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Jingyou Yu, Shan-Lu Liu
Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are one of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that restrict entry of enveloped viruses, including flaviviruses, filoviruses and retroviruses. It has been recently reported that in U87 glioblastoma cells IFITM proteins inhibit HIV-1 entry in a co-receptor-dependent manner, that is, IFITM1 is more inhibitory on CCR5 tropic HIV-1 whereas IFITM2/3 confers a greater suppression of CXCR4 counterparts. However, how entry of HIV-1 with distinct co-receptor usage is modulated by different IFITM orthologs in physiologically relevant CD4⁺ T cells and monocytes/macrophages has not been investigated in detail...
August 7, 2018: Viruses
G R Simonds, E A Marvin, L S Apfel, Z Elias, G A Howes, M R Witcher, E N Weaver, J C Fraser, J J Synkowski, J T Prickett, C M Rogers, C M Busch, M J Benko, N Sou, M J Churning, D C Summers, H Sontheimer
Many pre-health students pursue extracurricular shadowing opportunities to gain clinical experience. The Virginia Tech School of Neuroscience introduced a formal course that provides a clinical experience superior to that received by many medical students. This course is composed of weekly 75-minute seminars that cover diseases affecting the nervous system, their diagnosis and treatment, complemented by weekly half-day intensive clinical experiences with unprecedented access to a team of neurosurgeons (in hospital operating rooms, Intensive Care Units, emergency room, angiographic suites, and wards)...
2018: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Paradise Madlala, Paulien Van de Velde, Barbara Van Remoortel, Sofie Vets, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Kristel Van Laethem, Rik Gijsbers, Rik Schrijvers, Zeger Debyser
Objectives: Elite controllers (EC) are a rare group of individuals living with HIV-1 who naturally control HIV-1 replication to levels below the limit of detection without antiretroviral therapy (ART) and rarely progress to AIDS. The mechanisms contributing to this control remain incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we have assessed whether cellular host factors could modulate HIV-1 replication post-entry in a controller-discordant couple living with HIV-1. Methods: CD4 T cells from a controller-discordant couple, one partner being an EC and the other an HIV-1 progressor (PR), and healthy controls (HC) were isolated, activated and infected with VSV-G pseudotyped yellow fluorescent protein-encoding single-round HIV-1 virus (HIV-YFP)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Nemany A N Hanafy, Maged El-Kemary, Stefano Leporatti
Micelles as colloidal suspension have attracted considerable attention due to their potential use for both cancer diagnosis and therapy. These structures have proven their ability to deliver poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs, improve drug stability, and have good penetration and site-specificity, leading to enhance therapeutic efficacy. Micelles are composed of hydrophobic and hydrophilic components assembled into nanosized spherical, ellipsoid, cylindrical, or unilamellar structures. For their simple formation, they are widely studied, either by using opposite polymers attachment consisting of two or more block copolymers, or by using fatty acid molecules that can modify themselves in a rounded shape...
July 20, 2018: Cancers
Lauren E Hamilton, Joao Suzuki, Genevieve Acteau, Mengqi Shi, Wei Xu, Marie-Charlotte Meinsohn, Peter Sutovsky, Richard Oko
The sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor (SOAF) resides in the sperm perinuclear theca (PT). A consensus has been reached that SOAF most likely resides in the post-acrosomal sheath (PAS), which is the first region of the PT to solubilize upon sperm-oocyte fusion. There are two SOAF candidates under consideration: PLCZ1 and WBP2NL. A mouse gene germline ablation of the latter showed that mice remain fertile with no observable phenotype despite the fact that a competitive inhibitor of WBP2NL, derived from its PPXY motif, blocks oocyte activation when co-injected with WBP2NL or spermatozoa...
July 11, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Shujuan Wang, Hongyu Chen, Xiaoqin Xu, Gengjia Tian, Li Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To develop a washing tube for minimally invasive treatment of sinus cavity pressure ulcer, and to observe its clinical effect. METHODS: Using transparent non-toxic PU plastic to make sinus cavity flushing and drainage tube, and with rounded hemispherical blunt head for the entry of the sinus, the perforated tube in the sinus cavity was designed with perforated holes (3 rows, 5 for each row); the end of the tube is blocked with heparin cap. The invented sinus cavity flushing tube was used for clinical observation and its use effect was observed...
June 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Imane El Hajjaji, Giuliano Becker, Teresa Kus, Alain Vinet, Artur Berkovitz, Marcio Sturmer
BACKGROUND: Many diagnostic criteria for the differential diagnosis of wide complex tachycardia (WCT) are complex and not completely accurate. Incorrect diagnosis is also related to error in applying criteria. OBJECTIVES: To propose a novel reliable criterion for wide QRS complexes' differential diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred Electrocardiograms (ECGs) with wide QRS complexes were analyzed using the ECG software. Five variables were measured during the first 20 ms of QRS in leads V1 and V2 and compared between premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and conducted supraventricular impulse with bundle branch block (BBB) groups...
July 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Caroline Weydert, Bart van Heertum, Lieve Dirix, Stéphanie De Houwer, Flore De Wit, Jan Mast, Steven J Husson, Katrien Busschots, Renate König, Rik Gijsbers, Jan De Rijck, Zeger Debyser
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on cellular proteins, so-called cofactors, to complete its replication cycle. In search for new therapeutic targets we identified the DNA and RNA binding protein Y-box-binding Protein 1 (YB-1) as a cofactor supporting early and late steps of HIV replication. YB-1 depletion resulted in a 10-fold decrease in HIV-1 replication in different cell lines. Dissection of the replication defects revealed that knockdown of YB-1 is associated with a 2- to 5-fold decrease in virion production due to interference with the viral RNA metabolism...
2018: PloS One
Zhihui Li, Feiping Nie, Xiaojun Chang, Liqiang Nie, Huaxiang Zhang, Yi Yang
Spectral clustering (SC) has been proven to be effective in various applications. However, the learning scheme of SC is suboptimal in that it learns the cluster indicator from a fixed graph structure, which usually requires a rounding procedure to further partition the data. Also, the obtained cluster number cannot reflect the ground truth number of connected components in the graph. To alleviate these drawbacks, we propose a rank-constrained SC with flexible embedding framework. Specifically, an adaptive probabilistic neighborhood learning process is employed to recover the block-diagonal affinity matrix of an ideal graph...
April 19, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Chen Gong, Dacheng Tao, Xiaojun Chang, Jian Yang
Label propagation aims to iteratively diffuse the label information from labeled examples to unlabeled examples over a similarity graph. Current label propagation algorithms cannot consistently yield satisfactory performance due to two reasons: one is the instability of single propagation method in dealing with various practical data, and the other one is the improper propagation sequence ignoring the labeling difficulties of different examples. To remedy above defects, this paper proposes a novel propagation algorithm called hybrid diffusion under ensemble teaching (HyDEnT)...
December 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Steven J Smith, Xue Zhi Zhao, Terrence R Burke, Stephen H Hughes
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) have emerged as clinically effective therapeutics that inhibit HIV-1 replication by blocking the strand transfer reaction, catalyzed by HIV-1 integrase (IN). Of the three FDA-approved INSTIs, Dolutegravir ( DTG ) is the least apt to select for resistance. However, recent salvage therapy regimens had low response rates with therapies that included DTG , suggesting that DTG resistance can be selected in patients.Using a single-round infection assay, we evaluated a collection of our best inhibitors and DTG against a broad panel of INSTI-resistant mutants...
July 9, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Anne-Claire Langlois, Carine Marinach, Giulia Manzoni, Olivier Silvie
Sporozoite forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium are transmitted by mosquitoes and first infect the liver for an initial round of replication before parasite proliferation in the blood. The molecular mechanisms involved during sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes remain poorly understood. In previous studies, two receptors of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the tetraspanin CD81 and the Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI), were shown to play an important role during entry of Plasmodium sporozoites into hepatocytic cells...
2018: PloS One
E Larouzée, A Arfi, L Allègre, S Bendifallah, E Darai, S Zilberman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Linyue Zhang, Edward King, Ray Luo, Han Li
Bacteria undergoing anaerobic fermentation must maintain redox balance. In vivo metabolic evolution schemes based on this principle have been limited to targeting NADH-dependent reactions. Here, we developed a facile, specific, and high-throughput growth-based selection platform for NADPH-consuming reactions in vivo, based on an engineered NADPH-producing glycolytic pathway in Escherichia coli. We used the selection system in the directed evolution of a NADH-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii toward utilization of NADPH...
July 20, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Alexander Kirpich, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Jessica M Wedow, Jeremy R B Newman, George Michailidis, Lauren M McIntyre
In omics experiments, variable selection involves a large number of metabolites/ genes and a small number of samples (the n < p problem). The ultimate goal is often the identification of one, or a few features that are different among conditions- a biomarker. Complicating biomarker identification, the p variables often contain a correlation structure due to the biology of the experiment making identifying causal compounds from correlated compounds difficult. Additionally, there may be elements in the experimental design (blocks, batches) that introduce structure in the data...
2018: PloS One
Weihua Zhou, Yibin Zhang, Yayue Zeng, Minyuan Peng, Hui Li, Shuming Sun, Bianying Ma, Yanpeng Wang, Mao Ye, Jing Liu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disease and is considered incurable. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is closely related to the proliferation and adhesion of MM. Using protein-SELEX, we performed a screen for aptamers that bind GST-ANXA2 from a library, and GST protein was used for negative selection. The enrichment of the ssDNA pool was monitored by filter-binding assay during selection. After nine rounds of screening and high-throughput sequencing, we obtained six candidate aptamers that bind to the ANXA2 protein...
August 2018: Biochimie
Angela N Schmitz, Lee-Anne J Walter, Wade T Nichols, John P Hutcheson, Ty E Lawrence
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fabrication yields of carcasses from beef steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and fed at maintenance (MA) or ad libitum (AB) intake levels. Beef steers (n = 56) from a common sire were blocked (n = 28 per block) by terminal growth implant and sorted into pairs by BW. Four pairs (n = 8) were harvested on day 0; the remaining 24 pairs (n = 48) were assigned to a dietary intake level (MA or AB) and days on feed (28 or 56 d). Within pairs of MA or AB intakes, steers harvested on day 56 were randomly assigned to supplementation of ZH (90 mg·d-1 per steer) for 20 d followed by a withdrawal period of 4 d or control (C)...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Viktória Fisi, Emese Kátai, József Orbán, Silvia Dossena, Attila Miseta, Tamás Nagy
O -linked N -acetylglucosamine ( O -GlcNAc) is a dynamic post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O -GlcNAc modification influences many cellular mechanisms, including carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction and protein degradation. Multiple studies also showed that cell cycle might be modulated by O -GlcNAc. Although the role of O -GlcNAc in the regulation of some cell cycle processes such as mitotic spindle organization or histone phosphorylation is well established, the general behaviour of O -GlcNAc regulation during cell cycle is still controversial...
May 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Changsheng Deng, Bo Huang, Qi Wang, Wanting Wu, Shaoqin Zheng, Hongying Zhang, Di Li, Danghong Feng, Guoming Li, Linlu Xue, Tao Yang, Fei Tuo, Fouad Mohadji, Xin-Zhuan Su, Qin Xu, Zhibing Wu, Li Lin, Jiuyao Zhou, Hong Yan, Affane Bacar, Kamal Said Abdallah, Rachadi A Kéké, Ahamada Msa Mliva, Moussa Mohamed, Xinhua Wang, Shiguang Huang, Fatihou Oithik, Xiao-Bo Li, Fangli Lu, Michael P Fay, Xiao-Hong Liu, Thomas E Wellems, Jianping Song
Background: Mass drug administration (MDA), with or without low-dose primaquine (PMQLD), is being considered for malaria elimination programs. The potential of PMQLD to block malaria transmission by mosquitoes must be balanced against liabilities of its use. Methods: Artemisinin-piperaquine (AP), with or without PMQLD, was administered in 3 monthly rounds across Anjouan Island, Union of Comoros. Plasmodium falciparum malaria rates, mortality, parasitemias, adverse events, and PfK13 Kelch-propeller gene polymorphisms were evaluated...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Radu Ionescu, Daniel Dima, Nicolae Antohi
Background: Common methods for addressing minor tuberous breast (type 0; normal mammary base breast with isolated areolar herniation) do not solve the underlying pathology and may leave an unsightly scar. Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of a simple, scarless method based on a novel 'compass rose' technique, which addresses the etiology of minor tuberous breast and other cases desiring small areolar diameter reductions. Methods: The technique uses three layers of suturing, one in a compass pattern and two in round block...
May 28, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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