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plant diseases

Tássia B DE Oliveira, Leonardo A Peixoto, Paulo E Teodoro, Amauri A DE Alvarenga, Leonardo L Bhering, Clara B Hoffmann-Campo
Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi - ASR) is one of the major diseases that occur in soybean and causes great damage to commercial crops. Therefore, the goal of this work was to investigate the relationship between biochemical and photosyntetic parameters in soybean with ASR. Two experiments were performed in a randomized complete block with three treatments (water, Tween 20, and methyl jasmonate). The evaluated traits were: severity, chlorophyll pools, concentration of phenolic compounds content, enzyme activity, and photosyntetic parameters...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Z Mbese, B A Aderibigbe
BACKGROUND: Carvacrol is the major constituent of essential oils derived from plants. It exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anticholinesterase activity. The analogues of carvacrol can be prepared via selected synthetic routes, resulting in potent compounds. OBJECTIVE: Modifying carvacrol by the introduction of selected functionalities has the potential to enhance the biological activity of carvacrol. The functionalities on carvacrol such as the hydroxyl group, benzene ring and alkyl groups can be modified or used for hybridization with important pharmaceutical scaffolds...
December 4, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Alfred Maroyi
Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. is a plant species regarded as an important fruit tree and medicinal plant in sub-Saharan Africa. This study critically reviewed the nutritional value, phytochemistry, medicinal uses, and pharmacological properties of V. madagascariensis . Relevant information on food and medicinal uses of the species was collected from electronic databases such as ISI Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, OATD, Scopus, OpenThesis, PubMed, and Google Scholar, and preelectronic literatures were obtained from the university library covering the period 1966 to 2018...
2018: Scientifica
Gokhan Zengin, Marcello Locatelli, Claudio Ferrante, Luigi Menghini, Giustino Orlando, Luigi Brunetti, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sheila Leone, Lidia Leporini, Muhammad Zakariyyah Aumeeruddy, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally
This study explored the efficacy of the methanolic extract of three Asphodeline species (A. damascena subsp. rugosa, A. tenuior subsp. tenuiflora var. tenuiflora, and A. cilicica) to protect against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in HCT116 cells, and also any protective effects against lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced nitrite levels, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels, 5HIAA/5-HT ratio, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 gene expression in rat colon specimens...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Lina T Al Kury, Mohamed Mahgoub, Frank Christopher Howarth, Murat Oz
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remain the most common and devastating side-effects associated with cancer chemotherapy. In recent decades, several lines of research emphasize the importance of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3; serotonin) receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of CINV. 5-HT₃ receptors are members of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the rapid and transient membrane-depolarizing effect of 5-HT in the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors play important roles in nausea and vomiting, as well as regulation of peristalsis and pain transmission...
December 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Toufic Elbeaino, Armelle Marais, Chantal Faure, Elisa Trioano, Thierry Candresse, Giuseppe Parrella
In a search for viral infections, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were recovered from a diseased cyclamen ( Cyclamen persicum Mill.) accession (Cic) and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology. Analysis of the HTS data showed the presence of Fig mosaic emaravirus (FMV) in this accession. The complete sequences of six FMV-Cic RNA genomic segments were determined from the HTS data and using Sanger sequencing. All FMV-Cic RNA segments are similar in size to those of FMV from fig (FMV-Gr10), with the exception of RNA-6 that is one nucleotide longer...
December 3, 2018: Viruses
Ryan I Hill, Cassidi E Rush, John Mayberry
For herbivorous insects the importance of larval food plants is obvious, yet the role of host abundance and density in conservation are relatively understudied. Populations of Speyeria butterflies across North America have declined and Speyeria adiaste is an imperiled species endemic to the southern California Coast Ranges. In this paper, we study the link between the food plant Viola purpurea quercetorum and abundance of its herbivore Speyeria adiaste clemencei to better understand the butterfly's decline and aid in restoration of this and other Speyeria species...
December 2, 2018: Insects
Daniel L Frank
Bagging fruit with plastic, paper, and two-layer commercial bags was evaluated for control of insect pests and diseases in an experimental apple orchard planted with 'Red Delicious' trees. Results from fruit damage evaluations at harvest showed that bagging significantly reduced fruit damage from direct apple pests compared with non-bagged control plots, and generally provided similar levels of fruit protection when compared with a conventional pesticide spray program. Of the three bagging materials evaluated, plastic bags provided numerically higher levels of fruit protection from insect pests, and two-layer commercial bags provided numerically higher levels of fruit protection from fruit diseases...
December 1, 2018: Insects
Alpo Vuorio, Petri T Kovanen
This review covers the current knowledge about plant stanol esters as a dietary treatment option for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (he-FH) children. The current estimation of the prevalence of he-FH is about one out of 200⁻250 persons. In this autosomal dominant disease, the concentration of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is strongly elevated since birth. Quantitative coronary angiography among he-FH patients has revealed that stenosing atherosclerotic plaques start to develop in he-FH males in their twenties and in he-FH females in their thirties, and that the magnitude of the plaque burden predicts future coronary events...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Heidi Lynch, Carol Johnston, Christopher Wharton
Plant-based diets provide well-established physical and environmental health benefits. These benefits stem in part from the degree of restriction of animal-derived foods. Historically, meat and other animal-derived proteins have been viewed as an integral component of athletes' diets, leading some to question the adequacy of vegetarian or vegan diets for supporting athletic performance. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of plant-based diets on human physical health, environmental sustainability, and exercise performance capacity...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Arezoo Rajabian, Maryam Rameshrad, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Ginseng, Panax ginseng, has been used for various diseases and proven its great efficacy in managing central nervous system diseases. Area covered: This article covers the therapeutic potential of patents on ginseng and its active constituents to develop therapies for neurodegenerative and neurological disorders, since 2010. The literature review was provided using multiple search engines including Google Patent, Espacenet and US Patent in the field of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive, and neurological disorders...
December 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Rui Yang, Jing Li, Hui Zhang, Fei Yang, Zhigang Wu, Xiaoxuan Zhuo, Xingyu An, Zaiquan Cheng, Qianchun Zeng, Qiong Luo
Nees & Arn. ex Watt, a perennial wild rice species with a GG genome, preserves many important genes for cultivated rice ( L.) improvement. At present, however, no genetic resource is available for studying . Here, we report 91,562 high-quality transcripts of assembled de novo. Moreover, comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that 1311 single-copy orthologous pairs shared by and (Zoll. & Moritzi) Baill. that may have undergone adaptive evolution. We performed an analysis of the genes potentially involved in plant-pathogen interactions to explore the molecular basis of disease resistance, and isolated the full-length cDNAs of () and () orthologs from ...
November 2018: Plant Genome
Mikaeel Young, Ali Ozcan, Parthiban Rajasekaran, Preeti Kumrah, Monty E Myers, Evan Johnson, James H Graham, Swadeshmukul Santra
In this paper, we report a nonphytotoxic bactericide and fungicide formulation containing a composite of silica and quaternary ammonium compound (quat). The composite material was prepared using an acid-catalyzed sol-gel method. Positively charged quat was associated with a negatively charged silica-gel matrix, producing a stable suspension of fixed-quat gel (FQ-G). The morphology of FQ-G and the interaction of quat with silica were characterized using SEM and FTIR, respectively. Silica gel significantly reduced quat phytotoxicity when tested at 500 and 1000 μg/mL foliar-application rates...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tunay Karan
Medicinal and aromatic plants play a significant role in drug discovery. Lavandula stoechas L. has been used as folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of this work is to investigate the phytochemisty of Lavandula stoechas with biological activities. An aerial part of the plant was extracted with methanol. Another sample of plant was boiled in water then aqueous part was extracted with ethyl acetate. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, organic acids and flavonoids in methanol extract were carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry, HPLC-TOF/MS...
November 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Mona M Okba, Omar M Sabry, An Matheeussen, Essam Abdel-Sattar
AIM: Antiprotozoal activity of 36 medicinal plants was evaluated. MATERIALS & METHODS: In vitro potency against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T. b. rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania infantum beside cytotoxicity on MRC-5 fibroblasts were determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Maytenus parviflora showed the highest activity against T. b. brucei (IC50 of 0.6 μg/ml) and T. b. rhodesiense (IC50 of 0.5 μg/ml) with low cytotoxicity (CC50 of 30 μg/ml)...
December 4, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Celia Rodríguez-Pérez, Gokhan Zengin, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Devina Lobine, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally
INTRODUCTION: In the quest for new sources of biologically-active compounds, the chemical, and biological profiles of two Globularia species (G. trichosantha Fisch. & C. A. Mey and G. orientalis L.) were investigated. METHODOLOGY: Chemical profiles were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), as well as by their total phenolic, flavonoids, and phenolic acids contents...
December 3, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Mehdi Koushki, Nasrin Amiri-Dashatan, Nayebali Ahmadi, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani
Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a nonflavonoid polyphenol that naturally occurs as phytoalexin. It is produced by plant sources such as grapes, apples, blueberries, plums, and peanut. This compound has critical roles in human health and is well known for its diverse biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nowadays, due to rising incidence of different diseases such as cancer and diabetes, efforts to find novel and effective disease-protective agents have led to the identification of plant-derived compounds such as resveratrol...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Illana Kemmerich Martins, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Cynthia Camila Ziech, Lúcia Vinadé, Valter Menezes Barbosa Filho, Irwin Alencar Menezes, Jeferson Franco, Thaís Posser
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative and progressive illness characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a widespread model for induction of molecular and behavioral alterations similar to Parkinson and has contributed for testing of compounds with neuroprotective potential. The Brazilian plant Anacardium microcarpum is used in folk medicine for treatment of several illnesses; however, the knowledge about toxicology and biological effects for this plant is very rare...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Na Young Kim, Young Jin Jang, Ohkmae K Park
The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is a key signaling molecule regulating plant growth, development, and defense against pathogens. Octadecanoid-responsive arabidopsis 59 (ORA59) is an ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor and has been suggested to integrate ethylene and jasmonic acid signaling and regulate resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we screened for ORA59 interactors using the yeast two-hybrid system to elucidate the molecular function of ORA59. This led to the identification of RELATED TO AP2...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
A Chernoukhov, A Hussein, S Nkurunziza, D Bandyopadhyay
Environmental health and disease mapping studies are often concerned with the evaluation of the combined effect of various socio-demographic and behavioral factors, and environmental exposures on time-to-events of interest, such as death of individuals, organisms or plants. In such studies, estimation of the hazard function is often of interest. In addition to known explanatory variables, the hazard function maybe subject to spatial/geographical variations, such that proximally located regions may experience similar hazards than regions that are distantly located...
August 2018: Environmetrics
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