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racial differences in cognition

Mora A Reinka, Colin Wayne Leach
As race acts as a social frame of reference, it should guide individual's appraisal of visual representations of social events and issues. Thus, grounded in Scherer's (2009) model of appraisal as a sequential process, in 2 experiments (N = 133, 166) we used early event-related potentials (ERPs) of brain activity (the N100, P200, P300) to examine Black and White participants' appraisals of the novelty of images of police force against Black (and White) targets, as well as of Black-led protest. We used a later ERP (the late positive potential, LPP) as well as blood pressure to assess their appraisal of motivational relevance, and self-reported affect and emotion to assess conscious experience...
November 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
DeAnnah R Byrd, Gilbert C Gee, Wassim Tarraf
Objectives: Studies of older U.S. adults have consistently found that African Americans perform worse on cognitive measures than whites, but there are inconsistencies as to whether these findings hold over time. Moreover, studies have focused on adults 51 and older, without considering younger ages; thus it is unclear the age at which these disparities surface. The present study examines black-white disparities in mental status trajectories among adults as young as 25 years over a 25-year period...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Allison E Gaffey, Frances Aranda, John W Burns, Yanina A Purim-Shem-Tov, Helen J Burgess, Jean C Beckham, Stephen Bruehl, Stevan E Hobfoll
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inner-city Black women may be more susceptible to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than White women, although mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Living in urban neighborhoods distinguished by higher chronic stress may contribute to racial differences in women's cognitive, affective, and social vulnerabilities, leading to greater trauma-related distress including PTSD. Yet social support could buffer the negative effects of psychosocial vulnerabilities on women's health...
October 11, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Laura C Bouchard, Betina Yanez, Jason R Dahn, Sarah C Flury, Kent T Perry, David C Mohr, Frank J Penedo
Relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHW), black men are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PC) incidence, have poorer PC outcomes, and report greater compromises in health-related quality of life. Despite these challenges, black men are underrepresented in psychosocial cancer research, possibly due to limited access to supportive oncology programs. The purpose of this article is to examine the acceptability and efficacy for reducing disease-specific distress of a tablet-delivered psychosocial intervention for older men with advanced PC (APC) and explore differences by race...
October 3, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Megan M Marron, Diane G Ives, Robert M Boudreau, Tamara B Harris, Anne B Newman
OBJECTIVES: To understand which causes of death are higher in black than white community-dwelling older adults and determine whether differences in baseline risk factors explain racial differences in mortality. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study). SETTING: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Memphis, Tennessee. PARTICIPANTS: Black and white men and women aged 70 to 79 during recruitment (N=3,075; 48% men, 42% black) followed for a median of 13 years...
October 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Paul Brewster, Lisa Barnes, Mary Haan, Julene K Johnson, Jennifer J Manly, Anna María Nápoles, Rachel A Whitmer, Luis Carvajal-Carmona, Dawnte Early, Sarah Farias, Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Rebecca Melrose, Oanh L Meyer, Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Ladson Hinton, Dan Mungas
In 2016, the UC Davis Latino Aging Research Resource Center and UC Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center brought together experts from across the country to consolidate current knowledge and identify future directions in aging and diversity research. This report disseminates the research priorities that emerged from this conference, building on an earlier Gerontological Society of America preconference. We review key racial/ethnic differences in cognitive aging and dementia and identify current knowledge gaps in the field...
September 18, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Meredith P Levsen, Bruce D Bartholow
Affect regulation plays a key role in several theories of racial bias reduction. Here, we tested whether engaging in emotion regulation strategies while performing an implicit racial bias task (Weapons Identification Task; WIT) would alter neural and behavioral manifestations of bias. Participants either suppressed or reappraised in a positive light the distress associated with making errors during the WIT, while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. We hypothesized that engaging in emotion regulation strategies would reduce the distress associated with making errors indicative of bias, resulting in smaller error-related negativity (ERN) amplitude during errors and increased expression of racial bias...
September 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Dariusz P Danel, Sławomir Wacewicz, Zdzisław Lewandowski, Przemysław Żywiczyński, Juan Olvido Perea-Garcia
Understanding the adaptive function of the unique morphology of the human eye, in particular its overexposed white sclera, may have profound implications for the fields of evolutionary behavioural science, and specifically the areas of human interaction and social cognition. Existing hypotheses, such as the cooperative eye hypothesis, have attracted a lot of attention but remain untested. Here, we: (i) analysed variation in the visible sclera size in humans from different ethnic backgrounds and (ii) examined whether intraspecific variation of exposed sclera size is related to trust...
2018: Acta Ethologica
Danielle Shaked, Leslie I Katzel, Stephen L Seliger, Rao P Gullapalli, Christos Davatzikos, Guray Erus, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Shari R Waldstein
OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to poorer cognitive performance, but the neural underpinnings of this relation are not fully understood. This study examined whether SES-linked decrements in executive function were mediated by smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes. Given the literature demonstrating that SES-brain relations differ by race, we examined whether race moderated these mediations. METHOD: Participants were 190 socioeconomically diverse, self-identified African American (AA) and White adults from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) SCAN study...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
Katherine Pickard, Nuri Reyes, Judy Reaven
Results of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated significant reductions in anxiety symptoms following cognitive behavior therapy participation. Although promising, the extent to which previous research has included families from low socioeconomic status or racially/ethnically diverse backgrounds is unknown. Aims of this study are as follows: (1) What is the race, ethnicity, and educational attainment of youth with autism spectrum disorder and their families who have participated in research examining the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety? and (2) How do the demographics of these participants compare to that of the United States census? A total of 14 studies were reviewed that included 473 participants...
August 30, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Marc A Garcia, Joseph Saenz, Brian Downer, Rebeca Wong
BACKGROUND: Older Black and Hispanic adults are more likely to be cognitively impaired than older White adults. Disadvantages in educational achievement for minority and immigrant populations may contribute to disparities in cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: Examine the role of education in racial/ethnic and nativity differences in cognitive impairment/no dementia (CIND) and dementia among older US adults. METHODS: Data comes from the 2012 Health and Retirement Study...
January 2018: Demographic Research
Suzanne Perea Burns, Martina Mueller, Gayenell Magwood, Brandi M White, Daniel Lackland, Charles Ellis
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minorities consistently demonstrate disparate post-stroke outcomes. However, there is a paucity of literature related to whether this disparity exists specifically in post-stroke cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To determine if racial and ethnic disparities exist in post-stroke subjective cognitive decline (SCD) among non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks), American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) in the United States using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
August 9, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Joanne Ryan, Robyn L Woods, Carlene Britt, Anne M Murray, Raj C Shah, Christopher M Reid, Brenda Kirpach, Rory S Wolfe, Mark R Nelson, Jessica E Lockery, Suzanne G Orchard, Ruth E Trevaks, John J McNeil, Elsdon Storey
OBJECTIVE: To present normative performance data on the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination for healthy community-dwelling older individuals according to gender, age, education level, and ethno-racial group. METHOD: More than 19,000 generally healthy older men and women without a diagnosis of dementia were recruited from the general population in Australia and the U.S. for the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) study. The 3MS exam was administered as part of the baseline screening and individuals scoring above 77 were eligible to participate...
July 5, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Michael J Zvolensky, Charles Jardin, Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Nubia A Mayorga, Andres G Viana, Rheeda L Walker, Jodi Berger Cardoso, Lorra Garey
There are elevated rates of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and greater conditional risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among Latinx relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Such trauma-related health disparities serve to exacerbate or maintain acculturative and other types of stress among the Latinx population. Yet, little research has explored what types of individual difference factors may undergird variability in acculturative stress among trauma-exposed Latinx persons. Accordingly, the present investigation examined individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) in relation to acculturative stress among a large sample of trauma-exposed Latinx young adults ( n = 1,377 persons; M age = 21...
October 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Asmat Ullah Khan, Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Daniyal, Rida Zainab
CONTEXT: Parkinson's disease is the second common progressive neurodegenerative disease, distressing older men and is prevalent Worldwide. OBJECTIVES: This paper is aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of Parkinson disease. METHODS: A google search was performed to recognize studies that review the characteristics of Parkinson disease. Search terms included " Parkinson's disease", " epidemiology", " etiology", " pathogenesis", " clinical manifestations", " diagnosis" and " management of Parkinson disease"...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Claire Jungyoun Han, Chaoqun Dong, Monica E Jarrett, Margaret M Heitkemper
There is little information on racial/ethnic characteristics of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. In this study, we determined whether the severity of symptoms (gastrointestinal, psychological distress), cognitive beliefs about irritable bowel syndrome, and life impacts (life interference, health-related quality of life) differ between Asian American and White American women with irritable bowel syndrome. We also look at the relationships among these variables. Asian American women (N = 21) and age- and design-matched White American women (N = 63) with irritable bowel syndrome were included...
May 2018: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
Germán A Cadenas, Bianca L Bernstein, Terence J G Tracey
OBJECTIVES: We used the model of critical consciousness (CC; Freire, 1973) to examine college persistence in a sample of Hispanic Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) college students in contrast to Hispanic and non-Hispanic White U.S. citizens. To do this, we looked to social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) to clarify the development of CC and its association with college persistence in students facing marginalization due to immigration status and racial/ethnic identity...
October 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Anand Venkatraman, Peter Callas, Leslie A McClure, Fred Unverzagt, Garima Arora, Virginia Howard, Virginia G Wadley, Mary Cushman, Pankaj Arora
Introduction: The relationship between serum galectin-3 and incident cognitive impairment was analyzed in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study. Methods: Baseline galectin-3 was measured in 455 cases of incident cognitive impairment and 546 controls. Galectin-3 was divided into quartiles based on the weighted distribution in the control group, and the first quartile was the referent. Results: There was an increasing odds of cognitive impairment across quartiles of galectin-3 (odds ratios, 1...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
S R Gillett, L A McClure, P W Callas, E L Thacker, F W Unverzagt, V G Wadley, A J Letter, M Cushman
Essentials Cognitive disorders are increasing and vascular risk factors play a role in this. We performed a nested case control study of hemostasis biomarkers and cognitive impairment (CI). Higher baseline fibrinogen, factor VIII and D-dimer were related to incident CI over 3.5 years. Adjusted for other risk factors, 2+ abnormal markers (but not single ones) led to higher risk. SUMMARY: Background Vascular risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment, a condition that imposes a substantial public health burden...
July 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Kazuma Nakagawa, Sage L King, Todd B Seto, Marjorie K L M Mau
Background: Disparities in outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have been inadequately studied. We sought to assess differences in functional outcome between Asians and NHOPI after ICH. Methods: A multiracial prospective cohort study of ICH patients was conducted from 2011 to 2016 at a tertiary center in Honolulu, HI, USA to assess racial disparities in outcome after ICH. Favorable outcome was defined as 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≤2...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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