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plant disease resistance

Ying Liu, Qiuping Liu, Yuanman Tang, Wei Ding
Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are associated with the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against further infection enforced by fungi, bacteria and viruses. PR1a is the first PR-1 member that could be purified and characterized. Previous studies have reported its role in plants' resistance system against oomycete pathogens. However, the role of PR1a in Solanaceae plants against the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum remains unclear. To assess roles of NtPR1a in tobacco responding to R...
December 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Wei Zhang, Feng Zhao, Lihui Jiang, Cun Chen, Lintao Wu, Zhibin Liu
Plants constantly suffer from simultaneous infection by multiple pathogens, which can be divided into biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens, according to their lifestyles. Many studies have contributed to improving our knowledge of how plants can defend against pathogens, involving different layers of defense mechanisms. In this sense, the review discusses: (1) the functions of PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular pattern)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), (2) evidence highlighting the functions of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated signaling pathways downstream of PTI and ETI, and (3) other defense aspects, including many novel small molecules that are involved in defense and phenomena, including systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and priming...
December 7, 2018: Cells
Heïdi Serra, Kyuha Choi, Xiaohui Zhao, Alexander R Blackwell, Juhyun Kim, Ian R Henderson
During meiosis, chromosomes undergo DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which can be repaired using a homologous chromosome to produce crossovers. Meiotic recombination frequency is variable along chromosomes and tends to concentrate in narrow hotspots. We mapped crossover hotspots located in the Arabidopsis thaliana RAC1 and RPP13 disease resistance genes, using varying haplotypic combinations. We observed a negative non-linear relationship between interhomolog divergence and crossover frequency within the hotspots, consistent with polymorphism locally suppressing crossover repair of DSBs...
December 13, 2018: PLoS Genetics
S S Sohrab
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most economically important crop in the world and produced 90% of the total natural cellulose fiber which is utilized to make cotton fabrics. The production of cotton is affected by many several diseases, and among them, viral disease, especially leaf curl, is the most destructive disease caused by a begomovirus transmitted by whiteflies vector. Plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to develop transgenic plant with variable traits against biotic and abiotic stress such as resistance against pathogens, yield, quality, and salinity...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Baohong Zhang
Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of the 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ming Huang, Mikeal L Roose, Qibin Yu, Dongliang Du, Yuan Yu, Yi Zhang, Zhanao Deng, Ed Stover, Frederick G Gmitter
Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, is the most devastating disease in citrus worldwide. Commercial citrus varieties including sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ) are highly susceptible to HLB, and trifoliate orange ( Poncirus trifoliata , a close Citrus relative) is widely considered resistant or highly tolerant to HLB. In this study, an intergeneric F1 population of sweet orange and trifoliate orange was genotyped by Genotyping-by-Sequencing, and high-density SNP-based genetic maps were constructed separately for trifoliate orange and sweet orange...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nora A Foroud, Reyhaneh Pordel, Ravinder K Goyal, Daria Ryabova, Anas Eranthodi, Syama Chatterton, Igor Kovalchuk
Plant signalling hormones, such as ethylene, have been shown to affect the host response to various pathogens. Often the resistance responses to necrotrophic fungi are mediated through synergistic interactions of ethylene (ET) with the jasmonate signalling pathway. On the other hand, ethylene is also an inducer of senescence and cell death, which could be beneficial for some invading necrotrophic pathogens. Fusarium graminearum, a causative agent in Fusarium head blight of wheat, is a hemibiotrophic pathogen, meaning it has both biotrophic and necrotrophic phases during the course of infection...
December 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Clelia Baccari, Elena Antonova, Steven Lindow
Effective preventive measures and therapies are lacking for control of Pierce's disease of grape caused by the xylem-colonizing bacterium Xylella fastidiosa responsible for serious losses in grape production. In this study we explored the potential for endophytic bacteria to alter the disease process. While most endophytic bacteria found within grape did not grow or multiply when inoculated into mature grape vines, Paraburkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN achieved population sizes as large as 106 cells/g and moved 1 m or more within 4 weeks after inoculation into vines...
December 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Claudia Escano-Calderón, Neta Rotem, Raviv Harris, David Vela-Corcía, Maggie Levy
Many types of yeasts have been studied in the last few years as potential biocontrol agents against different phytopathogenic fungi. Their ability to control plant diseases is mainly through combined modes of action. Among them, antibiosis, competition for nutrients and niches, induction of systemic resistance in plants and mycoparasitism have been the most studied. In previous work, we have established that the epiphytic yeast Pseudozyma aphidis inhibits Botrytis cinerea through induced resistance and antibiosis...
December 10, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hongwei Xun, Xiangdong Yang, Hongli He, Meng Wang, Peng Guo, Ying Wang, Jinsong Pang, Yingshan Dong, Xianzhong Feng, Shucai Wang, Bao Liu
That overexpression of GmKR3 enhances innate virus resistance by stimulating. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is found in many soybean production areas, and SMV infection is one of the prevalent viral diseases that can cause significant yield losses in soybean. In plants, resistance (R) genes are involved in pathogen reorganization and innate immune response activation. Most R proteins have nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) domains, and some of the NBS-LRR type R proteins in dicots have Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR) motifs...
December 10, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Harsh Raman, Rosy Raman, Simon Diffey, Yu Qiu, Brett McVittie, Denise Maria Barbulescu, Phil Anthony Salisbury, Steve Marcroft, Regine Delourme
The hemibiotrophic fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans is the most devastating pathogen, causing blackleg disease in canola ( Brassica napus L). To study the genomic regions involved in quantitative resistance (QR), 259-276 DH lines from Darmor- bzh /Yudal (DYDH) population were assessed for resistance to blackleg under shade house and field conditions across 3 years. In different experiments, the broad sense heritability varied from 43 to 95%. A total of 27 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for QR were detected on 12 chromosomes and explained between 2...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kevin Samael Olascoaga-Del Angel, Grecia Sánchez-Evangelista, Israel Carmona-Navarrete, María Del Carmen Galicia-Sánchez, Angélica Gómez-Luna, Susan Janneth Islas-Arrollo, Jorge Ismael Castañeda-Sánchez
Microorganisms that cause diseases in humans are constantly evolving, which represents a challenge in the search for effective treatments against them. Even when currently there are several pharmacological alternatives available, sometimes they are inefficient for the control of infectious diseases, especially because pathogens have generated multiple resistance mechanisms against them. Antimicrobial peptides have been described in many species of organisms, from fungi, plants and insects to humans; currently, there are molecules that appear as a solution that can be effective in modern therapeutics...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
Qing Lu, Hao Liu, Yanbin Hong, Haifen Li, Haiyan Liu, Xingyu Li, Shijie Wen, Guiyuan Zhou, Shaoxiong Li, Xiaoping Chen, Xuanqiang Liang
BACKGROUND: Many large-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield and disease resistance related traits have been identified in different mapping populations of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under multiple environments. However, only a limited number of QTLs have been used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) because of unfavorable epistatic interactions between QTLs in different genetic backgrounds. Thus, it is essential to identify consensus QTLs across different environments and genetic backgrounds for use in MAS...
December 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
B Shaun Bushman, Devesh Singh, Robin Lamp, Carolyn A Young, Nikki D Charlton, Joseph G Robins, Nicole Anderson
Orchardgrass, or cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.), is a cool-season forage grass susceptible to the choke disease caused by Epichloë typhina. Choke has been reported in orchardgrass seed production fields across the temperate regions of the world, but fungicides have not been efficacious in reducing choke incidence or prevalence. To assess the potential for genetic resistance or tolerance of orchardgrass to choke, we evaluated the variation in orchardgrass cultivars and accessions for choke prevalence and characterized infected plants for endophyte secondary metabolite and mating type gene presence...
December 4, 2018: Plant Disease
Tássia B DE Oliveira, Leonardo A Peixoto, Paulo E Teodoro, Amauri A DE Alvarenga, Leonardo L Bhering, Clara B Hoffmann-Campo
Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi - ASR) is one of the major diseases that occur in soybean and causes great damage to commercial crops. Therefore, the goal of this work was to investigate the relationship between biochemical and photosyntetic parameters in soybean with ASR. Two experiments were performed in a randomized complete block with three treatments (water, Tween 20, and methyl jasmonate). The evaluated traits were: severity, chlorophyll pools, concentration of phenolic compounds content, enzyme activity, and photosyntetic parameters...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Z Mbese, B A Aderibigbe
BACKGROUND: Carvacrol is the major constituent of essential oils derived from plants. It exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anticholinesterase activity. The analogues of carvacrol can be prepared via selected synthetic routes, resulting in potent compounds. OBJECTIVE: Modifying carvacrol by the introduction of selected functionalities has the potential to enhance the biological activity of carvacrol. The functionalities on carvacrol such as the hydroxyl group, benzene ring and alkyl groups can be modified or used for hybridization with important pharmaceutical scaffolds...
December 4, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Rui Yang, Jing Li, Hui Zhang, Fei Yang, Zhigang Wu, Xiaoxuan Zhuo, Xingyu An, Zaiquan Cheng, Qianchun Zeng, Qiong Luo
Nees & Arn. ex Watt, a perennial wild rice species with a GG genome, preserves many important genes for cultivated rice ( L.) improvement. At present, however, no genetic resource is available for studying . Here, we report 91,562 high-quality transcripts of assembled de novo. Moreover, comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that 1311 single-copy orthologous pairs shared by and (Zoll. & Moritzi) Baill. that may have undergone adaptive evolution. We performed an analysis of the genes potentially involved in plant-pathogen interactions to explore the molecular basis of disease resistance, and isolated the full-length cDNAs of () and () orthologs from ...
November 2018: Plant Genome
Na Young Kim, Young Jin Jang, Ohkmae K Park
The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is a key signaling molecule regulating plant growth, development, and defense against pathogens. Octadecanoid-responsive arabidopsis 59 (ORA59) is an ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor and has been suggested to integrate ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling and regulate resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we screened for ORA59 interactors using the yeast two-hybrid system to elucidate the molecular function of ORA59. This led to the identification of RELATED TO AP2...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Barbara Steiner, Sebastian Michel, Marco Maccaferri, Marc Lemmens, Roberto Tuberosa, Hermann Buerstmayr
Genomic selection had a higher selection response for FHB resistance than phenotypic selection, while association mapping identified major QTL on chromosome 3B unaffected by plant height and flowering date. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive diseases of durum wheat. Hence, minimizing losses in yield, quality and avoiding contamination with mycotoxins are of pivotal importance, as durum wheat is mostly used for human consumption. While growing resistant varieties is the most promising approach for controlling this fungal disease, FHB resistance breeding in durum wheat is hampered by the limited variation in the elite gene pool and difficulties in efficiently combining the numerous small-effect resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the same line...
December 1, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Xiangdong Yang, Lu Niu, Wei Zhang, Hongli He, Jing Yang, Guojie Xing, Dongquan Guo, Qianqian Zhao, Xiaofang Zhong, Haiyun Li, Qiyun Li, Yingshan Dong
Viruses constitute a major constraint to soybean production worldwide and are responsible for significant yield losses every year. Although varying degrees of resistance to specific viral strains has been identified in some soybean genetic sources, the high rate of mutation in viral genomes and mixed infections of different viruses or strains under field conditions usually hinder the effective control of viral diseases. In the present study, we generated transgenic soybean lines constitutively expressing the double-strand RNA specific ribonuclease gene PAC1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe to evaluate their resistance responses to multiple soybean-infecting virus strains and isolates...
December 1, 2018: Transgenic Research
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