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disparities in cognition

Hans O Richter, M Forsman, G H Elcadi, R Brautaset, John E Marsh, C Zetterberg
Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigue and regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load. Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range: 18-44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left and right eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods: (i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl ); (ii) added convergence load and accommodation/vergence conflict ( Conv ); (iii) added cognitive load only ( Cog ) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load and accommodation/vergence conflict ( Cc )...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Eugenia I Gorlin, Reinier Schuur
As we account for the genetic and environmental influences on morally-relevant character traits like intellectual honesty, industriousness, and self-control, do we risk becoming ever less accountable to ourselves? Behavioral genetic research suggests that about half the variance in such character traits is likely attributable to heredity, and a small fraction to the shared family environment. The remaining 40-60% is explained by neither genes nor family upbringing. This raises the question: how active a role can individuals play in shaping their own character? What, if anything, can and should one do to take responsibility for the kind of person one becomes? This paper sketches a novel theoretical proposal for addressing these questions, by drawing on several previously disparate lines of research within behavior genetics, philosophy, and experimental psychology...
August 12, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Wilson Wen Bin Goh, Judy Chia-Ghee Sng, Jie Yin Yee, Yuen Mei See, Tih-Shih Lee, Limsoon Wong, Jimmy Lee
The ultra-high risk (UHR) state was originally conceived to identify individuals at imminent risk of developing psychosis. Although recent studies have suggested that most individuals designated UHR do not, they constitute a distinctive group, exhibiting cognitive and functional impairments alongside multiple psychiatric morbidities. UHR characterization using molecular markers may improve understanding, provide novel insight into pathophysiology, and perhaps improve psychosis prediction reliability. Whole-blood gene expressions from 56 UHR subjects and 28 healthy controls are checked for existence of a consistent gene expression profile (signature) underlying UHR, across a variety of normalization and heterogeneity-removal techniques, including simple log-conversion, quantile normalization, gene fuzzy scoring (GFS), and surrogate variable analysis...
December 2017: Computational psychiatry
Anusha M Vable, Chloe W Eng, Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Sanjay Basu, Jessica R Marden, Rita Hamad, M Maria Glymour
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood socioeconomic status (cSES) predicts higher late-life risk of memory loss and dementia. Veterans of U.S. wars are eligible for educational and economic benefits that may offset cSES disadvantage. We test whether cSES disparities in late-life memory and dementia are smaller among veterans than non-veterans. METHODS: Data came from US-born men in the 1995-2014 biennial surveys of the Health and Retirement Study (n=7916 born 1928-1956, contributing n=38 381 cognitive assessments)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Jagadish Thaker, Mohan Dutta, Vijay Nair, Vishnu Prasad Rao
Stigma and discrimination are primary drivers of health disparities among marginalized communities. Drawing on stigma management, minority stress model, and social cognitive theories, this article tests the interplay between dimensions of stigma, collective efficacy, and advocacy communication among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender females. Using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in south India (N = 225), five distinct dimensions of stigma were identified using factor analysis: experienced stigma, self-stigma, felt normative stigma, and two new dimensions-HIV-related vicarious stigma and media stigma...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Kathleen Vancleef, Jenny C A Read, William Herbert, Nicola Goodship, Maeve Woodhouse, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza
PURPOSE: Measuring accurate thresholds in children can be challenging. A typical psychophysical experiment is usually too long to keep children engaged. However, a reduction in the number of trials decreases the precision of the threshold estimate. We evaluated the efficiency of forced-choice paradigms with 2 or 4 alternatives (2-AFC, 4-AFC) in a disparity detection experiment. 4-AFC paradigms are statistically more efficient, but also more cognitively demanding, which might offset their theoretical advantage in young children...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoming Liu, Shen Liu, Ruiqi Huang, Xueli Chen, Yunlu Xie, Ru Ma, Yuzhi Luo, Junjie Bu, Xiaochu Zhang
Social network size is a key feature when we explore the constructions of human social networks. Despite the disparate understanding of individuals' social networks, researchers have reached a consensus that human's social networks are hierarchically organized with different layers, which represent emotional bonds and interaction frequency. Social brain hypothesis emphasizes the significance of complex and demanding social interaction environments and assumes that the cognitive constraints may have an impact on the social network size...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
John K Yue, Jonathan W Rick, Molly Rose Morrissey, Sabrina R Taylor, Hansen Deng, Catherine G Suen, Mary J Vassar, Maryse C Cnossen, Hester F Lingsma, Esther L Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Raquel C Gardner, Alex B Valadka, David O Okonkwo, Tene A Cage, Geoffrey T Manley
BACKGROUND: Preinjury employment status may contribute to disparity, injury risk, and recovery patterns following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). OBJECTIVE: To characterize associations between preinjury unemployment, prior comorbidities, and outcomes following MTBI. METHODS: MTBI patients from TRACK-TBI Pilot with complete six-month outcomes were extracted. Preinjury unemployment, comorbidities, injury factors, and intracranial pathology were considered...
July 17, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
Fengyan Tang, Wei Zhang, Iris Chi, XinQi Dong
Using data from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) conducted from 2011 to 2013, this study aims to examine the role of acculturation in engagement in cognitive, social, and religious activities among older Chinese Americans. Activity engagement and acculturation levels were relatively low in the study sample. Multivariate regression analyses showed that high levels of acculturation in general, and particularly media use (e.g., TV and radio) and ethnic social relations (i.e., preferred ethnicity of those with whom one interacts) were associated with more engagement in cognitive and social activities, respectively...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
Eva-Maria Elmenhorst, David Elmenhorst, Sibylle Benderoth, Tina Kroll, Andreas Bauer, Daniel Aeschbach
Trait-like differences in cognitive performance after sleep loss put some individuals more at risk than others, the basis of such disparities remaining largely unknown. Similarly, interindividual differences in impairment in response to alcohol intake have been observed. We tested whether performance impairments due to either acute or chronic sleep loss can be predicted by an individual's vulnerability to acute alcohol intake. Also, we used positron emission tomography (PET) to test whether acute alcohol infusion results in an up-regulation of cerebral A1 adenosine receptors (A1 ARs), similar to the changes previously observed following sleep deprivation...
July 31, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Reshma Shah, Ashley Isaia, Alan Schwartz, Marc Atkins
Objectives Encouraging key parenting behaviors in early infancy may help decrease income-related developmental disparities. In this study we assessed whether a brief, primary care-based program (Sit Down and Play; SDP) could be successful in impacting key parenting behaviors that promote early childhood development. Methods An ethnically diverse group of predominantly low-income caregivers of children 2-6 months of age were enrolled, interviewed, and randomized to intervention (n = 20) or control (n = 20) groups...
July 12, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Angelica Miki Stein, Thays Martins Vital Silva, Flávia Gomes de Melo Coelho, Franciel José Arantes, José Luiz Riani Costa, Elizabeth Teodoro, Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz
One of hypothetical mechanisms related to cognition is exercise-induced IGF-1. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise on IGF-1 levels and cognition in the elderly. Methods: The article searches were conducted on Pubmed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Scielo databases and reviewed according to PRISMA guidelines. The inclusion criteria were: [1] original articles published up to 2017; [2] samples including elderly; [3] protocols including physical exercise; [4] longitudinal studies having exercise as main outcome; [5] assessment of IGF-1; [6] cognition assessment...
April 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
M R Lo Monaco, A Laudisio, D Fusco, D L Vetrano, D Ricciardi, V Delle Donne, F Proietti, Giuseppe Zuccalà, Maria Caterina Silveri
Experimental evidence suggests that motor imagery (MI) engages the same neural substrates supporting actual motor activities and is likely impaired when such substrates are damaged, as in Parkinson's disease (PD). MI intuitively relies on visual imagery (VI), because mental simulations of physical movements depend on the visual retrieval of these movements. Although VI is generally considered a right hemispheric function, the hemispheric dominance of MI is still in dispute. Disparities in sidedness of motor disturbances are a distinctive feature of PD, and recent findings indicate that such disparities may similarly characterize cognition...
April 2018: Functional Neurology
Emily A Greenfield, Sara M Moorman
OBJECTIVES: This study examined childhood socioeconomic status (SES) as a predictor of later life cognition and the extent to which midlife SES accounts for associations. METHODS: Data came from 5,074 participants in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Measures from adolescence included parents' educational attainment, father's occupational status, and household income. Memory and language/executive function were assessed at ages 65 and 72 years. RESULTS: Global childhood SES was a stronger predictor of baseline levels of language/executive function than baseline memory...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
Nicole Senft, Lauren M Hamel, Louis A Penner, Felicity W K Harper, Terrance L Albrecht, Tanina Foster, Susan Eggly
OBJECTIVE: Black patients and their physicians tend to form relatively negative impressions of each other, and these may contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. The current research tested the hypothesis that the interaction between positive and negative affective behavior predicts the most positive impressions in clinic visits between Black patients and their oncologists. METHOD: Naïve coders rated patients' and oncologists' positive and negative affective behavior in thin slices from 74 video recorded clinic visits...
August 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Fatima Warsame, Christine E Haugen, Hao Ying, Jacqueline M Garonzik-Wang, Niraj M Desai, Rasheeda K Hall, Rekha Kambhampati, Deidra C Crews, Tanjala S Purnell, Dorry L Segev, Mara A McAdams-DeMarco
More than one third of U.S. adults have limited health literacy putting them at risk of adverse clinical outcomes. We evaluated the prevalence of limited health literacy among 1,578 adult kidney transplant (KT) candidates (5/2014-11/2017) and examined its association with listing for transplantation and waitlist mortality in this pilot study. Limited health literacy was assessed at KT evaluation using a standard cutoff score≤5 on the Brief Health Literacy Screen (scores range from 0-12, lower scores indicate worse health literacy)...
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Rachel Hb Mitchell, Arron Ws Metcalfe, Alvi H Islam, Simina Toma, Ronak Patel, Lisa Fiksenbaum, Daphne Korczak, Bradley J MacIntosh, Benjamin I Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is twice as prevalent amongst female as amongst male adolescents. Thus far, little is known regarding the neurostructural substrates underlying this disparity. We therefore examined sex differences in neurostructural magnetic resonane imaging (MRI) phenotypes amongst adolescents with BD. METHODS: T1-weighted structural MRI was acquired from 44 BD (25 female [F] and 19 male [M]) and 58 (28 F and 30 M) healthy control (HC) adolescents (13-21 years old)...
June 28, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Michael J Zvolensky, Charles Jardin, Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Nubia A Mayorga, Andres G Viana, Rheeda L Walker, Jodi Berger Cardoso, Lorra Garey
There are elevated rates of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and greater conditional risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among Latinx relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Such trauma-related health disparities serve to exacerbate or maintain acculturative and other types of stress among the Latinx population. Yet, little research has explored what types of individual difference factors may undergird variability in acculturative stress among trauma-exposed Latinx persons. Accordingly, the present investigation examined individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of stress sensations) in relation to acculturative stress among a large sample of trauma-exposed Latinx young adults ( n = 1,377 persons; M age = 21...
June 28, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Tazlina R Mannix, Sharon D Austin, Jami L Baayd, Sara E Simonsen
The needs of Urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations are often not well understood. In order to inform programs and services, the Urban Indian Center of Salt Lake (UIC-SL), in cooperation with researchers from the University of Utah, undertook a community needs assessment of AI/AN living along Utah's Wasatch Front. A 60-item questionnaire was developed to capture information about health status, services used, unmet needs, and common sources of information about AI/AN community events and activities...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Marco Del Giudice, Bernard J Crespi
Trade-offs between advantageous but conflicting properties (e.g., speed vs. accuracy) are ubiquitous in cognition, but the relevant literature is conceptually fragmented, scattered across disciplines, and has not been organized in a coherent framework. This paper takes an initial step toward a general theory of cognitive trade-offs by examining four key properties of goal-directed systems: performance, efficiency, robustness, and flexibility. These properties define a number of basic functional trade-offs that can be used to map the abstract "design space" of natural and artificial cognitive systems...
June 14, 2018: Cognition
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