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racial differences in cognition

Stephanie L Garrett, Richard E Kennedy, Patricia Sawyer, Courtney P Williams, Cynthia J Brown, Richard M Allman
OBJECTIVE: Examining cultural differences in assessment of cognitive/functional disability among older Americans is needed. This analysis examined associations between day-to-day function, measured by activities of daily living (ADL), and cognition, measured by CLOX scores, among older African American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (nHW) community-dwelling women and men. METHODS: Design- Cross-sectional. SETTING: Homes of community-dwelling older adults...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Ceren Orhan, Eveline Van Looveren, Barbara Cagnie, Naziru Bashir Mukhtar, Dorine Lenoir, Mira Meeus
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain has been considered as a biopsychosocial condition in which cognitive and emotional factors as well as biological factors significantly affect perception of pain. Race, ethnicity and culture have a crucial impact on illness beliefs, health care preferences, help-seeking behaviors, and acceptance of medical interventions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to systematically review the current evidence regarding the racial, ethnic and cultural alterations and differences in pain beliefs, cognitions, and behaviors in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (MSKP)...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Emily Kline, Victoria Hendel, Michelle Friedman-Yakoobian, Raquelle I Mesholam-Gately, Ann Findeisen, Suzanna Zimmet, Joanne D Wojcik, Tracey L Petryshen, Tsung-Ung W Woo, Jill M Goldstein, Martha E Shenton, Matcheri S Keshavan, Robert W McCarley, Larry J Seidman
PURPOSE: The current study evaluates the demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive characteristics of a recruited FEP research sample, a research control group, and a FEP clinic sample that were assessed and treated within the same center and time period. METHODS: This study utilized data collected through an observational study and a retrospective chart review. Samples were ascertained in the Longitudinal Assessment and Monitoring of Clinical Status and Brain Function in Adolescents and Adults study and the Prevention and Recovery in Early Psychosis clinic...
November 28, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Julene K Johnson, Anita L Stewart, Michael Acree, Anna M Nápoles, Jason D Flatt, Wendy B Max, Steven E Gregorich
Objectives: To test effects of the Community of Voices choir intervention on the health, well-being, and healthcare costs of racial/ethnically diverse older adults. Method: Twelve Administration-on-Aging-supported senior centers were cluster randomized into two groups: the intervention group started the choir immediately and a wait-list control group began the choir 6 months later. The 12-month choir program was designed for community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over...
November 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Shaheen Nageeb, Milkie Vu, Sana Malik, Michael T Quinn, John Cursio, Aasim I Padela
OBJECTIVE: Fatalism has been shown to influence health behaviors and outcomes among different populations. Our study reports on the adaptation of the Religious Health Fatalism Questionnaire for a Muslim population (RHFQ-M). DESIGN: The original RHFQ wording was modified for a Muslim context and cognitively tested in 6 focus groups (FG). Items were revised by Muslim and non-Muslim healthcare researchers based on FG responses regarding the theological "accurateness" of the questions...
2018: PloS One
Manisha Udhnani, Moshe Maiman, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Liv S Clasen, Gregory L Wallace, Jay N Giedd, Armin Raznahan, Nancy Raitano Lee
OBJECTIVES: Past research suggests that youth with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) present with verbal fluency deficits. However, most studies have focused on sex chromosome trisomies. Far less is known about sex chromosome tetrasomies and pentasomies. Thus, the current research sought to characterize verbal fluency performance among youth with sex chromosome trisomies, tetrasomies, and pentasomies by contrasting how performance varies as a function of extra X number and X versus Y status...
October 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Monique R Pappadis, Shilpa Krishnan, Catherine C Hay, Beata Jones, Angelle M Sander, Susan C Weller, Timothy A Reistetter
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have explored the lived experiences of chronic cognitive and mood symptoms following stroke using a racially/ethnically diverse sample. Therefore, we aimed to explore the perceptions of chronic post-stroke cognition and mood symptoms and goals among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of community-dwelling adults aging with stroke. METHOD: This qualitative study using mixed-methods analysis included semi-structured interviews regarding perceived post-stroke cognitive and mood symptoms among community-dwelling stroke survivors at least one-year post stroke...
October 27, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Cynthia Chen, Julie M Zissimopoulos
Introduction: Disparities in dementia prevalence across racial/ethnic groups in the United States may not be narrowing over time. Methods: Data from Health and Retirement Study (2000 to 2012) were analyzed. Dementia was ascertained based on cognitive, functional measures. Logistic regression was used to quantify association between dementia and risk factors, including chronic conditions, use of drug treatment for them, separately for whites, blacks, and Hispanics...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Mora A Reinka, Colin Wayne Leach
As race acts as a social frame of reference, it should guide individual's appraisal of visual representations of social events and issues. Thus, grounded in Scherer's (2009) model of appraisal as a sequential process, in 2 experiments (N = 133, 166) we used early event-related potentials (ERPs) of brain activity (the N100, P200, P300) to examine Black and White participants' appraisals of the novelty of images of police force against Black (and White) targets, as well as of Black-led protest. We used a later ERP (the late positive potential, LPP) as well as blood pressure to assess their appraisal of motivational relevance, and self-reported affect and emotion to assess conscious experience...
November 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
DeAnnah R Byrd, Gilbert C Gee, Wassim Tarraf
Objectives: Studies of older U.S. adults have consistently found that African Americans perform worse on cognitive measures than whites, but there are inconsistencies as to whether these findings hold over time. Moreover, studies have focused on adults 51 and older, without considering younger ages; thus it is unclear the age at which these disparities surface. The present study examines black-white disparities in mental status trajectories among adults as young as 25 years over a 25-year period...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Allison E Gaffey, Frances Aranda, John W Burns, Yanina A Purim-Shem-Tov, Helen J Burgess, Jean C Beckham, Stephen Bruehl, Stevan E Hobfoll
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inner-city Black women may be more susceptible to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than White women, although mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Living in urban neighborhoods distinguished by higher chronic stress may contribute to racial differences in women's cognitive, affective, and social vulnerabilities, leading to greater trauma-related distress including PTSD. Yet social support could buffer the negative effects of psychosocial vulnerabilities on women's health...
January 2019: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Laura C Bouchard, Betina Yanez, Jason R Dahn, Sarah C Flury, Kent T Perry, David C Mohr, Frank J Penedo
Relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHW), black men are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PC) incidence, have poorer PC outcomes, and report greater compromises in health-related quality of life. Despite these challenges, black men are underrepresented in psychosocial cancer research, possibly due to limited access to supportive oncology programs. The purpose of this article is to examine the acceptability and efficacy for reducing disease-specific distress of a tablet-delivered psychosocial intervention for older men with advanced PC (APC) and explore differences by race...
October 3, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Megan M Marron, Diane G Ives, Robert M Boudreau, Tamara B Harris, Anne B Newman
OBJECTIVES: To understand which causes of death are higher in black than white community-dwelling older adults and determine whether differences in baseline risk factors explain racial differences in mortality. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study). SETTING: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Memphis, Tennessee. PARTICIPANTS: Black and white men and women aged 70 to 79 during recruitment (N=3,075; 48% men, 42% black) followed for a median of 13 years...
October 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Paul Brewster, Lisa Barnes, Mary Haan, Julene K Johnson, Jennifer J Manly, Anna María Nápoles, Rachel A Whitmer, Luis Carvajal-Carmona, Dawnte Early, Sarah Farias, Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Rebecca Melrose, Oanh L Meyer, Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Ladson Hinton, Dan Mungas
In 2016, the UC Davis Latino Aging Research Resource Center and UC Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center brought together experts from across the country to consolidate current knowledge and identify future directions in aging and diversity research. This report disseminates the research priorities that emerged from this conference, building on an earlier Gerontological Society of America preconference. We review key racial/ethnic differences in cognitive aging and dementia and identify current knowledge gaps in the field...
September 18, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Meredith P Levsen, Bruce D Bartholow
Affect regulation plays a key role in several theories of racial bias reduction. Here, we tested whether engaging in emotion regulation strategies while performing an implicit racial bias task (Weapons Identification Task; WIT) would alter neural and behavioral manifestations of bias. Participants either suppressed or reappraised in a positive light the distress associated with making errors during the WIT, while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. We hypothesized that engaging in emotion regulation strategies would reduce the distress associated with making errors indicative of bias, resulting in smaller error-related negativity (ERN) amplitude during errors and increased expression of racial bias...
December 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Dariusz P Danel, Sławomir Wacewicz, Zdzisław Lewandowski, Przemysław Żywiczyński, Juan Olvido Perea-Garcia
Understanding the adaptive function of the unique morphology of the human eye, in particular its overexposed white sclera, may have profound implications for the fields of evolutionary behavioural science, and specifically the areas of human interaction and social cognition. Existing hypotheses, such as the cooperative eye hypothesis, have attracted a lot of attention but remain untested. Here, we: (i) analysed variation in the visible sclera size in humans from different ethnic backgrounds and (ii) examined whether intraspecific variation of exposed sclera size is related to trust...
2018: Acta Ethologica
Danielle Shaked, Leslie I Katzel, Stephen L Seliger, Rao P Gullapalli, Christos Davatzikos, Guray Erus, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Shari R Waldstein
OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to poorer cognitive performance, but the neural underpinnings of this relation are not fully understood. This study examined whether SES-linked decrements in executive function were mediated by smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes. Given the literature demonstrating that SES-brain relations differ by race, we examined whether race moderated these mediations. METHOD: Participants were 190 socioeconomically diverse, self-identified African American (AA) and White adults from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) SCAN study...
November 2018: Neuropsychology
Katherine Pickard, Nuri Reyes, Judy Reaven
Results of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated significant reductions in anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavior therapy participation. Although promising, the extent to which previous research has included families from low socioeconomic status or racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds is unknown. Aims of this study are as follows: (1) What is the race, ethnicity, and educational attainment of youth with autism spectrum disorder and their families who have participated in research examining the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety? and (2) How do the demographics of these participants compare to that of the United States census? A total of 14 studies were reviewed that included 473 participants...
August 30, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Marc A Garcia, Joseph Saenz, Brian Downer, Rebeca Wong
BACKGROUND: Older Black and Hispanic adults are more likely to be cognitively impaired than older White adults. Disadvantages in educational achievement for minority and immigrant populations may contribute to disparities in cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: Examine the role of education in racial/ethnic and nativity differences in cognitive impairment/no dementia (CIND) and dementia among older US adults. METHODS: Data comes from the 2012 Health and Retirement Study...
January 2018: Demographic Research
Suzanne Perea Burns, Martina Mueller, Gayenell Magwood, Brandi M White, Daniel Lackland, Charles Ellis
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minorities consistently demonstrate disparate post-stroke outcomes. However, there is a paucity of literature related to whether this disparity exists specifically in post-stroke cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To determine if racial and ethnic disparities exist in post-stroke subjective cognitive decline (SCD) among non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks), American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) in the United States using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
August 9, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
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