei, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Mohammad Nouri, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) has a multifactorial etiology mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities and immunological factors. Treating RM has remained to be a challenging issue and the role of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating RM is still controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in natural killer (NK) cells' frequency and cytotoxicity in patients with RM who received the IVIG therapy. A total of 78 women with a history of three or more recurrent miscarriages were included and their peripheral blood was drawn in case of positive pregnancy test...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xue-Feng Tang, Li Yang, Song Duan, Hong Guo, Qiao-Nan Guo
BACKGROUND: Intestinal T-cell and NK/T- cell lymphomas are rare and aggressive. The diagnosis is quite difficult, especial in biopsy specimens. This study investigates the clinicopathological features of intestinal T-cell and NK/T-cell lymphomas to aid their differential diagnosis. METHODS: Clinical data of 27 cases were collected. Including extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL-N), monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL), peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS), anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, ALK+ (ALCL, ALK+) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL)...
October 9, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Helen A Fletcher
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death due to a single infectious disease and an effective vaccine would substantially accelerate global efforts to control TB. An immune correlate of protection (CoP) from TB disease could aid vaccine optimization and licensure. This paper summarises opportunities for identifying CoP and highlights results from correlates of risk studies. Although we don't have CoP, there are ongoing efficacy trials with both disease and infection endpoints which provide opportunities for such an analysis...
October 10, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Malina Xiao, Muhammad Zaeem Noman, Ludovic Menard, Andy Chevigne, Martyna Szpakowska, Manon Bosseler, Markus Ollert, Guy Berchem, Bassam Janji
Autophagy is a quality control process executed at the basal level in almost all cell types. However, in cancer cells, autophagy is activated by several stimuli, including hypoxia. Depending on tumor type, stage, and genetic context, autophagy is a double-edged sword. Autophagy promotes regression in newly established tumors; however, it supports tumor progression in well-established tumors by maintaining cancer cell survival under stress conditions. These data, in addition to the emerging role of autophagy in impairing antitumor immunity, have attracted significant interest in developing autophagy inhibitors as a new approach to cancer treatment...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Sandro Matosevic
Natural killer (NK) cells are powerful immune effectors whose antitumor activity is regulated through a sophisticated network of activating and inhibitory receptors. As effectors of cancer immunotherapy, NK cells are attractive as they do not attack healthy self-tissues nor do they induce T cell-driven inflammatory cytokine storm, enabling their use as allogeneic adoptive cellular therapies. Clinical responses to adoptive NK-based immunotherapy have been thwarted, however, by the profound immunosuppression induced by the tumor microenvironment, particularly severe in the context of solid tumors...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
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