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racial differences in cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115583/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-post-stroke-subjective-cognitive-decline-exist
#1
Suzanne Perea Burns, Martina Mueller, Gayenell Magwood, Brandi M White, Daniel Lackland, Charles Ellis
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minorities consistently demonstrate disparate post-stroke outcomes. However, there is a paucity of literature related to whether this disparity exists specifically in post-stroke cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To determine if racial and ethnic disparities exist in post-stroke subjective cognitive decline (SCD) among non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks), American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) in the United States using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
August 9, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976121/normative-performance-of-healthy-older-individuals-on-the-modified-mini-mental-state-3ms-examination-according-to-ethno-racial-group-gender-age-and-education-level
#2
Joanne Ryan, Robyn L Woods, Carlene Britt, Anne M Murray, Raj C Shah, Christopher M Reid, Brenda Kirpach, Rory S Wolfe, Mark R Nelson, Jessica E Lockery, Suzanne G Orchard, Ruth E Trevaks, John J McNeil, Elsdon Storey
OBJECTIVE: To present normative performance data on the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination for healthy community-dwelling older individuals according to gender, age, education level, and ethno-racial group. METHOD: More than 19,000 generally healthy older men and women without a diagnosis of dementia were recruited from the general population in Australia and the U.S. for the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) study. The 3MS exam was administered as part of the baseline screening and individuals scoring above 77 were eligible to participate...
July 5, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952581/anxiety-sensitivity-and-acculturative-stress-among-trauma-exposed-latinx-young-adults
#3
Michael J Zvolensky, Charles Jardin, Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Nubia A Mayorga, Andres G Viana, Rheeda L Walker, Jodi Berger Cardoso, Lorra Garey
There are elevated rates of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and greater conditional risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among Latinx relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Such trauma-related health disparities serve to exacerbate or maintain acculturative and other types of stress among the Latinx population. Yet, little research has explored what types of individual difference factors may undergird variability in acculturative stress among trauma-exposed Latinx persons. Accordingly, the present investigation examined individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) in relation to acculturative stress among a large sample of trauma-exposed Latinx young adults ( n = 1,377 persons; M age = 21...
June 28, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883227/awareness-and-current-knowledge-of-parkinson-disease-a-neurodegenerative-disorder
#4
Asmat Ullah Khan, Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Daniyal, Rida Zainab
CONTEXT: Parkinson's disease is the second common progressive neurodegenerative disease, distressing older men and is prevalent Worldwide. OBJECTIVES: This paper is aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of Parkinson disease. METHODS: A google search was performed to recognize studies that review the characteristics of Parkinson disease. Search terms included " Parkinson's disease", " epidemiology", " etiology", " pathogenesis", " clinical manifestations", " diagnosis" and " management of Parkinson disease"...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847397/symptom-comparisons-between-asian-american-and-white-american-women-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Claire Jungyoun Han, Chaoqun Dong, Monica E Jarrett, Margaret M Heitkemper
There is little information on racial/ethnic characteristics of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. In this study, we determined whether the severity of symptoms (gastrointestinal, psychological distress), cognitive beliefs about irritable bowel syndrome, and life impacts (life interference, health-related quality of life) differ between Asian American and White American women with irritable bowel syndrome. We also look at the relationships among these variables. Asian American women (N = 21) and age- and design-matched White American women (N = 63) with irritable bowel syndrome were included...
May 2018: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781631/critical-consciousness-and-intent-to-persist-through-college-in-daca-and-u-s-citizen-students-the-role-of-immigration-status-race-and-ethnicity
#6
Germán A Cadenas, Bianca L Bernstein, Terence J G Tracey
OBJECTIVES: We used the model of critical consciousness (CC; Freire, 1973) to examine college persistence in a sample of Hispanic Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) college students in contrast to Hispanic and non-Hispanic White U.S. citizens. To do this, we looked to social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to clarify the development of CC and its association with college persistence in students facing marginalization due to immigration status and racial/ethnic identity...
May 21, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756004/galectin-3-and-incident-cognitive-impairment-in-regards-a-cohort-of-blacks-and-whites
#7
Anand Venkatraman, Peter Callas, Leslie A McClure, Fred Unverzagt, Garima Arora, Virginia Howard, Virginia G Wadley, Mary Cushman, Pankaj Arora
Introduction: The relationship between serum galectin-3 and incident cognitive impairment was analyzed in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study. Methods: Baseline galectin-3 was measured in 455 cases of incident cognitive impairment and 546 controls. Galectin-3 was divided into quartiles based on the weighted distribution in the control group, and the first quartile was the referent. Results: There was an increasing odds of cognitive impairment across quartiles of galectin-3 (odds ratios, 1...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733497/hemostasis-biomarkers-and-incident-cognitive-impairment-the-regards-study
#8
S R Gillett, L A McClure, P W Callas, E L Thacker, F W Unverzagt, V G Wadley, A J Letter, M Cushman
Essentials Cognitive disorders are increasing and vascular risk factors play a role in this. We performed a nested case control study of hemostasis biomarkers and cognitive impairment (CI). Higher baseline fibrinogen, factor VIII and D-dimer were related to incident CI over 3.5 years. Adjusted for other risk factors, 2+ abnormal markers (but not single ones) led to higher risk. SUMMARY: Background Vascular risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment, a condition that imposes a substantial public health burden...
July 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651270/disparities-in-functional-outcome-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-among-asians-and-pacific-islanders
#9
Kazuma Nakagawa, Sage L King, Todd B Seto, Marjorie K L M Mau
Background: Disparities in outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have been inadequately studied. We sought to assess differences in functional outcome between Asians and NHOPI after ICH. Methods: A multiracial prospective cohort study of ICH patients was conducted from 2011 to 2016 at a tertiary center in Honolulu, HI, USA to assess racial disparities in outcome after ICH. Favorable outcome was defined as 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤2...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629788/statewide-implementation-of-an-evidence-based-trauma-intervention-in-schools
#10
Sharon A Hoover, Heather Sapere, Jason M Lang, Erum Nadeem, Kristin L Dean, Pamela Vona
The goal of the current article is to describe the implementation and outcomes of an innovative statewide dissemination approach of the evidence-based trauma intervention Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS). In the context of a 2-year statewide learning collaborative effort, 73 CBITS groups led by 20 clinicians from 5 different school-based mental health provider organizations served a total of 350 racially and ethnically diverse (66.9% Hispanic, 26.2% Black/African American, 43...
March 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617633/reducing-racial-ethnic-tobacco-cessation-disparities-via-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-design-of-a-dualsite-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Monica Webb Hooper, David J Lee, Vani N Simmons, Karen O Brandon, Michael H Antoni, Marina Unrod, Taghrid Asfar, John B Correa, Tulay Koru-Sengul, Thomas H Brandon
Racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco cessation are such that U.S. minorities have greater difficulty quitting compared to White non-Hispanics. Group differences in distress (i.e., perceived stress and depressive symptoms) may contribute to cessation disparities. The allostasis model of health suggests that the toll of chronic stress experienced by racial/ethnic minorities may lead to dysregulation of the physiological stress system and drug use. Previous research suggests that group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for tobacco cessation addresses distress as a modifiable mechanism and has the potential to reduce/eliminate disparities...
May 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606085/racial-ethnic-differences-in-cognitive-symptoms-during-the-menopausal-transition
#12
Eun-Ok Im, Yun Hu, Ching-Yu Cheng, Young Ko, Eunice Chee, Wonshik Chee
The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cognitive symptoms among four major racial/ethnic groups in the United States and to determine multiple factors that influenced the women's cognitive symptoms. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two larger studies among 1,054 midlife women. The instruments included multiple questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status, and the Cognitive Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using multiple logistic and Poisson regression analyses...
March 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581343/risk-factors-for-poststroke-cognitive-decline-the-regards-study-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke
#13
Deborah A Levine, Virginia G Wadley, Kenneth M Langa, Frederick W Unverzagt, Mohammed U Kabeto, Bruno Giordani, George Howard, Virginia J Howard, Mary Cushman, Suzanne E Judd, Andrzej T Galecki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poststroke cognitive decline causes disability. Risk factors for poststroke cognitive decline independent of survivors' prestroke cognitive trajectories are uncertain. METHODS: Among 22 875 participants aged ≥45 years without baseline cognitive impairment from the REGARDS cohort (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), enrolled from 2003 to 2007 and followed through September 2015, we measured the effect of incident stroke (n=694) on changes in cognitive functions and cognitive impairment (Six-Item Screener score <5) and tested whether patient factors modified the effect...
April 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563033/clusters-of-midlife-women-identified-by-cognitive-symptoms
#14
Eun-Ok Im, Yun Hu, Ching-Yu Cheng, Young Ko, Eunice Chee, Wonshik Chee
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to identify clusters of midlife women by their cognitive symptoms and to examine racial/ethnic differences in the clusters. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary analysis was conducted on the data from 1054 midlife women of multi-ethnic groups in two Internet studies (conducted from 2005 to 2013). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Only the data from the questions on background characteristics, health status, and menopausal status and the Cognitive Symptom Index for Midlife Women were used for this secondary analysis...
April 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549223/arterial-stiffness-and-dementia-pathology-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-pet-study
#15
Timothy M Hughes, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Suzanne Craft, Akiva Mintz, Gerardo Heiss, Priya Palta, Dean Wong, Yun Zhou, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness has been associated with evidence of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. These complex relationships have not been examined in racially and cognitively diverse cohorts. METHODS: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)-Neurocognitive Study collected detailed cognitive testing for adjudication of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), brain MRI, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid-femoral [cfPWV] and heart-carotid [hcPWV])...
April 3, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498030/baseline-performance-of-ncaa-athletes-on-a-concussion-assessment-battery-a-report-from-the-care-consortium
#16
Barry P Katz, Maria Kudela, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Michael McCrea, Thomas McAllister, Steven P Broglio
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussion and repetitive head impact exposure in contact sports continue to receive increased attention in public and medical spheres. The Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium, a multicenter cooperative, was established to study the natural history of concussion in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate student-athletes across 29 colleges and universities in the United States. The purpose of this investigation is to provide normative data from the CARE Consortium and evaluate for differences between sport categories...
August 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489037/in-rape-trauma-ptsd-patient-characteristics-indicate-which-trauma-focused-treatment-they-are-most-likely-to-complete
#17
John R Keefe, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Zachary D Cohen, Robert J DeRubeis, Brian N Smith, Patricia A Resick
BACKGROUND: Dropout rates for effective therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be high, especially in practice settings. Although clinicians have intuitions regarding what treatment patients may complete, there are few systematic data to drive those judgments. METHODS: A multivariable model of dropout risk was constructed with randomized clinical trial data (n = 160) comparing prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for rape-induced PTSD...
April 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484671/longitudinal-associations-between-alcohol-related-cognitions-and-use-in-african-american-and-european-american-adolescent-girls
#18
Dawn W Foster, Feifei Ye, Stephanie S O'Malley, Tammy Chung, Alison E Hipwell, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND: African American (AA) girls initiate alcohol use later and drink less than European American (EA) girls, potentially reflecting differences in the development of drinking behaviors. This study examined alcohol-related cognitions: expectancies, attitudes, and intention to drink, as possible sources of variation by race in alcohol use. The aim of this study was to characterize the nature and degree of association between cognitions and use over time and by race in EA and AA girls...
May 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396081/girls-sleep-trajectories-across-the-pubertal-transition-emerging-racial-ethnic-differences
#19
Lindsay Till Hoyt, Julianna Deardorff, Kristine Marceau, Cecile A Laurent, Gayle C Windham, Louise C Greenspan, Susan M Pinney, Susan Teitelbaum, Kevin J Grimm, Melissa J Hagan, Frank M Biro, Mary S Wolff, Lawrence H Kushi, Robert A Hiatt
PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the longitudinal association between puberty and sleep in a diverse sample of girls and explore racial/ethnic differences in this association. METHODS: Using latent growth curve modeling, the present study measured pubertal development (timing and rate) and sleep (wake time and bedtime) in 1,239 socioeconomically and ethnically diverse girls starting when they were 6-8 years old and followed longitudinally for up to 8 years. Pubertal assessment was conducted annually in clinic by physical examination, classified by sexual maturation stage for breast and pubic hair development by trained raters...
April 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373616/differences-in-the-cognitive-profile-of-depression-between-racial-groups
#20
Jon E Grant, Michael Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: There is little research concerning whether race is associated with different clinical presentations of psychiatric disorders. Understanding the racial aspects of cognitive differences among depressed adults could help identify specific targets for depression treatment. METHODS: We recruited 59 participants (52.5% white, 47.5% African American), age 18 to 60, with a current diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). All participants underwent a cognitive battery that included tasks assessing decision-making, response inhibition, working memory, and executive planning...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
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