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F Gueneau, U Ravn, N Fischer
The assembly of bispecific antibodies (bsAb) that retain the structure of a standard IgG can be challenging as the correct pairing of the different heavy and light chains has to be ensured while unwanted side products kept to a minimum. The use of antibodies sharing a common chain facilitates assembly of such bsAb formats but requires additional efforts during the initial discovery phase. We have developed a native bsAb format called κλ body based on antibodies that, while being specific for different antigens, share the same heavy chain...
November 15, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Ruijun Li, Chen Chen, Kuangchao Fan, Zhiwei Wang, Fangfang Liu, Qiangxian Huang
Micro ball tips with high precision, small diameter, and high stiffness stems are required to measure microstructures with high aspect ratio. Existing ball tips cannot meet such demands because of their weak qualities. This study used an arc-discharge melting method to fabricate a micro monolithic tungsten ball tip on a tungsten stylus. The principles of arc discharge and surface tension phenomenon were introduced. The experimental setup was designed and established. Appropriate process parameters, such as impulse voltage, electro discharge time, and discharge gap were determined...
March 19, 2018: Micromachines
Qiong Li, Danhua Zhou, Jiafeng Pan, Zhi Liu, Junhua Chen
In this work, a label-free fluorescence biosensor for ultrasensitive and simple detection of the mecA gene of Staphylococcus aureus was proposed by using an exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted cascade signal amplification strategy. The 3' end-extruding hairpin probe (HP) acted as the target recognition element and the caged G-quadruplex was used as the signal reporter. Without the mecA gene, the HP probe cannot be digested by Exo III, as the G-rich sequences are blocked in the stem of the HP probe. In the presence of the mecA gene, the hybridization of the mecA gene with the 3' end-extruding HP probe triggers the digestion reaction of Exo III, liberating the mecA gene and the mecA gene analogue...
November 7, 2018: Analyst
Eleanor Russell-Goldman, Jason L Hornick, Xiaohua Qian, Vickie Y Jo
BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a round cell sarcoma that can be challenging to diagnose on cytologic material given its significant overlap with numerous mesenchymal, epithelial, and lymphoid cytomorphologic mimics. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of a novel marker, NKX2.2, in the diagnosis of ES in cytologic material and its ability to distinguish ES from its mimics. METHODS: NKX2.2 immunohistochemistry was performed on cell blocks from 107 fine-needle aspirations, and nuclear expression was scored semiquantitatively for extent and intensity...
November 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Adam Ciezarek, Owen Osborne, Oliver N Shipley, Edward J Brooks, Sean Tracey, Jaime McAllister, Luke Gardner, Michael J E Sternberg, Barbara Block, Vincent Savolainen
Birds, mammals, and certain fishes, including tunas, opahs and lamnid sharks, are endothermic, conserving internally generated, metabolic heat to maintain body or tissue temperatures above that of the environment. Bluefin tunas are commercially important fishes worldwide and some populations are threatened. They are renowned for their endothermy, maintaining elevated temperatures of the oxidative locomotor muscle, viscera, brain and eyes, and occupying cold, productive high-latitude waters. Less cold-tolerant tunas, such as yellowfin tuna, by contrast, remain in warm-temperate to tropical waters year-round, reproducing more rapidly than most temperate bluefin tuna populations, providing resiliency in the face of large scale industrial fisheries...
October 26, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Yanhui Cai, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Costin Tomescu, Fengtian Xue, Guoxin Wu, Bonnie J Howell, Yong Ai, Jie Sun, Livio Azzoni, Carole Le Coz, Neil Romberg, Luis J Montaner
Clearance of HIV-infected germinal center (GC) CD4+ follicular helper T cells (Tfh) after combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential to an HIV cure. Blocking B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6, the master transcription factor for Tfh cells) represses HIV infection of tonsillar CD4+ Tfh ex vivo , reduces GC formation and limits immune activation in vivo We assessed the anti-HIV activity of a novel BCL6 inhibitor, FX1, in Tfh/non-Tfh CD4+ T cells, and its impact on T cell activation and SAMHD1 phosphorylation (Thr592)...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
Azat Akhmetov, Andrew D Ellington, Edward M Marcotte
BACKGROUND: Encoding arbitrary digital information in DNA has attracted attention as a potential avenue for large scale and long term data storage. However, in order to enable DNA data storage technologies there needs to be improvements in data storage fidelity (tolerance to mutation), the facility of writing and reading the data (biases and systematic error arising from synthesis and sequencing), and overall scalability. RESULTS: To this end, we have developed and implemented an encoding scheme that is suitable for detecting and correcting errors that may arise during storage, writing, and reading, such as those arising from nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions...
October 17, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Samuel M Poloyac, Jane E Cavanaugh, Nicholas E Hagemeier, Krishna Kumar, Russell B Melchert, James M O'Donnell, Ronny Priefer, Daniel R Touchette, Dorothy F Farrell, Kirsten F Block
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The 2017-2018 Research and Graduate Affairs Committee (RGAC) was given three charges aimed at helping academic pharmacy address barriers that must be overcome by both students and schools to attract, retain, and support the development of a diverse, well-rounded, and successful graduate student population. These charges were (1) identifying teaching methodologies, tools and opportunities that graduate programs can introduce into curriculum to overcome barriers to success of today's and tomorrow's learners; (2) developing a strategy for achieving member support of the 2016-2017 recommended graduate competencies by identifying gaps in and existing examples of courses or opportunities that achieve competency-based pharmacy graduate education; and (3) identifying potential strategies to address identified barriers to pursuing graduate education, especially among under-represented student populations...
September 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Yue He, Yu Lin, Yu Zhu, Ping Ping, Guishuan Wang, Fei Sun
The expression of many genes during the post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis is largely regulated by germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins at the level of post-transcription. One of these RNA binding proteins, YBX2, participates in mRNA storage and regulation of translation in haploid spermatids. How YBX2-stored mRNAs become translationally competent during spermiogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we report for the first time that YBX2 interacts with PAIP1, a protein translation enhancer, in vitro and in vivo...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Tabitha R F Green, J Bryce Ortiz, Jordan L Harrison, Jonathan Lifshitz, Rachel K Rowe
Histology and immunohistochemistry are routine methods of analysis to visualize microscopic anatomy and localize proteins within biological tissue. In neuroscience, as well as a plethora of other scientific fields, these techniques are used. Immunohistochemistry can be done on slide mounted tissue or free-floating sections. Preparing slide-mounted samples is a time intensive process. The following protocol for a technique, called the Megabrain, reduced the time taken to cryosection and mount brain tissue by up to 90% by combining multiple brains into a single frozen block...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jan-Hinnerk Saathoff, Lisa Käshammer, Katja Lammens, Robert Thomas Byrne, Karl-Peter Hopfner
The Mre11-Rad50 complex is a DNA double-strand break sensor that cleaves blocked DNA ends and hairpins by an ATP-dependent endo/exonuclease activity for subsequent repair. For that, Mre11-Rad50 complexes, including the Escherichia coli homolog SbcCD, can endonucleolytically cleave one or both strands near a protein block and process free DNA ends via a 3'-5' exonuclease, but a unified basis for these distinct activities is lacking. Here we analyzed DNA binding, ATPase and nuclease reactions on different DNA substrates...
October 2, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Willem J P van Enckevort, Wim L Noorduin, Sander Graswinckel, Paul Verwer, Elias Vlieg
A growth cell suitable for microscopic in situ observation of well-controlled crystal growth from the vapor phase is used to study the heteroepitaxial growth of anthraquinone crystals on a (100) NaCl substrate. In this, the morphology, orientation, nucleation, and growth rate of the crystals is studied as a function of driving force, Δμ/ kT . At the lowest Δμ/ kT , the crystals are block-shaped and show no preferential orientation with respect to the substrate. Increasing the driving force leads to the growth of oriented block- and needle-shaped crystals, which nucleate from macrosteps on the substrate...
September 5, 2018: Crystal Growth & Design
Rithea Ngeth, Brian M Kurkoski, Yuto Lim, Yasuo Tan
This paper investigates the design of overlapped chunked codes (OCC) for multi-source multi-relay networks where a physical-layer network coding approach, compute-and-forward (CF) based on nested lattice codes (NLC), is applied for the simultaneous transmissions from the sources to the relays. This code is called OCC/CF. In this paper, OCC is applied before NLC before transmitting for each source. Random linear network coding is applied within each chunk. A decodability condition to design OCC/CF is provided...
September 25, 2018: Sensors
Caleb P Canders, Pravin K Krishna, Roya S Moheimani, Catherine M Weaver
BACKGROUND: Acute on chronic neuropathic pain is often refractory to analgesics and can be challenging to treat in the emergency department (ED). In addition, systemic medications such as opiates and nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs have risks, including hypotension and kidney injury, respectively. Difficulties in managing pain in patients with neuropathy can lead to prolonged ED stays, undesired admissions, and subsequent increased health care costs. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman who presented to the ED on two separate occasions for left forearm pain secondary to chronic ulnar neuropathy...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gauri Joshi, Chetan Chauhan, Sandip Das
The availability of a large number of whole-genome sequences allows comparative genomic analysis to reveal and understand evolution of regulatory regions and elements. The role played by events such as whole-genome and segmental duplications followed by genome fractionation in shaping genomic landscape and in expansion of gene families is crucial toward developing insights into evolutionary trends and consequences such as sequence and functional diversification. Members of Brassicaceae are known to have experienced several rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) that have been termed as paleopolyploidy, mesopolyploidy, and neopolyploidy...
December 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
Kazuo Ohkuma, Takashi Kameda, Kazuto Terada
Directly milling zirconia computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) crowns from fully sintered zirconia blocks using a five-axis laser milling system, compared with three-axis milling and full sintering by heating milled semi-sintered crowns, was investigated. The mechanical characteristics of zirconia specimens were similar across groups. The order of the marginal gap was three-axis>conventional (lingual thickness of 1.5 mm>0.5 mm)>five-axis group (close to zero). The marginal shape was almost perfectly circular in all groups...
September 14, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
G Corso, F De Lorenzi, E Vicini, G Pagani, P Veronesi, M Sargenti, F Magnoni, P Naninato, P Maisonneuve, C Sangalli, M Rietjens, Viviana Galimberti
Nipple- and areola-sparing mastectomy is a novel surgical approach that preserves the nipple-areolar complex. Patients with moderate and/or severe breast ptosis are usually not eligible for this surgical approach. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of nonconventional surgical approaches for nipple-sparing mastectomy. One hundred consecutive patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer (BC) were enrolled in this study. Clinical and pathological data such as body mass index, smoking status, breast ptosis, complications, and aesthetic satisfaction (Breast-Q test) were collected...
December 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Régis Vaillancourt, Mike P Zender, Laurie Coulon, Annie Pouliot
Background: A panel of medication management experts previously identified 9 key medication safety issues and high-alert drug classes as representing the most pressing medication-handling issues in health care. Objective: To develop medication safety pictograms depicting medication safety issues and high-alert drug classes that represent medication-handling risks for health care personnel. Methods: An iterative design process, including activities such as semiotic analysis, design/redesign, and evaluation, was used to develop medication safety pictograms...
July 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Shohana Islam, Dominic Laaf, Belén Infanzón, Helena Pelantová, Mehdi D Davari, Felix Jakob, Vladimír Křen, Lothar Elling, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Sulfated polysaccharides such as cellulose can mimic the functionalities of pathophysiologically important glycosaminoglycans. Enzymatic sulfation offers a green chemistry route to selective (mono)sulfation of oligosaccharides (e.g., cellobiose as a building block of cellulose) in aqueous solution, at ambient temperature, and high chemoselectivity. Here, we report the first KnowVolution campaign for the aryl sulfotransferase B (ASTB) from Desulfitobacterium hafniense to advance ASTB toward a synthetically attractive biocatalyst...
November 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shally Awasthi, Tuhina Verma, Monica Agarwal, Chandra Mani Pandey
BACKGROUND: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide including India. Many of these deaths can be averted by creating awareness in community about early symptoms of CAP and by ensuring availability of round the clock, quality health care. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of an innovative package of orienting doctors and community health workers about community perceptions on CAP barriers to qualified health care seeking, plus infrastructural strengthening by (i) providing "Pneumonia Drug Kit" (PDK) (ii) establishing "Pneumonia Management Corner" (PMC) at additional primary health center (PHCs) and (iii) "Pneumonia Management Unit" (PMU) at Community health center (CHCs) along with one of 4 different behavior change communication interventions: 1...
August 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
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