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Knee Flexion

Taian Vieira, Giacinto Luigi Cerone, Laura Gastaldi, Stefano Pastorelli, Liliam F Oliveira, Marco Gazzoni, Alberto Botter
Functional electrical stimulation of lower limb muscles during rowing provides a means for the cardiovascular conditioning in paraplegia. The possibility of shaping stimulation profiles according to changes in knee angle, so far conceived as changes in seat position, may help circumventing open issues associated with muscle fatigue and movement coordination. Here we present a subject-specific biomechanical model for the estimation of knee joint angle during indoor rowing. Anthropometric measurements and foot and seat position are inputs to the model...
October 17, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Pier Francesco Indelli, Salvatore Risitano, Kimberly E Hall, Erika Leonardi, Eleonora Migliore
PURPOSE: Total knee arthroplasty is a successful procedure in treating subjects with end-stage knee osteoarthritis. The objective of this matched study was to evaluate subjective patient satisfaction and clinical and radiological outcomes in two groups of patients undergoing primary TKA using an identical third-generation design with different conformity in the polyethylene insert. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients undergoing TKA because of knee osteoarthritis were randomized in two matched groups...
October 17, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Maria Alexandersson, Eugen Yuhui Wang, Staffan Eriksson
PURPOSE: When a tourniquet is used during surgery on the extremities, the pressure applied to the muscles, nerves and blood vessels can cause neuromuscular damage that contributes to postoperative weakness. The hypothesis was that the rehabilitation-related results would be improved if total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is performed without the use of a tourniquet. METHODS: 81 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who underwent TKA surgery were randomized to surgery with or without tourniquet...
October 17, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
David O Draper, Dominic Klyve, Ralph Ortiz, Thomas M Best
BACKGROUND: Wearable long-duration low-intensity ultrasound is an emerging non-invasive and non-narcotic therapy for the daily treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine whether long-duration low-intensity ultrasound was effective in treating pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Ninety patients with moderate to severe knee pain and radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I/II) were randomized for treatment with active (n = 55) or placebo (n = 35) devices applied daily to the treated knee...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Natsuki Sado, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Senshi Fukashiro
In humans, hip abductor and lumbar lateral flexor muscles are well-developed as side-to-side lumbopelvic stabilizers. We hypothesized that the hip abductors and lumbar lateral flexors act as energy generators during a running single-leg jump, although they are generally recognized as stabilizers. We collected kinematics and ground reaction force data in running single-leg jumps by 13 male high jumpers and calculated three-dimensional kinetic variables. Hip abduction and lumbosacral lateral flexion towards free leg side torques were exerted during almost the entire take-off phase, exerting positive power during the terminal 2/3 of the phase...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Maribeth Anne P Gelisanga, Edward James R Gorgon
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have distilled the Upright Motor Control Test Knee Extension and Knee Flexion subscales (UMCT-KE and UMCT-KF, respectively) from the original 6-item instrument and examined these as stand-alone rapid tests of voluntary movement control in the standing position. Systematic review evidence suggests that the UMCT-KE and UMCT-KF may have value in predicting walking ability after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To examine the interrater and intrarater reliability, and concurrent validity of the UMCT-KE and UMCT-KF, and associations with walking ability in adults with subacute stroke...
October 16, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Enda King, Chris Richter, Andy Franklyn-Miller, Katherine Daniels, Ross Wadey, Mark Jackson, Ray Moran, Siobhan Strike
Whilst anterior cruciate ligament injury commonly occurs during change of direction (CoD) tasks, there is little research on how athletes execute CoD after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aims of this study were to determine between-limb and between-test differences in performance (time) and joint kinematics and kinetics during planned and unplanned CoD. One hundred and fifty-six male subjects carried out 90° maximal effort, planned and unplanned CoD tests in a 3D motion capture laboratory 9 months after ACLR...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jessica E Goetz, Chamnanni Rungprai, M James Rudert, Lucian C Warth, Phinit Phisitkul
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of rigid syndesmotic fixation on functional talar position and cartilage contact mechanics. METHODS: Twelve below-knee cadaveric specimens with an intact distal syndesmosis were mechanically loaded in four flexion positions (20° plantar flexion, 10° plantar flexion, neutral, 10° dorsiflexion) with zero, one, or two 3.5-mm syndesmotic screws. Rigid clusters of reflective markers were used to track bony movement and ankle-specific pressure sensors were used to measure talar dome and medial/lateral gutter contact mechanics...
May 19, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Theo Jaspers, Jan Taeymans, Anja Hirschmüller, Heiner Baur, Roger Hilfiker, Slavko Rogan
BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the results of empirical studies on the effects of CPM on rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. The research question was: what are the effects of CPM on ROM, swelling and pain after ACL reconstruction? PATIENTS/MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane and PEDro up to January 2018. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were expressed as Hedges' g, in order to correct for overestimation of the true effect in small study samples...
October 15, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Nicole M Mueske, Sylvia Õunpuu, Deirdre D Ryan, Bitte S Healy, Jeffrey Thomson, Paul Choi, Tishya A L Wren
BACKGROUND: Gait analysis provides quantitative data that can be used to supplement standard clinical evaluation in identifying and understanding gait problems. It has been established that gait analysis changes treatment decision making for children with cerebral palsy, but this has not yet been studied in other diagnoses such as spina bifida. RESEARCH QUESTION: To determine the effects of gait analysis data on pathology identification and surgical recommendations in children with spina bifida...
October 9, 2018: Gait & Posture
Moo-Ho Song, Kyung-Taek Kim, Youn-Soo Hwang, Jin-Wan Kim, Tae-Woong Eom, Jeong-Hoon Chae
The authors present 2 cases of late mobile-bearing dislocation after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty with long-term follow-up. Patients had anterior bearing dislocation more than 10 years after primary unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Retrieved mobile bearings showed severe erosion on the posterior lip, suggesting frequent deep knee flexion as the cause of wear. Bearing dislocation is known to occur in the early postoperative phase. However, for Asians with a lifestyle that requires high knee flexion, dislocation might occur in the late postoperative phase...
October 15, 2018: Orthopedics
L Abbasi, Z Rojhani-Shirazi, M Razeghi, H Raeisi Shahraki
Background: Deficits in upper body movement have received little attention during gait in cerebral palsy (CP) children with crouch gait pattern (CGP). Objective: Purpose of this research is to describe the correlation of trunk movement with the excessive knee flexion and ankle kinematic in CP children with CGP. Material and Methods: Gait analysis data from 57 limbs of diplegic CP children with CGP and 26 limbs of normal children was gathered...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Mohsen Emadedin, Narges Labibzadeh, Maede Ghorbani Liastani, Aliasghar Karimi, Neda Jaroughi, Tina Bolurieh, Seyyedeh-Esmat Hosseini, Hossein Baharvand, Nasser Aghdami
BACKGROUND: The intra-articular implantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA) is an emerging new therapy. In this study, patients with knee OA received intra-articular implantations of autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs. We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of this implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a phase 1/2 single-center, triple-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a placebo control. The subjects consisted of patients with knee OA randomly assigned to either an intra-articular implantation of MSCs (40 × 106 cells) or 5mL normal saline (placebo)...
October 11, 2018: Cytotherapy
Meredith Perkins, Julie Lowell, Christina Arnholt, Daniel MacDonald, Anita L Kerkhof, Steven M Kurtz, William M Mihalko
Increased joint laxity is associated with excessive polyethylene wear, but the correlation between laxity and metal wear has not been established. Fifteen necropsy-retrieved primary total knee replacements were mounted into a custom knee-testing machine that measured anterior-posterior, varus-valgus, and internal-external rotational laxity at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis was performed to measure the cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and titanium (Ti) concentrations in periprosthetic tissue samples...
2018: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
Gabriel Zeitoune, Jurandir Nadal, Luiz Alberto Batista, Leonardo Metsavaht, Anna Paula Moraes, Gustavo Leporace
BACKGOUND: Leg length discrepancy (LLD) can be related to different pathologies, due to an inadequate distribution of mechanical loads, as well as gait kinematics asymmetries resulted from LLD. RESEARCH QUESTION: To validate a model to predict anatomical LLD (ALLD) based on gait kinematics. METHODS: Gait of 39 participants with different lower limb pathologies and mild discrepancy were collected. Pelvic, hip, knee and ankle kinematics were measured with a 3D motion analysis system and ALLD, femur discrepancy (FD) and tibia discrepancy (TD) were measured by a computerized digital radiograph...
September 29, 2018: Gait & Posture
Rafael Krätschmer, Harald Böhm, Leonhard Döderlein
BACKGROUND: Classification of sagittal gait patterns in unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) provides direct implication for treatment. Five types are described: type 0 has minor gait deviation; type 1 has inadequate ankle dorsiflexion in swing; type 2 has inadequate ankle dorsiflexion throughout the gait cycle; types 3 and 4 have abnormal function of the knee and hip joint respectively. During gait analysis of children with unilateral spastic CP we observed frequently that a knee flexion deficit disappeared during running...
October 3, 2018: Gait & Posture
Wing-Kai Lam, Ki-Kwang Lee, Sang-Kyoon Park, Jaejin Ryue, Suk-Hoon Yoon, Jiseon Ryu
BACKGROUND: The rapid and repetitive badminton lunges would produce strenuous impact loading on the lower extremities of players and these loading are thought to be the contributing factors of chronic knee injuries. This study examined the impact loading characteristics in various groups of badminton athletes performing extreme lunges. METHODS: Fifty-two participants classified into male skilled, female skilled, male unskilled, and female unskilled groups performed badminton lunge with their maximum-effort...
2018: PloS One
Raja Bhaskara Rajasekaran, Dheenadhayalan Jayaramaraju, Hari Venkataramani, Devendra Agraharam, Raja Sabapathy Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran Shanmuganathan
Reconstruction of large defects following trauma in the distal femur are a surgical challenge. These cases usually require multiple procedures and are associated with poor functional outcomes. We managed a post-traumatic distal femur defect of 16 cm using the modified Capanna's technique - combination of a vascularised free fibula and an allograft - and achieved a successful union at 6 months and also a good functional outcome with knee flexion of 100°. The patient received a vascularised free fibula which was pegged into an allograft which was sculptured to bridge the defect...
October 2018: Trauma Case Reports
Michael Casper, Riddhit Mitra, Rahul Khare, Branislav Jaramaz, Brian Hamlin, Brian McGinley, David Mayman, Jeff Headrick, Kenneth Urish, Mark Gittins, Stephen Incavo, Vivek Neginhal
Surgical navigation has been shown to improve the accuracy of bone preparation and limb alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Previous work has shown the effectiveness of various types of navigation systems. Here, for the first time, we assessed the accuracy of a novel imageless semiautonomous handheld robotic sculpting system in performing bone resection and preparation in TKA using cadaveric specimens. In this study, we compared the planned and final implant placement in 18 cadaveric specimens undergoing TKA using the new tool...
December 2018: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
Berk Norman, Valentina Pedoia, Adam Noworolski, Thomas M Link, Sharmila Majumdar
Osteoarthritis (OA) classification in the knee is most commonly done with radiographs using the 0-4 Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grading system where 0 is normal, 1 shows doubtful signs of OA, 2 is mild OA, 3 is moderate OA, and 4 is severe OA. KL grading is widely used for clinical assessment and diagnosis of OA, usually on a high volume of radiographs, making its automation highly relevant. We propose a fully automated algorithm for the detection of OA using KL gradings with a state-of-the-art neural network. Four thousand four hundred ninety bilateral PA fixed-flexion knee radiographs were collected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative dataset (age = 61...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
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