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plant disease resistance

Sofi Imtiyaz Ali, B Gopalakrishnan, V Venkatesalu
Vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes cause globally important diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis. The incidence of these diseases can be reduced through mosquito control programs but these control programs currently rely on synthetic insecticides that can impact the environment, and has selected widespread mosquito resistance. Environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides discovered in plants offer an alternative approach to mosquito control. Here, we investigated extracts from root or aerial parts of Chicory (Cichorium intybus) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (malaria vector), Aedes aegypti (dengue fever vector), and Culex quinquefasciatus (filariasis vector)...
August 14, 2018: Parasitology International
Qiang Li, Juan Guo, Kaixiang Chao, Jinye Yang, Weiyun Yue, Dongfang Ma, Baotong Wang
Stripe rust, caused by the biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is an effective approach for controlling this disease. However, because host resistance genes were easily overcome by new virulent Pst races, there is a continuous demand for identifying new effective wheat stripe rust resistance genes and develop closely linked markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Baidatou, an old Chinese wheat landrace, has been grown for several decades in Longnan region, Gansu Province, where stripe rust epidemics are frequent and severe...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anestis Karkanis, Georgia Ntatsi, Liga Lepse, Juan A Fernández, Ingunn M Vågen, Boris Rewald, Ina Alsiņa, Arta Kronberga, Astrit Balliu, Margit Olle, Gernot Bodner, Laila Dubova, Eduardo Rosa, Dimitrios Savvas
Faba beans are highly nutritious because of their high protein content: they are a good source of mineral nutrients, vitamins, and numerous bioactive compounds. Equally important is the contribution of faba bean in maintaining the sustainability of agricultural systems, as it is highly efficient in the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. This article provides an overview of factors influencing faba bean yield and quality, and addresses the main biotic and abiotic constraints. It also reviews the factors relating to the availability of genetic material and the agronomic features of faba bean production that contribute to high yield and the improvement of European cropping systems...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Muhammad Faraz Khan, Huaqiao Tang, James T Lyles, Rozenn Pineau, Zia-Ur-Rahman Mashwani, Cassandra L Quave
Local people in the Sudhnoti district of Pakistan share a rich practice of traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of ailments. We selected nine plants from the Sudhnoti ethnopharmacological tradition used for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory disease. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro anti-infective potential of extracts from these species against multidrug-resistant (MDR) ESKAPE ( Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jong-Il Shin, Yong-Joon Jeon, Sol Lee, Yoon Gyeong Lee, Ji Beom Kim, Hak Cheol Kwon, Sung Hun Kim, Inki Kim, Kyungho Lee, Ye Sun Han
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by synovitis, hyperplasia, and the destruction of bone and cartilage. A variety of immunosuppressive biological agents have been developed because the pathogenesis of RA is related predominantly to the inflammatory response. However, rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synovial cells (RAFLS), which are known to play an important role in RA progression, exhibit resistance to immunosuppressants through cancer-like properties...
2018: BioMed Research International
Rejeki Siti Ferniah, Rina Sri Kasiamdari, Achmadi Priyatmojo, Budi Setiadi Daryono
Cross-breeding is a method of producing progeny with better resistance to pathogens. Resistance to pathogens usually involves pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Class II chitinase is an example of a defensive PR protein in plants. The class II chitinase in chilli is coded by the CaChi 2 gene. In this study, we crossed susceptible with resistant chilli cultivars, analysed the F1 resistance response against pathogenic F. oxysporum , and analysed the level of CaChi 2 gene expression in the F1 . Data were collected using disease severity index (DSI) determination and gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR (quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Yehua Rui, Menglian Lv, Jie Chang, Jiaying Xu, Liqiang Qin, Zhongxiao Wan
BACKGROUND: Chia seed is an ancient seed with the richest plant source of α-linolenic acid, which has been demonstrated to improve metabolic syndrome associated risk factors. Under high fat diet (HFD) condition, the senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice demonstrated worsen Alzheimer's disease (AD) related pathology compared to low fat diet fed SAMP8 mice. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether chia seed supplementation might improve cognitive impairment under aging and metabolic stress via high fat diet (HFD) fed SAMP8 mice as a model...
August 14, 2018: Nutrients
Meirav Leibman-Markus, Lorena Pizarro, Maya Bar, Gitta Coaker, Adi Avni
Plants are constantly exposed to numerous diverse microbes and pests. They lack an adaptive immune system and rely on innate immunity to perceive and ward off potential pathogens. The plant immune system enables plants to overcome invading microorganisms, and can be defined as highly successful in this regard. Nevertheless, specialized pathogens are able to overcome structural barriers, preformed defenses, innate immunity and are a persistent threat to crop and food supplies worldwide. The rapidly growing world population results in massive demands for agricultural products and reliable crop yields...
August 15, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Austin J Case, Sridhar Bhavani, Godwin Macharia, Zacharias Pretorius, Vicky Coetzee, Frederick Kloppers, Priyanka Tyagi, Gina Brown-Guedira, Brian J Steffenson
Key message Major stem rust resistance QTLs proposed to be Rpg2 from Hietpas-5 and Rpg3 from GAW-79 were identified in chromosomes 2H and 5H, respectively, and will enhance the diversity of stem rust resistance in barley improvement programs. Stem rust is a devastating disease of cereal crops worldwide. In barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare), the disease is caused by two pathogens: Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis (Pgs) and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). In North America, the stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 has protected barley from serious losses for more than 60 years; however, widely virulent Pgt races from Africa in the Ug99 group threaten the crop...
August 14, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Robert VanBuren, Ching Man Wai, Marivi Colle, Jie Wang, Shawn Sullivan, Jill M Bushakra, Ivan Liachko, Kelly J Vining, Michael Dossett, Chad E Finn, Rubina Jibran, David Chagné, Kevin Childs, Patrick P Edger, Todd C Mockler, Nahla V Bassil
Background: The fragmented nature of most draft plant genomes has hindered downstream gene discovery, trait mapping for breeding, and other functional genomics applications. There is a pressing need to improve or finish draft plant genome assemblies. Findings: Here we present a chromosome-scale assembly of the black raspberry genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) PacBio sequencing and Hi-C genome scaffolding. The updated V3 assembly has a contig N50 of 5...
August 9, 2018: GigaScience
Zeinab Nazarian-Samani, Robert D E Sewell, Zahra Lorigooini, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review describes evidence concerning medicinal plants that, in addition to exerting hypoglycemic effects, decrease accompanying complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia among individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). RECENT FINDINGS: Studies on the antidiabetic mechanisms of medicinal plants have shown that most of them produce hypoglycemic activity by stimulating insulin secretion, augmenting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), inhibiting α-amylase or α-glucosidase, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, free radical scavenging plus antioxidant activity (against reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)), up-regulating or elevating translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), and preventing development of insulin resistance...
August 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Adedze Yawo Mawunyo Nevame, Lu Xia, Chofong Gilbert Nchongboh, Muhammad Mahmudul Hasan, Md Amirul Alam, Li Yongbo, Zhang Wenting, He Yafei, Reza Mohammad Emon, Mohd Razi Ismail, Andrew Efisue, Sun Gang, Li Wenhu, Si Longting
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) responsible for tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) causes a substantial decrease in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield worldwide. The use of resistant variety as a sustainable management strategy has been advocated. Tremendous progress has been made in genetically characterizing the resistance genes ( R gene) in tomato. Breeding tomato for TYLCV resistance has been based mostly on Ty-3 as a race-specific resistance gene by introgression originating from wild tomato species relatives...
2018: BioMed Research International
Peng-Fei Qi, Ya-Zhou Zhang, Cai-Hong Liu, Jing Zhu, Qing Chen, Zhen-Ru Guo, Yan Wang, Bin-Jie Xu, Ting Zheng, Yun-Feng Jiang, Jiang-Ping Wang, Cai-Yi Zhou, Xiang Feng, Li Kong, Xiu-Jin Lan, Qian-Tao Jiang, Yu-Ming Wei, You-Liang Zheng
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters hydrolyze ATP to transport a wide range of substrates. Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent of Fusarium head blight, which is a severe disease in wheat worldwide. FgABCC9 ( FG05_07325 ) encodes an ABC-C (ABC transporter family C) transporter in F. graminearum , which was highly expressed during the infection in wheat and was up-regulated by the plant defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) and the fungicide tebuconazole. The predicted tertiary structure of the FgABCC9 protein was consistent with the schematic of the ABC exporter...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Momina Hussain, Muhammad Atif Iqbal, Bradley J Till, Mehboob-Ur- Rahman
Wheat is a staple food crop of many countries. Improving resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses remain key breeding targets. Among these, rust diseases are the most detrimental in terms of depressing wheat production. In the present study, chemical mutagenesis was used to induce mutations in the wheat variety NN-Gandum-1. This cultivar is moderately resistant to leaf and yellow rust. The aim of mutagenesis was to improve resistance to the disease as well as to study function of genes conferring resistance to the disease...
2018: PloS One
Anna Skoracka, Brian G Rector, Gary L Hein
Wheat production and sustainability are steadily threatened by pests and pathogens in both wealthy and developing countries. This review is focused on the wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella , and its relationship with wheat. WCM is a major pest of wheat and other cereals and a vector of at least four damaging plant viruses ( Wheat streak mosaic virus , High plains wheat mosaic virus , Brome streak mosaic virus , and Triticum mosaic virus ). The WCM-virus pathosystem causes considerable yield losses worldwide and its severity increases significantly when mixed-virus infections occur...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Muhammad Jakir Hasan, Habibur Rahman
The oilseed crop Brassica juncea carries many desirable traits; however, resistance to clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae , is not available in this species. We are the first to report the clubroot resistant resynthesized B. juncea lines, developed through interspecific crosses between a clubroot resistant B. rapa ssp. rapifera and two susceptible B. nigra lines, and the stability of the resistance in self-pollinated generations. The interspecific nature of the resynthesized B. juncea plants was confirmed by using A- and B-genome specific SSR markers, and flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Ning Huang, Hui Ling, Yachun Su, Feng Liu, Liping Xu, Weihua Su, Qibin Wu, Jinlong Guo, Shiwu Gao, Youxiong Que
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane smut, which is caused by Sporisorium scitamineum, is a severe fungal disease affecting sugarcane. However, the major pathways involved in the interaction between sugarcane and S. scitamineum remains unclear. RESULTS: In the present study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library construction, together with reverse northern blotting, was conducted on the most prevalent sugarcane genotype ROC22 challenged with S. scitamineum. After alignment and homologous expressed sequence tag (EST) assembly, a total of 155 differentially expressed unigenes were identified from SSH libraries...
August 9, 2018: Gene
Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti, Manoela Daiele Gonçalves, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, João Paulo Assolini, Amanda Cristina Machado Carloto, Priscila Goes Camargo de Carvalho, Ian Lucas Alves Cardoso, Andréa Name Colado Simão, Nilton Syogo Arakawa, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli
BACKGROUND: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The high toxicity, high costs and resistance of some strains to current drugs has prompted the search for therapeutic alternatives for the management of this disease. Sphagneticola trilobata is a plant that has diterpenes as main constituents, including grandiflorenic acid (GFA) that has antiinflammatory, antiprotozoal, antibacterial and antinociceptive activity. PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to determine the effect of GFA on both the promastigotes and the amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Sukyung Kim, Hoonhee Seo, Hafij Al Mahmud, Md Imtiazul Islam, Byung-Eui Lee, Myoung-Lae Cho, Ho-Yeon Song
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a very serious infectious disease that threatens humanity, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains resistant to drugs suggests that new drug development is urgent. In order to develop new tuberculosis drug, we have conducted in vitro anti-tubercular tests on thousands of plant-derived substances and finally found collinin extracted from the leaves of Zanthoxylum schinifolium, which has an excellent anti-tuberculosis effect...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Martín Dadé, Pedro Zeinsteger, Facundo Bozzolo, Nora Mestorino
Triatoma infestans is the principal vector of Trypanosoma cruzi , parasite responsible of Chagas's Disease transmission in Argentina. Pyrethroids have become common pesticides for the control of T. infestans but increasing resistance encourages the search of new alternatives and the use of natural products for biological control arises as a new strategy. Melia azedarach L. is originated from the Himalaya's region and several compounds are part of its rich phytochemistry. Folk medicine of the plant is due to its repellent and insecticidal activities...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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