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plant diseases

Vladimir G Bespalov, Valerij A Alexandrov, Alexander L Semenov, Galina I Vysochina, Vera A Kostikova, Denis A Baranenko
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.) is a medicinal plant with a variety of therapeutic properties, traditionally used in various diseases including treatment and prevention of tumors. The aim of this study was to present an ethnomedicinal justification that a meadowsweet decoction is able to inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis induced by the methylnitrosourea (MNU) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical composition of meadowsweet extracts was studied by traditional methods...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Eman Abu-Gharbieh, Naglaa G Shehab, Ihab M Almasri, Yasser Bustanji
BACKGROUND: Hyperurecemia is usually associated with gout and various metabolic arthritis disorders. Limited medications are available to manage such conditions. This study aimed to isolate the triterpenes constituent of the plant and to assess xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities of Tribulus arabicus ethanolic extract, its fractions and the isolated compound using in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODS: The ethanolic extract, fractions; n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol and the isolated compound (ursolic acid) were evaluated in vitro for their XO inhibitory activity...
2018: PloS One
Ankit Tandon, Sangh Jyoti Singh, Rajnish Kumar Chaturvedi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis are major neurodegenerative diseases, which are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal pathogenic proteins due to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired autophagy, and pathogens, leading to neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. Herein, we reviewed the utility of plant polyphenols in regulating proliferation and differentiation of stem cells for inducing brain self-repair in AD and multiple sclerosis. Firstly, we discussed the genetic, physiological, and environmental factors involved in the pathophysiology of both the disorders...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jong-Il Shin, Yong-Joon Jeon, Sol Lee, Yoon Gyeong Lee, Ji Beom Kim, Hak Cheol Kwon, Sung Hun Kim, Inki Kim, Kyungho Lee, Ye Sun Han
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by synovitis, hyperplasia, and the destruction of bone and cartilage. A variety of immunosuppressive biological agents have been developed because the pathogenesis of RA is related predominantly to the inflammatory response. However, rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synovial cells (RAFLS), which are known to play an important role in RA progression, exhibit resistance to immunosuppressants through cancer-like properties...
2018: BioMed Research International
Pei Ching Foo, Ze Hong Lee, Chee Keong Chin, Sreeramanan Subramaniam, Bee Lynn Chew
Solanum melongena L. commonly known as the eggplant or brinjal comes from the family of Solanaceae, sharing the same ancestor with the tomato and potato. It is an economically important crop worldwide, being well studied for its medicinal properties, nutritional values and its role as an alternative model plant. The eggplant fruit has been previously used for treatments of various diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, arthritis and diabetes as well as its nutritive properties that are beneficial to the human diet...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Rejeki Siti Ferniah, Rina Sri Kasiamdari, Achmadi Priyatmojo, Budi Setiadi Daryono
Cross-breeding is a method of producing progeny with better resistance to pathogens. Resistance to pathogens usually involves pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Class II chitinase is an example of a defensive PR protein in plants. The class II chitinase in chilli is coded by the CaChi 2 gene. In this study, we crossed susceptible with resistant chilli cultivars, analysed the F1 resistance response against pathogenic F. oxysporum , and analysed the level of CaChi 2 gene expression in the F1 . Data were collected using disease severity index (DSI) determination and gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR (quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Viviane Aline Oliveira Silva, Marcela Nunes Rosa, Aline Tansini, Renato J S Oliveira, Olga Martinho, João Paulo Lima, Luiz F Pianowski, Rui M Reis
A large number of classic antineoplastic agents are derived from plants. Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a subtropical and tropical plant, used in Brazilian folk medicine against many diseases, including cancer, yet little is known about its true anticancer properties. The present study evaluated the antitumor effect of the tetracyclic triterpene alcohol, euphol, the main constituent of E. tirucalli in a panel of 73 human cancer lines from 15 tumor types. The biological effect of euphol in pancreatic cells was also assessed...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Wei-Si Ma, Jun Chen, Shi-Wu Yan, Xin Wang, Zhi-Yuan Dong, Lin-Yu Li, Li-Ying Yang, Bin Yang
Gray mold disease is one of the most important diseases of planted Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, the disease appeared primarily as blossom blights and fruit rots, but also as stem rots, leaf rots.In this study, the pathogenetic fungi was isolated from plant tissue or sclerotia that covering the fruit of diseased P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, the pathogen was certified according to Koch's Postulation. The pathogen produced abundant black, irregular sclerotia on surface of diseased plants and potato dextrose agar...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Young-Sil Lee, Seung-Hyung Kim, Heung Joo Yuk, Geung-Joo Lee, Dong-Seon Kim
Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze, called New Zealand spinach (NZS), is an edible plant used in salad in Western countries and has been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases in traditional medicine. We examined the anti-obesity and anti-hyperuricemic effects of NZS and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a normal-fat diet (NFD); high-fat diet (HFD); HFD with 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg NZS extract; or 245 mg/kg Garcinia cambogia (GC) extract. NZS decreased body weight gain, total white adipose tissue (WAT), liver weight, and size of adipocytes and improved hepatic and plasma lipid profiles...
August 14, 2018: Nutrients
Rafael Sebastián Fort, Juan M Trinidad Barnech, Juliette Dourron, Marcos Colazzo, Francisco J Aguirre-Crespo, María Ana Duhagon, Guzmán Álvarez
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men around the world. It is a complex and heterogeneous disease in which androgens and their receptors play a crucial role in the progression and development. The current treatment for prostate cancer is a combination of surgery, hormone therapy, radiation and chemotherapy. Therapeutic agents commonly used in the clinic include steroidal and non-steroidal anti-androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, bicalutamide and enzalutamide. These few agents have multiple adverse effects and are not 100% effective...
August 14, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Yehua Rui, Menglian Lv, Jie Chang, Jiaying Xu, Liqiang Qin, Zhongxiao Wan
BACKGROUND: Chia seed is an ancient seed with the richest plant source of α-linolenic acid, which has been demonstrated to improve metabolic syndrome associated risk factors. Under high fat diet (HFD) condition, the senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice demonstrated worsen Alzheimer's disease (AD) related pathology compared to low fat diet fed SAMP8 mice. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether chia seed supplementation might improve cognitive impairment under aging and metabolic stress via high fat diet (HFD) fed SAMP8 mice as a model...
August 14, 2018: Nutrients
Yangyang Xu, Hao Cai, Gang Cao, Yu Duan, Ke Pei, Jia Zhou, Li Xie, Jiayu Zhao, Jing Liu, Xiaoqi Wang, Lin Shen
To characterize the chemical differences of volatile components between crude and processed Baizhu Shaoyao San (BSS), a classical Chinese herbal formula that is widely applied in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based needle trap device combined with multivariate data analysis to globally profile volatile components and rapidly identify differentiating chemical markers. Using a triple-bed needle packed with Carbopack X, DVB and Carboxen 1000 sorbents, we identified 121 and 123 compounds, respectively, in crude and processed BSS...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Srđan G Aćimović, Suzanne Rooney-Latham, Sebastian Albu, Donald M Grosman, Joseph J Doccola
Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is among the most widely planted landscape trees in California (CA) but is in decline outside its natural range due to factors including prolonged drought and plant pathogens. We investigated associations of Botryosphaeriaceae fungi with declining coast redwood trees throughout CA. More than 100 samples were collected from 11 coastal and inland locations in CA. Fifty-nine Botryosphaeria-like fungal strains were isolated and 18 were selected for further study. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS and EF-1α sequence data confirmed the presence of Botryosphaeria dothidea, Neofusicoccum australe, N...
August 14, 2018: Plant Disease
Meirav Leibman-Markus, Lorena Pizarro, Maya Bar, Gitta Coaker, Adi Avni
Plants are constantly exposed to numerous diverse microbes and pests. They lack an adaptive immune system and rely on innate immunity to perceive and ward off potential pathogens. The plant immune system enables plants to overcome invading microorganisms, and can be defined as highly successful in this regard. Nevertheless, specialized pathogens are able to overcome structural barriers, preformed defenses, innate immunity and are a persistent threat to crop and food supplies worldwide. The rapidly growing world population results in massive demands for agricultural products and reliable crop yields...
August 15, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sajal Jain, Harpal S Buttar, Meena Chintameneni, Ginpreet Kaur
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-induced endothelial abnormalities, dietary habits, and tobacco smoking are considered to be the primary risk factors for causing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disorders, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Prevention of CVDs with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents has been a challenging task for decades...
August 15, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Toshimi Michigami, Masanobu Kawai, Miwa Yamazaki, Keiichi Ozono
In mammals, phosphate balance is maintained by influx and efflux via the intestines, kidneys, bone, and soft tissue, which involves multiple sodium/phosphate (Na+ /Pi ) cotransporters, as well as regulation by several hormones. Alterations in the levels of extracellular phosphate exert effects on both skeletal and extra-skeletal tissues, and accumulating evidence has suggested that phosphate itself evokes signal transduction to regulate gene expression and cell behavior. Several in vitro studies have demonstrated that an elevation in extracellular Pi activates fibroblast growth factor receptor, Raf/MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway and Akt pathway, which might involve the type III Na+ /Pi cotransporter PiT-1...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Sonia Martínez-Cámara, Sara Rubio, Hannah Del Río, Marta Rodríguez-Sáiz, José-Luis Barredo
Lycopene is a carotenoid mainly present in red-colored fruits and vegetables. Its value in the pharmaceutical and food industry is linked to its benefits for the human health, including properties against cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and its use as a food colorant. Lycopene can be produced either by synthetic or natural means, but there is a preference for the second, since it is considered a more eco-friendly and less harmful process. Among natural methods for obtaining lycopene, microbial fermentation is a good alternative to extraction from plants that naturally contain lycopene, since it implies obtaining higher and more specific amounts of this carotenoid...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Panagiota Langi, Sotirios Kiokias, Theodoros Varzakas, Charalampos Proestos
In this review, carotenoids from plants are described, and their natural existence is addressed. Carotenoids are 40-carbon isoprenoid molecules that produce the red, yellow, and orange pigmentation found in nature. Various plants, microalgae, bacteria, and fungi are natural sources of carotenoids and are presented in detail. The chemistry of carotenoids and their classification is also described along with the effect of carotenoids on human health which is explained with focus on lutein-zeaxanthin, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, capsanthin, and lycopene...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Austin J Case, Sridhar Bhavani, Godwin Macharia, Zacharias Pretorius, Vicky Coetzee, Frederick Kloppers, Priyanka Tyagi, Gina Brown-Guedira, Brian J Steffenson
Key message Major stem rust resistance QTLs proposed to be Rpg2 from Hietpas-5 and Rpg3 from GAW-79 were identified in chromosomes 2H and 5H, respectively, and will enhance the diversity of stem rust resistance in barley improvement programs. Stem rust is a devastating disease of cereal crops worldwide. In barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare), the disease is caused by two pathogens: Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis (Pgs) and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). In North America, the stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 has protected barley from serious losses for more than 60 years; however, widely virulent Pgt races from Africa in the Ug99 group threaten the crop...
August 14, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Marika Cordaro, Roberta Fusco, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are an important public health challenge. In addition, subsequent events at TBI can compromise the quality of life of these patients. In fact, TBI is associated with several complications for both long and short term, some evidence shows how TBI is associated with a decline in cognitive functions such as the risk of developing dementia, cerebral atrophy, and Parkinson disease. After the direct damage from TBI, a key role in TBI injury is played by the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, that contributes to tissue damage and to neurodegenerative processes, typical of secondary injury, after TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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