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disparities in cognition

Sharon Ovnat Tamir, Tal Marom, Sagit Shushan, Abraham Goldfarb, Udi Cinamon, Ophir Handzel, Ofer Gluck, Yahav Oron
OBJECTIVES: To study the compliance of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physicians to the American Association Otolaryngology-Head - Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for tinnitus and to identify the disparity of both diagnosis and management options in the absence of a local protocol for the management of adult tinnitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was emailed in a Google spread-out sheet format to all practicing ENT physicians across the country (n=370)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related, progressive neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline and responsible for most cases of dementia in the elderly. Late-onset or sporadic AD accounts for > 95% of cases, with age at onset > 65 years. Currently there are no drugs or other therapeutic agents available to prevent or delay the progression of AD. The cellular and molecular changes occurring in the brains of individuals with AD include accumulation of β-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, decrease of acetylcholine neurotransmitter, inflammation, and oxidative stress...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Miranda Wolpert, Kate Dalzell, Roz Ullman, Lauren Garland, Melissa Cortina, Daniel Hayes, Praveetha Patalay, Duncan Law
This Review reports on a scoping review followed by a systematic review to consider interventions designed to address or manage depression or anxiety in children and young people up to the age of 25 years without the need to involve mental health professionals. The scoping review identified 132 approaches, 103 of which referred to children or young people (younger than 25 years). These approaches included social interaction, engagement with nature, relaxation, distraction, sensory stimulation, physical activity, altering perceptions, engaging in hobbies, self-expression, and exploration...
December 3, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Steven A Cohen, Mary L Greaney, Natalie J Sabik
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a critical public health issue, affecting over one-third of all Americans, and is an underlying cause of numerous health issues across the lifespan. For older adults, obesity is linked to premature declines in physical and mental health and cognitive functioning. The occurrence of obesity and related health behaviors and chronic diseases are higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Furthermore, rural areas of the United States have a higher proportion of older adults than urban areas...
2018: PloS One
John D Medaglia, Weiyu Huang, Elisabeth A Karuza, Apoorva Kelkar, Sharon L Thompson-Schill, Alejandro Ribeiro, Danielle S Bassett
Cognitive flexibility describes the human ability to switch between modes of mental function to achieve goals. Mental switching is accompanied by transient changes in brain activity, which must occur atop an anatomical architecture that bridges disparate cortical and subcortical regions by underlying white matter tracts. However, an integrated perspective regarding how white matter networks might constrain brain dynamics during cognitive processes requiring flexibility has remained elusive. To address this challenge, we applied emerging tools from graph signal processing to examine whether BOLD signals measured at each point in time correspond to complex underlying anatomical networks in 28 individuals performing a perceptual task that probed cognitive flexibility...
2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Bruce Bradbury, Jane Waldfogel, Elizabeth Washbrook
Previous research has documented significantly larger income-related gaps in children's early cognitive development in the United States than in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. In this study, we investigate the extent to which this is a result of a more unequal income distribution in the United States. We show that although incomes are more unequal in the United States than elsewhere, a given difference in real income is associated with larger gaps in child test scores there than in the three other countries...
November 28, 2018: Demography
Ravit Nussinson, Sari Mentser, Nurit Rosenberg
Throughout evolutionary history, pathogens have imposed strong selection pressures on humans. To minimize humans' exposure to pathogens, a behavioral immune system that promotes the detection and avoidance of disease-connoting cues has evolved. Although most pathogens cannot be discerned by our sensory organs, they produce discernable changes in their environment. As a result, a common denominator of many disease-connoting cues is morphological deviance-figurative disparity from what is normal, visual dissimilarity to the prototype stored in memory...
October 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Marium Husain, Timiya S Nolan, Kevin Foy, Raquel Reinbolt, Cassandra Grenade, Maryam Lustberg
PURPOSE: The existence of cancer disparities is well known. Focus on alleviating such disparities centers on diagnosis, treatment, and mortality. This review surveyed current knowledge of health disparities that exist in the acute survivorship period (immediately following diagnosis and treatment) and their contributors, particularly for African-American breast cancer survivors (AA-BCS). METHODS: Utilizing the ASCO four components of survivorship care, we explore disparities in surveillance and effects of cancer and therapies that AA-BCS face within the acute survivorship period (the years immediately following diagnosis)...
November 20, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Dong Wook Shin, Jongho Cho, Jae Myoung Noh, Hyesook Han, Kyungdo Han, Sang Hyun Park, So Young Kim, Jong Heon Park, Jong Hyock Park, Ichiro Kawachi
INTRODUCTION: Potential disparities in the diagnosis, treatment, and survival of lung cancer patients with and without disabilities were rarely investigated. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with a dataset linking the KNHS database, disability registration data, and Korean Central Cancer Registry data. A total of 13,591 people with disabilities who were diagnosed with lung cancer and 43,809 age- and sex-matched control subjects with diagnosed lung cancer were included...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Brandon M Booth, Taylor J Seamans, Shrikanth S Narayanan
Maintaining students' cognitive engagement in educational settings is crucial to their performance, though quantifying this mental state in real-time for distance learners has not been studied extensively in natural distance learning environments. We record electroencephalographic (EEG) data of students watching online lecture videos and use it to predict engagement rated by human annotators. An evaluation of prior EEG-based engagement metrics that utilize power spectral density (PSD) features is presented...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Maria A Monserud
OBJECTIVE: This study examines age-at-immigration disparities in later-life trajectories of cognitive functioning among immigrant men and women of Mexican descent. This study also considers the role of socioeconomic resources, family status, and church attendance in these disparities. METHODS: This study draws on eight waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly and employs growth curve models. This study distinguished between immigrants who moved from Mexico to the U...
November 15, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Maja P Mattle-Greminger, Tugce Bilgin Sonay, Alexander Nater, Marc Pybus, Tariq Desai, Guillem de Valles, Ferran Casals, Aylwyn Scally, Jaume Bertranpetit, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Carel P van Schaik, Maria Anisimova, Michael Krützen
BACKGROUND: Integrating demography and adaptive evolution is pivotal to understanding the evolutionary history and conservation of great apes. However, little is known about the adaptive evolution of our closest relatives, in particular if and to what extent adaptions to environmental differences have occurred. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing data from critically endangered orangutans from North Sumatra (Pongo abelii) and Borneo (P. pygmaeus) to investigate adaptive responses of each species to environmental differences during the Pleistocene...
November 15, 2018: Genome Biology
Lynne B Klasko-Foster, Lina M Jandorf, Deborah O Erwin, Marc T Kiviniemi
African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer, which may be due to low adherence to screening recommendations. Previous studies have found relationships between decision-making factors and screening behavior, but few have looked at both cognitive and affective factors or within a specifically African American sample. To better understand determinants that drive screening behavior, this study examines affective, cognitive, and social variables as predictors of colonoscopy in an age-eligible African American population...
November 14, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Angel Piriz, Dolly Reyes, Atul Narkhede, Vanessa A Guzman, Fawad Viqar, Irene B Meier, Mariana Budge, Pedro Mena, Stephen Dashnaw, Joseph Lee, Christiane Reitz, Jose Gutierrez, Luis Campos, Martin Medrano, Rafael Lantigua, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
The incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia are higher among Caribbean Hispanics than among non-Hispanic Whites. The causes of this health disparity remain elusive, partially because of the relative limited capacity for biomedical research in the developing countries that comprise Caribbean Latin America. To begin to address this issue, we were awarded a Development Research Award from the US NIH and Fogarty International Center in order to establish the local capacity to integrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into studies of cognitive aging and dementia in Dominican Republic, establish collaborations with Dominican investigators, and conduct a pilot study on the role of cerebrovascular markers in the clinical expression of AD...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Julene K Johnson, Anita L Stewart, Michael Acree, Anna M Nápoles, Jason D Flatt, Wendy B Max, Steven E Gregorich
Objectives: To test effects of the Community of Voices choir intervention on the health, well-being, and healthcare costs of racial/ethnically diverse older adults. Method: Twelve Administration-on-Aging-supported senior centers were cluster randomized into two groups: the intervention group started the choir immediately and a wait-list control group began the choir 6 months later. The 12-month choir program was designed for community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over...
November 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Penny L Brennan, Mark A Greenbaum, Sonne Lemke, Kathleen K Schutte
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated: (a) associations between long-term care residents' mental health disorder diagnoses and their pain self-reports and pain treatments, and (b) the extent to which communication, cognitive, and physical functioning problems help explain disparities in the pain and pain treatments of long-term care residents with and without mental health disorders. METHOD: Minimum Data Set 3.0 records of 8,300 residents of Department of Veterans Affairs Community Living Centers were used to determine statistically unadjusted and adjusted cross-sectional associations between residents' mental health diagnoses and their pain and pain treatments...
November 7, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Xiao Wang, Liuye Yao, Yuemei Zhao, Lidong Xing, Zhiyu Qian, Weitao Li, Yamin Yang
BACKGROUND: Discomfort evoked by stereoscopic depth has been widely concerned. Previous studies have proposed a comfortable disparity range and considered that disparities exceed this range would cause visual discomfort. Brain activity recordings including Electroencephalograph (EEG) monitoring enable better understanding of perceptual and cognitive processes related to stereo depth-induced visual comfort. METHODS: EEG data was collected using a stereo-visual evoked potential (VEP) test system by providing visual stimulus to subjects aged from 21 to 25 with normal stereoscopic vision...
November 3, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Morag E Taylor, Annie A Butler, Stephen R Lord, Kim Delbaere, Susan E Kurrle, A Stefanie Mikolaizak, Jacqueline C T Close
BACKGROUND: Awareness of physical ability may impact fall risk during everyday tasks. Therefore, we investigated perceived reach (PR; estimation of furthest reach distance), maximal reach (MR) and reach judgement error (RJE), and their relationships with neuropsychological and physical performance, and falls in older people with cognitive impairment (CI). METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 110 (mean age = 82 ± 7 years; female = 52%) older people with mild-moderate CI (MMSE 11-23; Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) < 83)...
October 30, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Christian L Ebbesen, Michele N Insanally, Charles D Kopec, Masayoshi Murakami, Akiko Saiki, Jeffrey C Erlich
Motor and premotor cortices are crucial for the control of movements. However, we still know little about how these areas contribute to higher-order motor control, such as deciding which movements to make and when to make them. Here we focus on rodent studies and review recent findings, which suggest that-in addition to motor control-neurons in motor cortices play a role in sensory integration, behavioral strategizing, working memory, and decision-making. We suggest that these seemingly disparate functions may subserve an evolutionarily conserved role in sensorimotor cognition and that further study of rodent motor cortices could make a major contribution to our understanding of the evolution and function of the mammalian frontal cortex...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Cynthia Chen, Julie M Zissimopoulos
Introduction: Disparities in dementia prevalence across racial/ethnic groups in the United States may not be narrowing over time. Methods: Data from Health and Retirement Study (2000 to 2012) were analyzed. Dementia was ascertained based on cognitive, functional measures. Logistic regression was used to quantify association between dementia and risk factors, including chronic conditions, use of drug treatment for them, separately for whites, blacks, and Hispanics...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
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