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Raw food

Maria Schirone, Pierina Visciano, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi
The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production...
October 18, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Mónica Díaz-Bao, Patricia Regal, Rocío Barreiro, Cristina A Fente, Alberto Cepeda
A fast and facile method for the fabrication of magnetic molecularly imprinted stir-bars (MMIP-SB) has been developed, using a combination of imprinting technology and magnetite. Magnetite was prepared in the laboratory from the raw and embedded into molecularly imprinted polymers through a process of bulk polymerization. This novel design was applied to the analysis of aflatoxins, one of the most important groups of mycotoxins in terms of occurrence and toxicity. In the context of food safety, molecularly imprinted polymers are a promising tool to achieve selective and accessible methods of extraction for different residues and contaminants...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Aslaug Drotningsvik, Svein A Mjøs, Daniela M Pampanin, Rasa Slizyte, Ana Carvajal, Tore Remman, Ingmar Høgøy, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen
The world's fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Nicole H Martin, Aljoša Trmčić, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Kathryn J Boor, Martin Wiedmann
Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amma Amponsah, Balunkeswar Nayak
The extraction of soy proteins for soy allergen detections is conventionally achieved with PBS buffer for at least 2 h at room temperature or 4 °C. This method has been reported to be inefficient due to time consumption and inadequate protein extraction resulting in false negative allergen detection and mislabeling of foods containing allergenic proteins. This study investigated the application of microwave (MAE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) techniques to extract and improve recovery of allergens from various soy matrices...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Nitzan Soffer, Tamar Abuladze, Joelle Woolston, Manrong Li, Leigh Farris Hanna, Serena Heyse, Duane Charbonneau, Alexander Sulakvelidze
Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Bhoomika, Sanjay Shakya, Anil Patyal, Nitin Eknath Gade
AIM: To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M) genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat, chevon meat, raw milk, and human urine and stool samples collected from tribal districts of Chhattisgarh, viz., Jagdalpur, Dantewada, Kondagaon, and Kanker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 330 samples, comprising 98 chicken meat, 82 chevon meat, 90 raw milk, and 60 human urine and stool samples, were processed for isolation of E...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Hongye Jiang, Tingjin Chen, Hengchang Sun, Zeli Tang, Jinyun Yu, Zhipeng Lin, Pengli Ren, Xinyi Zhou, Yan Huang, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu
Clonorchiasis, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensisis (C.sinensis), remains a common public health problem. New effective prevention strategies are still urgent to control this food-borne infectious disease. The previous studies suggested Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores was an ideal vaccines delivery system, and the C.sinensis enolase (CsENO) was a potential vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgM levels by ELISA in sera, intestinal mucus and skin mucus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through oral administration with B...
October 8, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Manan Sharma, Russell Reynnells
Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ali Pourzand, Aynaz Tajaddini, Saeed Pirouzpanah, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Nasser Samadi, Ali-Reza Ostadrahimi, Zohre Sanaat
PURPOSE: The protective effect of Allium vegetables against carcinogenesis has been reported in experimental studies particularly focusing on the gut. Therefore, we conducted a hospital-based matched case-control study to explore the association between dietary Allium consumption and risk of breast cancer among Iranian women in northwest Iran. METHODS: A validated, quantitative, food frequency questionnaire was completed in 285 women (aged 25-65 years old) newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer (grade II, III or clinical stage II, III) in Tabriz, northwest Iran, and the completed questionnaires were included in an age- and regional-matched hospital based-control study...
September 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
Ebru Pelvan Pelitli, Michał Adam Janiak, Ryszard Amarowicz, Cesarettin Alasalvar
Natural (raw) hazelnut was extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone to obtain crude phenolic extract that was then fractionated for elution of low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions. LMW fraction was further purified (LWM-FP) to remove sugars and organic acids. The crude extract and its fractions were determined by measuring their protein precipitating capacity (PPC) using two different proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin], molecular weights, total phenolics, condensed tannins, and various antioxidant activities...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Xi-Hui Xu Qin He, Fan Zhang, Yu-Kai Tai, Yan-Fei Luo, Jian He, Qing Hong, Jian-Dong Jiang, Xin Yan
BACKGROUND: To reduce the fermentation cost for industrialization of chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase (Chd), agro-industrial wastewater including molasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermentation wastewater were used to substitute the expensive carbon and nitrogen sources and fresh water for lab preparation. RESULTS: The results showed that molasses and CSL could replace 5% carbon source and 100% organic nitrogen source to maintain the same fermentation level...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Asing, Md Eaqub Ali, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid, M A Motalib Hossain, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Md Abdul Kader, I S M Zaidul
The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing...
2016: PloS One
Chun-Yan Shen, Tian-Tian Zhang, Wen-Li Zhang, Jian-Guo Jiang
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., belonging to the family of Malvaceae, is considered to be a plant with health care applications in China. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of its essential oil and assess its potential therapeutic effect on anti-inflammatory activity. A water steam distillation method was used to extract the essential oil from H. Sabdariffa. The essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a total of 18 volatile constituents were identified, the majority of which were fatty acids and ester compounds...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Baukje de Roos, Ferdinando Binacchi, Stephen Whybrow, Alan A Sneddon
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively analyse expenditure on all fresh foods, fruits and vegetables (F&V) and fish across urban and rural households in Scotland. Fresh foods were chosen since, in general, they are perceived to contribute more to health than processed foods. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of purchase data of all foods brought into the home during 2012 from the Kantar Worldpanel database. Purchase data were restricted to fresh, unprocessed and raw foods or 'fresh to frozen' foods where freezing was part of harvesting...
October 5, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Shuna Jin, Chengwu Song, Shuailong Jia, Sen Li, Yang Zhang, Cheng Chen, Yulin Feng, Yong Xu, Chaomei Xiong, Yi Xiang, Hongliang Jiang
Turmeric and curcuminoids are used as natural food coloring and functional food additives in various parts of the world. In this study, ninety-six curcuminoids were fully characterized using a targeted curcuminoid profile, which established by integrated use of two complementary LC-MS/MS platforms (liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTRAP-MS/MS)). The curcuminoid profile was represented in the form of a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode based on LC-QTRAP-MS/MS analysis...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Sharon Matheny, Robert Tebbs, Erin Crowley, David Goins, Angelia Burrell, Patrick Bird, Michelle Swimley, M Joseph Benzinger, Jonathan Flannery, Jonathan Cloke, James Agin, Benjamin Bastin
The Applied Biosystems™ RapidFinder™ STEC Detection Workflow (Thermo Fisher Scientific) is a complete protocol for the rapid qualitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and the "Big 6" non-O157 Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (defined as serogroups: O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). The RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow makes use of either the automated preparation of PCR-ready DNA using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems MagMAX™ Express 96-well magnetic particle processor or the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ Rapid Spin kit for manual preparation of PCR-ready DNA...
October 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Ccori Martinez Tuppia, Vessela Atanasova-Penichon, Sylvain Chéreau, Nathalie Ferrer, Gisèle Marchegay, Jean-Michel Savoie, Florence Richard-Forget
BACKGROUND: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and a very common contaminant of maize-based food and feed throughout the world. The selection and use of FB1-degrading microorganisms appears as a promising alternative to cope with the problem of toxicity towards humans and livestock. High moisture maize grain silage which is based on natural maize fermentation could be an interesting reservoir of such microorganisms. RESULTS: Using an in vitro simulated silage model with FB1 naturally contaminated grains, we demonstrated a significant raw decrease in FB1 during ensiling process ascribed to biodegradation mechanisms...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
P Deng, P L Utterback, C M Parsons, L Hancock, K S Swanson
A wide variety of animal protein-based ingredients is commonly used in the pet food products. The raw ingredients and processing procedures used may greatly affect protein quality. Testing the quality of alternative protein sources is necessary and contributes to the sustainability of pet foods. The objective of this study was to test the chemical composition of 8 protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods (calamari meal, pork peptone, alligator meal, lamb meal, venison meal, chicken meal, and 2 duck meals), and evaluate their true nutrient digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Etil Guzelmeric, Petar Ristivojević, Irena Vovk, Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica, Erdem Yesilada
Chamomile tea composed of dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L. (Asteraceae) is one of the most popular single ingredient herbal teas. Tea industries, spice shops or public bazaars are mostly supplied chamomile as a raw material via cultivation or through nature-picking. However, one of the drawbacks of nature-picking is adulteration. This could be either due to false authentication of the plant materials by ingenuous pickers or intentional/unintentional substitution with other flowers resembling to chamomile in appearance during harvesting...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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