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Azat Akhmetov, Andrew D Ellington, Edward M Marcotte
BACKGROUND: Encoding arbitrary digital information in DNA has attracted attention as a potential avenue for large scale and long term data storage. However, in order to enable DNA data storage technologies there needs to be improvements in data storage fidelity (tolerance to mutation), the facility of writing and reading the data (biases and systematic error arising from synthesis and sequencing), and overall scalability. RESULTS: To this end, we have developed and implemented an encoding scheme that is suitable for detecting and correcting errors that may arise during storage, writing, and reading, such as those arising from nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions...
October 17, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Samuel M Poloyac, Jane E Cavanaugh, Nicholas E Hagemeier, Krishna Kumar, Russell B Melchert, James M O'Donnell, Ronny Priefer, Daniel R Touchette, Dorothy F Farrell, Kirsten F Block
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The 2017-2018 Research and Graduate Affairs Committee (RGAC) was given three charges aimed at helping academic pharmacy address barriers that must be overcome by both students and schools to attract, retain, and support the development of a diverse, well-rounded, and successful graduate student population. These charges were (1) identifying teaching methodologies, tools and opportunities that graduate programs can introduce into curriculum to overcome barriers to success of today's and tomorrow's learners; (2) developing a strategy for achieving member support of the 2016-2017 recommended graduate competencies by identifying gaps in and existing examples of courses or opportunities that achieve competency-based pharmacy graduate education; and (3) identifying potential strategies to address identified barriers to pursuing graduate education, especially among under-represented student populations...
September 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Yue He, Yu Lin, Yu Zhu, Ping Ping, Guishuan Wang, Fei Sun
The expression of many genes during the post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis is largely regulated by germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins at the level of post-transcription. One of these RNA binding proteins, YBX2, participates in mRNA storage and regulation of translation in haploid spermatids. How YBX2-stored mRNAs become translationally competent during spermiogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we report for the first time that YBX2 interacts with PAIP1, a protein translation enhancer, in vitro and in vivo...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tabitha R F Green, J Bryce Ortiz, Jordan L Harrison, Jonathan Lifshitz, Rachel K Rowe
Histology and immunohistochemistry are routine methods of analysis to visualize microscopic anatomy and localize proteins within biological tissue. In neuroscience, as well as a plethora of other scientific fields, these techniques are used. Immunohistochemistry can be done on slide mounted tissue or free-floating sections. Preparing slide-mounted samples is a time intensive process. The following protocol for a technique, called the Megabrain, reduced the time taken to cryosection and mount brain tissue by up to 90% by combining multiple brains into a single frozen block...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jan-Hinnerk Saathoff, Lisa Käshammer, Katja Lammens, Robert Thomas Byrne, Karl-Peter Hopfner
The Mre11-Rad50 complex is a DNA double-strand break sensor that cleaves blocked DNA ends and hairpins by an ATP-dependent endo/exonuclease activity for subsequent repair. For that, Mre11-Rad50 complexes, including the Escherichia coli homolog SbcCD, can endonucleolytically cleave one or both strands near a protein block and process free DNA ends via a 3'-5' exonuclease, but a unified basis for these distinct activities is lacking. Here we analyzed DNA binding, ATPase and nuclease reactions on different DNA substrates...
October 2, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Willem J P van Enckevort, Wim L Noorduin, Sander Graswinckel, Paul Verwer, Elias Vlieg
A growth cell suitable for microscopic in situ observation of well-controlled crystal growth from the vapor phase is used to study the heteroepitaxial growth of anthraquinone crystals on a (100) NaCl substrate. In this, the morphology, orientation, nucleation, and growth rate of the crystals is studied as a function of driving force, Δμ/ kT . At the lowest Δμ/ kT , the crystals are block-shaped and show no preferential orientation with respect to the substrate. Increasing the driving force leads to the growth of oriented block- and needle-shaped crystals, which nucleate from macrosteps on the substrate...
September 5, 2018: Crystal Growth & Design
Rithea Ngeth, Brian M Kurkoski, Yuto Lim, Yasuo Tan
This paper investigates the design of overlapped chunked codes (OCC) for multi-source multi-relay networks where a physical-layer network coding approach, compute-and-forward (CF) based on nested lattice codes (NLC), is applied for the simultaneous transmissions from the sources to the relays. This code is called OCC/CF. In this paper, OCC is applied before NLC before transmitting for each source. Random linear network coding is applied within each chunk. A decodability condition to design OCC/CF is provided...
September 25, 2018: Sensors
Caleb P Canders, Pravin K Krishna, Roya S Moheimani, Catherine M Weaver
BACKGROUND: Acute on chronic neuropathic pain is often refractory to analgesics and can be challenging to treat in the emergency department (ED). In addition, systemic medications such as opiates and nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs have risks, including hypotension and kidney injury, respectively. Difficulties in managing pain in patients with neuropathy can lead to prolonged ED stays, undesired admissions, and subsequent increased health care costs. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman who presented to the ED on two separate occasions for left forearm pain secondary to chronic ulnar neuropathy...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gauri Joshi, Chetan Chauhan, Sandip Das
The availability of a large number of whole-genome sequences allows comparative genomic analysis to reveal and understand evolution of regulatory regions and elements. The role played by events such as whole-genome and segmental duplications followed by genome fractionation in shaping genomic landscape and in expansion of gene families is crucial toward developing insights into evolutionary trends and consequences such as sequence and functional diversification. Members of Brassicaceae are known to have experienced several rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) that have been termed as paleopolyploidy, mesopolyploidy, and neopolyploidy...
September 21, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Kazuo Ohkuma, Takashi Kameda, Kazuto Terada
Directly milling zirconia computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) crowns from fully sintered zirconia blocks using a five-axis laser milling system, compared with three-axis milling and full sintering by heating milled semi-sintered crowns, was investigated. The mechanical characteristics of zirconia specimens were similar across groups. The order of the marginal gap was three-axis>conventional (lingual thickness of 1.5 mm>0.5 mm)>five-axis group (close to zero). The marginal shape was almost perfectly circular in all groups...
September 14, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
G Corso, F De Lorenzi, E Vicini, G Pagani, P Veronesi, M Sargenti, F Magnoni, P Naninato, P Maisonneuve, C Sangalli, M Rietjens, Viviana Galimberti
Nipple- and areola-sparing mastectomy is a novel surgical approach that preserves the nipple-areolar complex. Patients with moderate and/or severe breast ptosis are usually not eligible for this surgical approach. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of nonconventional surgical approaches for nipple-sparing mastectomy. One hundred consecutive patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer (BC) were enrolled in this study. Clinical and pathological data such as body mass index, smoking status, breast ptosis, complications, and aesthetic satisfaction (Breast-Q test) were collected...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Régis Vaillancourt, Mike P Zender, Laurie Coulon, Annie Pouliot
Background: A panel of medication management experts previously identified 9 key medication safety issues and high-alert drug classes as representing the most pressing medication-handling issues in health care. Objective: To develop medication safety pictograms depicting medication safety issues and high-alert drug classes that represent medication-handling risks for health care personnel. Methods: An iterative design process, including activities such as semiotic analysis, design/redesign, and evaluation, was used to develop medication safety pictograms...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Shohana Islam, Dominic Laaf, Belén Infanzón, Helena Pelantová, Mehdi Dolatabadi Davari, Felix Jakob, Vladimír Křen, Lothar Elling, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Sulfated polysaccharides like cellulose can mimic the functionalities of pathophysiologically important glycosaminoglycans. Enzymatic sulfation offers a green chemistry route to selective (mono)sulfation of oligosaccharides (e.g. cellobiose as a building block of cellulose) in aqueous solution, at ambient temperature, and high chemoselectivity. Here, we report the first KnowVolution campaign for the aryl sulfotransferase B (ASTB) from Desulfitobacterium hafniense to advance ASTB toward a synthetically attractive biocatalyst...
August 28, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shally Awasthi, Tuhina Verma, Monica Agarwal, Chandra Mani Pandey
BACKGROUND: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide including India. Many of these deaths can be averted by creating awareness in community about early symptoms of CAP and by ensuring availability of round the clock, quality health care. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of an innovative package of orienting doctors and community health workers about community perceptions on CAP barriers to qualified health care seeking, plus infrastructural strengthening by (i) providing "Pneumonia Drug Kit" (PDK) (ii) establishing "Pneumonia Management Corner" (PMC) at additional primary health center (PHCs) and (iii) "Pneumonia Management Unit" (PMU) at Community health center (CHCs) along with one of 4 different behavior change communication interventions: 1...
August 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Arnold H Levinson, Ming Ma, Leonard A Jason, Joseph G L Lee, Hope Landrine, Deborah H Glueck, Joseph R DiFranza
Importance: Despite progress against tobacco sales to minors, retailers continue to violate state and federal laws and supply adolescent smokers with tobacco products. Government-sanctioned surveys underestimate the extent of the problem, and retailer associations use these data to block stricter enforcement policies. Objectives: To assess the validity of the US federal retailer violation rate (RVR) as an estimate of the proportion of retailers that sell tobacco to minors and to investigate what proportion always or almost always sells vs refuses to sell cigarettes to minors...
October 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Jingyou Yu, Shan-Lu Liu
Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are one of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that restrict entry of enveloped viruses, including flaviviruses, filoviruses and retroviruses. It has been recently reported that in U87 glioblastoma cells IFITM proteins inhibit HIV-1 entry in a co-receptor-dependent manner, that is, IFITM1 is more inhibitory on CCR5 tropic HIV-1 whereas IFITM2/3 confers a greater suppression of CXCR4 counterparts. However, how entry of HIV-1 with distinct co-receptor usage is modulated by different IFITM orthologs in physiologically relevant CD4⁺ T cells and monocytes/macrophages has not been investigated in detail...
August 7, 2018: Viruses
G R Simonds, E A Marvin, L S Apfel, Z Elias, G A Howes, M R Witcher, E N Weaver, J C Fraser, J J Synkowski, J T Prickett, C M Rogers, C M Busch, M J Benko, N Sou, M J Churning, D C Summers, H Sontheimer
Many pre-health students pursue extracurricular shadowing opportunities to gain clinical experience. The Virginia Tech School of Neuroscience introduced a formal course that provides a clinical experience superior to that received by many medical students. This course is composed of weekly 75-minute seminars that cover diseases affecting the nervous system, their diagnosis and treatment, complemented by weekly half-day intensive clinical experiences with unprecedented access to a team of neurosurgeons (in hospital operating rooms, Intensive Care Units, emergency room, angiographic suites, and wards)...
2018: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Paradise Madlala, Paulien Van de Velde, Barbara Van Remoortel, Sofie Vets, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Kristel Van Laethem, Rik Gijsbers, Rik Schrijvers, Zeger Debyser
Objectives: Elite controllers (EC) are a rare group of individuals living with HIV-1 who naturally control HIV-1 replication to levels below the limit of detection without antiretroviral therapy (ART) and rarely progress to AIDS. The mechanisms contributing to this control remain incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we have assessed whether cellular host factors could modulate HIV-1 replication post-entry in a controller-discordant couple living with HIV-1. Methods: CD4 T cells from a controller-discordant couple, one partner being an EC and the other an HIV-1 progressor (PR), and healthy controls (HC) were isolated, activated and infected with VSV-G pseudotyped yellow fluorescent protein-encoding single-round HIV-1 virus (HIV-YFP)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Nemany A N Hanafy, Maged El-Kemary, Stefano Leporatti
Micelles as colloidal suspension have attracted considerable attention due to their potential use for both cancer diagnosis and therapy. These structures have proven their ability to deliver poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs, improve drug stability, and have good penetration and site-specificity, leading to enhance therapeutic efficacy. Micelles are composed of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components assembled into nanosized spherical, ellipsoid, cylindrical, or unilamellar structures. For their simple formation, they are widely studied, either by using opposite polymers attachment consisting of two or more block copolymers, or by using fatty acid molecules that can modify themselves in a rounded shape...
July 20, 2018: Cancers
Lauren E Hamilton, Joao Suzuki, Genevieve Acteau, Mengqi Shi, Wei Xu, Marie-Charlotte Meinsohn, Peter Sutovsky, Richard Oko
The sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor (SOAF) resides in the sperm perinuclear theca (PT). A consensus has been reached that SOAF most likely resides in the post-acrosomal sheath (PAS), which is the first region of the PT to solubilize upon sperm-oocyte fusion. There are two SOAF candidates under consideration: PLCZ1 and WBP2NL. A mouse gene germline ablation of the latter showed that mice remain fertile with no observable phenotype despite the fact that a competitive inhibitor of WBP2NL, derived from its PPXY motif, blocks oocyte activation when co-injected with WBP2NL or spermatozoa...
July 11, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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