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plant diseases

Matthias Sipiczki, Samy A Selim
Non-pathogenic yeasts antagonising microorganisms that cause pre- and postharvest diseases of plants have been found in diverse habitats. Their practical applicability as biocontrol agents (BCAs) depends on the strength of their antagonistic activity and/or spectrum of sensitive target microorganisms. In this study, yeasts were isolated from the phylloplane and fruits of plants growing in the alkaline water lake region Wadi El-Natrun, Egypt, and tested for antifungal and antibacterial activity. All phylloplane yeast isolates belonged to the Basidiomycota and most of them could antagonise at least certain test organisms...
October 13, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Jeferson Gustavo Henn, Luiza Steffens, Nathalia Denise de Moura Sperotto, Betânia de Souza Ponce, Rodrigo Moisés Veríssimo, Fernanda Brião Menezes Boaretto, Gustavo Hassemer, Valéria Flores Péres, Helena Schirmer, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada, Jenifer Saffi, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plantago australis is a perennial plant widely distributed in Latin America, and its seeds and leaves are used in folk medicine to treat many diseases and conditions. Among its various chemical compounds, verbascoside is one of the most present, and has several pharmacological activities described, but there is not much information about its toxicity. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aims of this study were to optimize the extraction of verbascoside from P...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yeonhwa Jo, Won Kyong Cho
BACKGROUND: The lily is a perennial flowering plant belonging to the genus Lilium in the family Liliaceae. Most cultivated lily plants are propagated by bulbs. Therefore, numerous lily bulbs are frequently infected by diverse viruses causing viral diseases. To date, no study has examined the viromes of plants of one type with identical genetic backgrounds collected from different geographical regions. RESULTS: Here, we examined different viromes of the lily cultivar "Sorbonne" using 172 gigabytes of transcriptome data composed of 23 libraries from four different projects for the cultivar "Sorbonne...
October 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yusong Jiang, Mengjun Huang, Meixia Zhang, Jianbi Lan, Weixun Wang, Xiang Tao, Yiqing Liu
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), one of the most economically valuable plants in the Zingiberaceae family, is widely used as a spice and flavoring agent for beverages, bakery, confectionary, and pharmaceutics. Bacterial wilt disease, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most detrimental production constraints in ginger cultivation. Field cultivation experiments indicated that soil moisture affects the incidence of bacterial wilt disease. However, the relationship between soil moisture and bacterial wilt incidence as well as the mechanism that underlie this infection remain unclear...
October 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Xufeng Tao, Lianhong Yin, Lina Xu, Jinyong Peng
Currently, the numbers of patients with cancer, fibrosis, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, stroke and osteoporosis are increasing fast and fast. It's critical necessary to discovery lead compounds for new drug development. Dioscin, one active compound in some medicinal plants, has anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, hypolipidemic, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-allergic effects. In recent years, dioscin has reached more and more attention with its potent effects to treat liver, kidney, brain, stomach and intestine damages, and metabolic diseases including diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, hyperuricemia as well as its anti-cancer activities through adjusting multiple targets and multiple signals...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Fanwei Dai, Zhenjiang Wang, Zhiyi Li, Guoqing Luo, Yi Wang, Cuiming Tang
The aim of this work was to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms and dynamics of the mulberry (Morus atropurpurea) fruit response to Ciboria carunculoides infection. A transcriptomic and proteomic study was carried out based on RNA sequencing and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification analysis, respectively. These data were then validated using quantitative real-time PCR and multiple reaction monitoring assays. Comparative analyses revealed that 9.0% of the transcriptome and 20.8% of the proteome were differentially regulated after C...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Anna Adamus, Katharina Peer, Iftikhar Ali, Jan Lisec, Abiodun Falodun, Marcus Frank, Guido Seitz, Nadja Engel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Berberis orthobotrys (BORM) is a medical plant with a long history in traditional usage for the treatment of wounds, cancer, gastrointestinal malady and several other diseases. Our previous studies identified the endemic Pakistani plant Berberis orthobotrys Bien. ex Aitch. as promising source for the treatment of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer properties of 26 plant derived extracts and compounds including the methanolic root extract of Berberis orthobotrys (BORM) on pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMA), which is known to develop drug resistance, metastatic invasion and potential tumor progression...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Naiara Coelho Ximenes, Manuel Alves Dos Santos Júnior, Germana Silva Vasconcelos, Kátia Cilene Ferreira Dias, Mércia Marques Jucá, Aline Holanda Silva, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Glauce Socorro Barros Viana, Francisca Cléa Florenço de Sousa, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Background Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder, characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. In general, several plants have shown activity in diseases related to the central nervous system (e.g., Erythrina velutina (EEEV), also known as "mulungu"). For this reason, we aimed to investigate the effects of standardized ethanol extract obtained from the stem bark of EEEV on the schizophrenia-like behaviors induced by ketamine (KET) administration. Methods Swiss mice were treated with KET (20 mg/kg, i...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Ruifeng Liang
This chapter primarily focuses on two key aspects related to aluminum neurotoxicity and its mechanism in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are genetic susceptibility and epigenetic modification. The toxicity of aluminum has been confirmed from plant experiments, animal experiments, in vitro experiments, and epidemiological studies. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have largely remained elusive. Furthermore, there are more and more genetic factors that have been found to be strongly implicated for causing or increasing the risk of AD development and have been proved to be associated with the neurotoxicity of Al and play a significant role in the initiation and progression of AD...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Dan Wang, Yan Sha, Junfeng Hu, Ting Yang, Xue Piao, Xiaohui Zhang
Plant disease resistance (R) genes have undergone significant evolutionary divergence to cope with rapid changes in pathogens. These highly variable evolutionary patterns may have contributed to diversity in R gene protein families or structures. Here, the evolutionary patterns of 76 identified R genes and their homologs were investigated within and between plant species. Results demonstrated that nucleotide binding sites and leucine-rich-repeat genes located in loci with complex evolutionary histories tended to evolve rapidly, have high variation in copy numbers, exhibit high levels of nucleotide variation and frequent gene conversion events, and also exhibit high non-synonymous to synonymous substitution ratios in LRR regions...
October 12, 2018: Genetica
Matthew Chekwube Enebe, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola
The struggle for survival is a natural and a continuous process. Microbes are struggling to survive by depending on plants for their nutrition while plants on the other hand are resisting the attack of microbes in order to survive. This interaction is a tug of war and the knowledge of microbe-plant relationship will enable farmers/agriculturists improve crop health, yield, sustain regular food supply, and minimize the use of agrochemicals such as fungicides and pesticides in the fight against plant pathogens...
October 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gaspar Banfalvi
The in vitro susceptibility of gentamicin fractions against Fusarium growth was the subject of this retrospective study. Fusariosis was earlier an exceptionally rare human disease and an unrealistic idea to treat soil saprophytes and plant pathogens with expensive antibiotics such as gentamicins or their minor components. Disseminated fusariosis is now the second most frequent lethal fungal infection after aspergillosis especially in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancy. Results of this study obtained between May and November 1973 were interesting but not practicable and remained unpublished...
October 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
D A Singleton, F Sánchez-Vizcaíno, E Arsevska, S Dawson, P H Jones, P J M Noble, G L Pinchbeck, N J Williams, A D Radford
Pharmaceutical agents (PAs) are commonly prescribed in companion animal practice in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about PA prescription on a population-level, particularly with respect to PAs authorised for human use alone prescribed via the veterinary cascade; this raises important questions regarding the efficacy and safety of PAs prescribed to companion animals. This study explored new approaches for describing PA prescription, diversity and co-prescription in dogs, cats and rabbits utilising electronic health records (EHRs) from a sentinel network of 457 companion animal-treating veterinary sites throughout the UK over a 2-year period (2014-2016)...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Magdalena Opalińska, Hanna Jańska
Mitochondria are dynamic, semi-autonomous organelles that execute numerous life-sustaining tasks in eukaryotic cells. Functioning of mitochondria depends on the adequate action of versatile proteinaceous machineries. Fine-tuning of mitochondrial activity in response to cellular needs involves continuous remodeling of organellar proteome. This process not only includes modulation of various biogenetic pathways, but also the removal of superfluous proteins by adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven proteolytic machineries...
October 11, 2018: Cells
Keshav K Nepal, Guojun Wang
Due to the worldwide prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and high incidence of diseases such as cancer, there is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new drugs. Nearly half of the FDA-approved drugs are derived from natural products that are produced by living organisms, mainly bacteria, fungi, and plants. Commercial development is often limited by the low yield of the desired compounds expressed by the native producers. In addition, recent advances in whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics have revealed an abundance of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters within microbial genomes...
October 9, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Lokanadha R Gunupuru, Chanemougasoundharam Arunachalam, Keshav B Malla, Amal Kahla, Alexandre Perochon, Jianguang Jia, Ganesh Thapa, Fiona M Doohan
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) serves as a plant disease virulence factor for the fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum during the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease on wheat. A wheat cytochrome P450 gene from the subfamily CYP72A, TaCYP72A, was cloned from wheat cultivar CM82036. TaCYP72A was located on chromosome 3A with homeologs present on 3B and 3D of the wheat genome. Using gene expression studies, we showed that TaCYP72A variants were activated in wheat spikelets as an early response to F...
2018: PloS One
Saeed Ahmad, Samya Perveen, Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Tayyeba Rehman
Background Euphorbia granulata is herb of family Euphorbiaceae having several traditional uses. The aim of the study is to summarize reported nutritional and medicinal value along with ethnomedical records. Methods The papers on nutritional and medicinal value of E. granulata are collected from electronic search engines (Google Scholar, PubMed). Synonyms are confirmed from "The plant List." Results Pharmacological studies suggest that the extracts of E. granulata possess antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, diuretic, antiulcerative colitis and spasmolytic properties...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Janneke Aylward, Francois Roets, Leánne L Dreyer, Michael J Wingfield
BACKGROUND: Teratosphaeria gauchensis and T. zuluensis are closely related fungi that cause Teratosphaeria (previously Coniothyrium) stem canker disease on Eucalyptus species propagated in plantations for commercial purposes. This disease is present in many countries where Eucalyptus trees are planted, and continues to spread with international trade of infected plant germplasm. TAXONOMY: Fungi, Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Dothideomycetes, Dothideomycetidae, Capnodiales, Teratosphaeriaceae, Teratosphaeria IDENTIFICATION: The causal agents form dark masses of pycnidia that are visible on the surface of distinct stem cankers that typically form on young green stem tissues...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Muhammad Ibrahim, Shanza Siddique, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Husnain, Ajaz Hussain, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash, Farooq Azam
The genus Datura comprises wild shrub plants that belong to the Solanaceae family. Naturally, they possess both medicinal and poisonous properties due to the presence of many biologically active phytochemical constituents. Traditionally, Datura had been used for mystic and religious purposes, as a natural drug to treat asthma, pain, gout, boils, abscesses, and wounds, and as psychoactive infusions and fumitories. Different Datura species exhibit diverse ethnopharmacological activities against different diseases, and many ancient and traditional cultures have used various forms of Datura to treat ailments and to prevent many diseases...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Balraj Singh Gill, Richa Mehra, Navgeet, Sanjeev Kumar
Natural products are rich in several potent bioactive compounds, targeting complex network of proteins involved in various diseases. Vitex negundo (VN), commonly known as "chaste tree", is an ethnobotanically important plant with enormous medicinal properties. Different species of Vitex vary in chemical composition, thus producing different phytochemicals. Several bioactive compounds have been extracted from leaves, seeds, roots in form of volatile oils, flavonoids, lignans, iridoids, terpenes, and steroids...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
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