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disparities in cognition

Matthew Zahn, Amesh A Adalja, Paul G Auwaerter, Paul J Edelson, Gail R Hansen, Noreen A Hynes, Amanda Jezek, Rodger D MacArthur, Yukari C Manabe, Colin McGoodwin, Jeffrey S Duchin
Infectious diseases (ID) physicians play a crucial role in public health in a variety of settings. Unfortunately, much of this work is undercompensated despite the proven efficacy of public health interventions such has hospital acquired infection (HAI) prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, disease surveillance, and outbreak response. The lack of compensation makes it difficult to attract the best and the brightest to the field of infectious diseases, threatening the future of the ID workforce. This paper examines compensation data for ID physicians compared to their value in population and public health settings and suggests policy recommendations to address the pay disparities between cognitive and procedural specialties which prevents more medical students and residents from entering the field...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Julio C Jiménez-Chávez, Fernando J Rosario-Maldonado, Jeremy A Torres, Axel Ramos-Lucca, Eida M Castro-Figueroa, Lydia Santiago
Purpose: The community-based participatory research approach has been identified as a great asset in reducing health disparities through the integration of community members in all phases of the research process. It is essential to provide skills to community members to achieve successful research partnerships. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the community-based participatory research training curriculum for community members. Methods: Using mixed-methods, noncomparative design, eight workshops were developed and tested...
2018: Health Equity
Richard Newton, Alice Rouleau, Anna-Greta Nylander, Jean-Yves Loze, Henrike K Resemann, Sara Steeves, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder and patients experience significant comorbidity, especially cognitive and psychosocial deficits, already at the onset of disease. Previous research suggests that treatment during the earlier stages of disease reduces disease burden, and that a longer time of untreated psychosis has a negative impact on treatment outcomes. A targeted literature review was conducted to gain insight into the definitions currently used to describe patients with a recent diagnosis of schizophrenia in the early course of disease ('early' schizophrenia)...
October 15, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
Naama Rozen, Nirit Soffer-Dudek
Teeth dreams (TD), i.e., dreams of teeth falling out or rotting, are one of the most common and universal typical dream themes, yet their source remains unknown and they have rarely been studied empirically. They are especially enigmatic as they do not readily fall under the rubric of the "continuity hypothesis", i.e., dreams of current and salient waking-life experiences. The aim of the present study was to explore two possible hypotheses for the origin of TD; specifically, TD as incorporation of dental irritation into dreaming, and TD as a symbolic manifestation of psychological distress...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
DeAnnah R Byrd, Gilbert C Gee, Wassim Tarraf
Objectives: Studies of older U.S. adults have consistently found that African Americans perform worse on cognitive measures than whites, but there are inconsistencies as to whether these findings hold over time. Moreover, studies have focused on adults 51 and older, without considering younger ages; thus it is unclear the age at which these disparities surface. The present study examines black-white disparities in mental status trajectories among adults as young as 25 years over a 25-year period...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Lindsay C Kobayashi, Lisa F Berkman, Ryan G Wagner, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, S V Subramanian
We aimed to estimate the relationship between height (a measure of early-life cumulative net nutrition) and later-life cognitive function among older rural South African adults, and whether education modified this relationship. Data were from baseline in-person interviews with 5059 adults ≥ 40 years in the population-based "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa" (HAALSI) study in Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, in 2015. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between height quintile and latent cognitive function z-score (representing episodic memory, time orientation, and numeracy), with adjustment for life course covariates and a height-by-education interaction...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Klara Gellci, Hilary A Marusak, Craig Peters, Farrah Elrahal, Allesandra S Iadipaolo, Christine A Rabinak
Socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) during childhood has been linked to disparities in physical and mental health. A growing body of research has focused on identifying neurodevelopmental consequences of SED, commonly measured using within-household factors (e.g., household income), to better understand the processes underlying SED-related disparities. These studies suggest that childhood SED has a widespread impact on brain development, altering development of multiple brain regions simultaneously. These findings also raise the possibility that childhood SED impacts development of key brain systems, such as the salience and emotion network (SEN), which is positioned at the intersection of brain systems involved in cognitive and emotion-related functioning and is thought to mediate information flow within and between these networks...
October 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Brittany M St John, Elizabeth Hladik, Holly C Romaniak, Karla K Ausderau
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are at an increased risk for health disparities that serve as barriers to participation in daily occupations. Understanding the lived experience of individuals with ID can illuminate barriers and facilitators to these health-promoting occupations. Commonly used methods examining health for individuals with ID may not reveal important information about their daily participation potentially due to cognitive or communication limitations...
October 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Megan M Marron, Diane G Ives, Robert M Boudreau, Tamara B Harris, Anne B Newman
OBJECTIVES: To understand which causes of death are higher in black than white community-dwelling older adults and determine whether differences in baseline risk factors explain racial differences in mortality. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study). SETTING: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Memphis, Tennessee. PARTICIPANTS: Black and white men and women aged 70 to 79 during recruitment (N=3,075; 48% men, 42% black) followed for a median of 13 years...
October 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Amanda S Hodel
Over the last fifteen years, the emerging field of developmental cognitive neuroscience has described the relatively late development of prefrontal cortex in children and the relation between gradual structural changes and children's protracted development of prefrontal-dependent skills. Widespread recognition by the broader scientific community of the extended development of prefrontal cortex has led to the overwhelming perception of prefrontal cortex as a "late developing" region of the brain. However, despite its supposedly protracted development, multiple lines of research have converged to suggest that prefrontal cortex development may be particularly susceptible to individual differences in children's early environments...
June 2018: Developmental Review: DR
Eric A Lauer, Megan Henly, Rachel Coleman
BACKGROUND: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is changing the annual inclusion of standardized disability identifiers, reinvigorating the priority to examine existing disability question sets. These sets include questions developed by the United States (U.S.) National Center for Health Statistics in conjunction with the U.S. Census Bureau (the American Community Survey questions, ACS) and United Nations (the Washington Group Short Set questions, WGSS), that are policy relevant, comparable across populations, and short enough to be included in censuses and surveys across countries...
September 13, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Jamie Reilly, Alexandra Kelly, Seung Hwan Kim, Savannah Jett, Bonnie Zuckerman
The human task-evoked pupillary response provides a sensitive physiological index of the intensity and online resource demands of numerous cognitive processes (e.g., memory retrieval, problem solving, or target detection). Cognitive pupillometry is a well-established technique that relies upon precise measurement of these subtle response functions. Baseline variability of pupil diameter is a complex artifact that typically necessitates mathematical correction. A methodological paradox within pupillometry is that linear and nonlinear forms of baseline scaling both remain accepted baseline correction techniques, despite yielding highly disparate results...
September 27, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Philip L De Jager, Hyun-Sik Yang, David A Bennett
The field of neurodegenerative disease research has seen tremendous advances over the last two decades as new technologies and analytic methods have enabled well-powered human genomic studies. Driven first by genetic studies and more recently by transcriptomic and epigenomic studies of proper size, we have uncovered a large repertoire of loci, genes, and molecular features that are implicated in discrete, syndromically defined neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease...
October 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Manuel Paris, Michelle Silva, Luis Añez-Nava, Yudilyn Jaramillo, Brian D Kiluk, Melissa A Gordon, Charla Nich, Tami Frankforter, Kathleen Devore, Samuel A Ball, Kathleen M Carroll
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether adding Web-based cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) to standard outpatient psychiatric or addiction treatment improved substance use outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized clinical trial in New Haven, Connecticut, between 2014 and 2017 comparing 8 weeks of standard outpatient treatment to the same treatment with access to a culturally adapted version of Web-based CBT with a 6-month follow-up. Participants were 92 treatment-seeking individuals with Spanish as their primary language and current substance use disorder, with few other restrictions...
November 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Kelly M Shaffer, Sheila N Garland, Jun J Mao, Allison J Applebaum
Caregivers are relatives, friends, or partners who have a significant relationship with and provide assistance (i.e., physical, emotional) to a patient with often life-threatening, serious illnesses. Between 40 and 76 percent of caregivers for people with cancer experience sleep disturbance. This is thought to be due, in part, to the unique responsibilities, stressors, and compensatory behaviors endemic to caregiving that serve as precipitating and perpetuating factors of insomnia. Sleep disturbances are associated with significant alterations in one's mental and physical health...
September 2018: Journal of Psychotherapy Integration
Lauren E Philbrook, Mina Shimizu, Joseph A Buckhalt, Mona El-Sheikh
OBJECTIVES: This study examined self-reported sleepiness as a pathway of effects underlying racial and socioeconomic disparities in children's academic and cognitive performance. DESIGN: The study design was longitudinal, and path modeling was used to test study hypotheses. SETTING: Data were collected from participants residing in semirural communities and small towns surrounding Auburn, AL. PARTICIPANTS: Children (N = 282; 52% boys) participated in the study when they were 9 (M = 9...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Paul Brewster, Lisa Barnes, Mary Haan, Julene K Johnson, Jennifer J Manly, Anna María Nápoles, Rachel A Whitmer, Luis Carvajal-Carmona, Dawnte Early, Sarah Farias, Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Rebecca Melrose, Oanh L Meyer, Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Ladson Hinton, Dan Mungas
In 2016, the UC Davis Latino Aging Research Resource Center and UC Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center brought together experts from across the country to consolidate current knowledge and identify future directions in aging and diversity research. This report disseminates the research priorities that emerged from this conference, building on an earlier Gerontological Society of America preconference. We review key racial/ethnic differences in cognitive aging and dementia and identify current knowledge gaps in the field...
September 18, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Kelli D Allen, Liubov Arbeeva, Crystal W Cené, Cynthia J Coffman, Kimberlea F Grimm, Erin Haley, Francis J Keefe, Caroline T Nagle, Eugene Z Oddone, Tamara J Somers, Yashika Watkins, Lisa C Campbell
BACKGROUND: The Pain Coping Skills Training for African Americans with OsteoaRTthritis (STAART) trial is examining the effectiveness of a culturally enhanced pain coping skills training (CST) program for African Americans with osteoarthritis (OA). This disparities-focused trial aimed to reach a population with greater symptom severity and risk factors for poor pain-related outcomes than previous studies. This paper compares characteristics of STAART participants with prior studies of CST or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-informed training in pain coping strategies for OA...
September 19, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Danielle Shaked, Leslie I Katzel, Stephen L Seliger, Rao P Gullapalli, Christos Davatzikos, Guray Erus, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Shari R Waldstein
OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to poorer cognitive performance, but the neural underpinnings of this relation are not fully understood. This study examined whether SES-linked decrements in executive function were mediated by smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volumes. Given the literature demonstrating that SES-brain relations differ by race, we examined whether race moderated these mediations. METHOD: Participants were 190 socioeconomically diverse, self-identified African American (AA) and White adults from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) SCAN study...
September 13, 2018: Neuropsychology
David C Geary
General intelligence or g is one of the most thoroughly studied concepts in the behavioral sciences. Measures of intelligence are predictive of a wide range of educational, occupational, and life outcomes, including creative productivity and are systematically related to physical health and successful aging. The nexus of relations suggests 1 or several fundamental biological mechanisms underlie g, health, and aging, among other outcomes. Cell-damaging oxidative stress has been proposed as 1 of many potential mechanisms, but the proposal is underdeveloped and does not capture other important mitochondrial functions...
September 13, 2018: Psychological Review
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