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Raw food

Jingjing Liu, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
As intermediates in the TCA cycle, L-malate and its derivatives have been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, agriculture, and bio-based material industries. In recent years, biological routes have been regarded as very promising approaches as cost-effective ways to L-malate production from low-priced raw materials. In this mini-review, we provide a comprehensive overview of current developments of L-malate production using both biocatalysis and microbial fermentation. Biocatalysis is enzymatic transformation of fumarate to L-malate, here, the source of enzymes, catalytic conditions, and enzymatic molecular modification may be concluded...
December 6, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Kelli Destri, Roberta de Vargas Zanini, Maria Cecília Formoso Assunção
OBJECTIVE: to describe the food intake among individuals with high blood pressure and diabetes in a municipality in the south of Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Nova Boa Vista-RS, Brazil, from June to September 2013; food intake was collected from the questionnaire of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN) and from an adaptation based on the 2008 Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. RESULTS: 422 individuals were included in the study (≥18 years old); the food that presented the highest recommended intake frequencies were raw salad (60...
October 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Fernanda G Santos, Camilly Fratelli, Denise G Muniz, Vanessa D Capriles
The aim of the study was utilized chickpea to create appealing, nutritious, and palatable gluten-free bread (GFB). The performance of chickpea flour (CF) in single and composite GFB formulations was studied with a mixture design and response surface methodology. Six simplex-centroid designs for 3 ingredients were used to identify the ideal proportions of CF in various blends with cassava starch (CS), maize starch (MS), potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) achieving the best physical properties. For each design, 3 single, 3 binary, and 3 ternary formulations were prepared...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Alexandra Irrgang, Linda Falgenhauer, Jennie Fischer, Hiren Ghosh, Elisabet Guiral, Beatriz Guerra, Silvia Schmoger, Can Imirzalioglu, Trinad Chakraborty, Jens A Hammerl, Annemarie Käsbohrer
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) mediating resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins are a major public health issue. As food may be a vehicle in the spread of ESLB-producing bacteria, a study on the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistantu Escherichia coli in food was initiated. A total of 404 ESBL-producing isolates were obtained from animal-derived food samples (e.g., poultry products, pork, beef and raw milk) between 2011 and 2013. As CTX-M-15 is the most abundant enzyme in ESBL-producing E. coli causing human infections, this study focusses on E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wei Wang, Zulqarnain Baloch, Tao Jiang, Cunshan Zhang, Zixin Peng, Fengqin Li, Séamus Fanning, Aiguo Ma, Jin Xu
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of zoonotic agent in the world, which are attributable to the contamination of food with enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 1,150 S. aureus isolates were cultured from 27,000 retail foods items from 203 cities of 24 provinces in China in 2015 and were test for antimicrobial susceptibility. Additionally, the role of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), methicillin resistance (mecA) and the toxigenic capabilities were also assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stefani Cortés-Camargo, Raquel Gallardo-Rivera, Blanca E Barragán-Huerta, Octavio Dublán-García, Angélica Román-Guerrero, César Pérez-Alonso
In this work the physicochemical and functional properties of mesquite gum (MG) and nopal mucilage (NM) mixtures (75-25, 50-50, 25-75) were evaluated and compared with those of the individual biopolymers. MG-NM mixtures exhibited more negative zeta potential (ZP) values than those displayed by MG and NM, with 75-25 MG-NM showing the most negative value (-14.92 mV at pH = 7.0), indicative that this biopolymer mixture had the highest electrostatic stability in aqueous dispersions. Viscosity curves and strain amplitude sweep of aqueous dispersions (30% w/w) of the individual gums and their mixtures revealed that all exhibited shear thinning behavior, with NM having higher viscosity than MG, and all displaying fluid-like viscoelastic behavior where the loss modulus predominated over the storage modulus (G″>G')...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Michiko Takahashi, Yumiko Okakura, Hajime Takahashi, Minami Imamura, Akira Takeuchi, Hiroyuki Shidara, Takashi Kuda, Bon Kimura
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is well known worldwide as a causative virus of acute hepatitis. In recent years, numerous cases of HAV infection caused by HAV-contaminated berries have occurred around the world. Because berries are often consumed without prior heating, reliable disinfection of the raw fruit is important in order to prevent HAV outbreaks. Previous studies have found that murine norovirus strain 1 (MNV-1) and human norovirus GII.4 were inactivated in heat-denatured lysozyme solution. In this study, we investigated whether or not heat-denatured lysozyme is effective in inactivating HAV and whether it could be an effective disinfectant for berries contaminated with HAV or MNV-1...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Bo Young Chung, Sook Young Park, Yun Sun Byun, Jee Hee Son, Yong Won Choi, Yong Se Cho, Hye One Kim, Chun Wook Park
Background: Histamine in food is known to cause food poisoning and allergic reactions. We usually ingest histamine in cooked food, but there are few studies about the influence of cooking method on the histamine level. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of cooking methods on the concentration of histamine in foods. Methods: The foods chosen were those kinds consumed frequently and cooked by grilling, boiling, and frying...
December 2017: Annals of Dermatology
Huan Yang, Jie Zheng, Hai-Yan Wang, Nan Li, Ya-Ya Yang, Yu-Ping Shen
Background: Gelatinous Chinese medicines (GCMs) including Asini Corii Colla, Testudinis Carapacis ET Plastri Colla, and Cervi Cornus Colla, were made from reptile shell or mammalian skin or deer horn, and consumed as a popular tonic, as well as hemopoietic and hemostatic agents. Misuse of them would not exert their functions, and fake or adulterate products have caused drug market disorder and affected food and drug safety. GCMs are rich in denatured proteins, but insufficient in available DNA fragments, hence commonly used cytochrome c oxidase I barcoding was not successful for their authentication...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Maria Rambla-Alegre, Christopher O Miles, Pablo de la Iglesia, Margarita Fernandez-Tejedor, Silke Jacobs, Isabelle Sioen, Wim Verbeke, Ingunn A Samdal, Morten Sandvik, Vera Barbosa, Alice Tediosi, Eneko Madorran, Kit Granby, Michiel Kotterman, Tanja Calis, Jorge Diogene
Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Research
Xueshan Wang, Hai Du, Yan Zhang, Yan Xu
Many microorganisms in environment participate in the fermentation process of Chinese liquor. However, it is unknown what extent of the environmental microbiota influences on fermentation. In this study, high-throughput sequencing combined with multiphasic metabolite target analysis were applied to study the microbial succession and metabolism changes during Chinese liquor fermentation from two environments (old and new workshops). SourceTracker was applied to evaluate the contribution of environmental microbiota to fermentation...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Shaoting Li, David A Mann, Shaokang Zhang, Zhen Li, Yi Chen, Xiangyu Deng
Metagenomics analysis of food samples promises isolation-independent detection and subtyping of foodborne bacterial pathogens in a single workflow. Selective concentration of Salmonella genomic DNA through immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and multiple displacement amplification (MDA) were shown to shorten culture enrichment of Salmonella-spiked raw chicken breast samples by over 12 hours while permitting serotyping and high-fidelity single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) typing of the pathogen using short shotgun sequencing reads...
December 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Amber N Barnes, Anu Davaasuren, Uyanga Baasandagva, Gregory C Gray
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection...
2017: PloS One
Andrea Straßburg, Marianne Eisinger-Watzl, Carolin Krems, Alexander Roth, Ingrid Hoffmann
PURPOSE: Comparison of food consumption, nutrient intake and underreporting of diet history interviews, 24-h recalls and weighed food records to gain further insight into specific strength and limitations of each method and to support the choice of the adequate dietary assessment method. METHODS: For 677 participants (14-80 years) of the German National Nutrition Survey II confidence intervals for food consumption and nutrient intake were calculated on basis of bootstrapping samples, Cohen's d for the relevance of differences, and intraclass correlation coefficients for the degree of agreement of dietary assessment methods...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
David O Iyenagbe, Sunday A Malomo, Atinuke O Idowu, Adebanjo A Badejo, Tayo N Fagbemi
Conophor nut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) was processed using different heat treatments to explore its full potential as food ingredients. The raw, boiled, and toasted nuts were defatted and the proteins isolated by alkaline solubilization and isoelectric precipitation. The variously processed nuts were analyzed for the proximate and amino acid compositions, and functional properties. The protein contents of the isolate ranges between 86.86 g/100g and 87.74 g/100 g, about 1.5-fold higher than those of the defatted flour samples...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Ramin Vismeh, Diane Haddad, Janette Moore, Chandra Nielson, Bryan D Bals, Tim Campbell, Allen Julian, Farzaneh Teymouri, A Daniel Jones, Venkataraman Bringi
Acetamide has been classified as a possible human carcinogen, but uncertainties exist about its levels in foods. This report presents evidence that thermal decomposition of N-acetylated sugars and amino acids in heated gas chromatograph injectors contributes to artifactual acetamide in milk and beef. An alternative GC/MS protocol based on derivatization of acetamide with 9-xanthydrol was optimized and shown to be free of artefactual acetamide formation. The protocol was validated using a surrogate analyte approach based on d3-acetamide, and applied to analyze 23 pasteurized whole milk, 44 raw sirloin beef, and raw milk samples from 14 different cows, and yielded levels about 10-fold lower than obtained by direct injection without derivatization...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Innocent Mupunga, Pamella Mngqawa, David R Katerere
Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) is an important and affordable source of protein in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and a popular commodity and raw material for peanut butter, paste and cooking oil. It is a popular ingredient for foods used at the point of weaning infants from mother's milk. It is at this critical point that childhood undernutrition occurs and the condition manifests as stunting, wasting and growth restriction and accounts for nearly half of all deaths in children under five years of age in SSA...
November 26, 2017: Nutrients
Elias P Papapanagiotou
The European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database is an invaluable instrument for analyzing notifications involving norovirus in food. The aim of this work was to carry out a thorough research of the alert and border rejection notifications submitted in the RASFF database from its onset until 31 August 2017. Some conclusions of interest were: (i) Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway have contributed the majority of alert notifications as notifying countries, (ii) France and Serbia have been cited more often in alert notifications as countries of origin, (iii) Italy and Spain have submitted the majority of border rejection notifications, (iv) Third Countries implicated more frequently in border rejection notifications for norovirus in bivalve molluscs were Vietnam and Tunisia, whereas in fruits and vegetables were China and Serbia, (v) "risk dispersion" from norovirus-contaminated food was narrow since, in just over half of all alert notifications and all of the border rejection notifications, only up to three countries were involved, and (vi) both raw (oysters and berries) and cooked (mussels) food products can present a health risk to consumers...
November 25, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
C S Tejpal, P Vijayagopal, K Elavarasan, D Linga Prabu, R G K Lekshmi, K K Asha, R Anandan, N S Chatterjee, S Mathew
In recent years, hygienic handling of fishery waste is demanded owing to the fact that the fishery waste is an ideal raw material for the preparation of bioactive compounds. In the present study, the effect of pre-processing storage (at 4 ± 2 °C) of whole tilapia waste (WTW) on the properties of its protein hydrolysate derived using pepsin was evaluated. Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) were prepared from 0, 24 and 48 h old ice stored WTW and designated as FPH-0, FPH-1, and FPH-2, respectively. Total amino acids, total essential amino acids and total hydrophobic amino acids of FPH samples increased with the storage period of raw material (WTW)...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Cristina Fortes, S Mastroeni, T Mannooranparampil, D Abeni, A Panebianco
It is well established that Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA) occurs in genetically predisposed individuals but little is known of its non-genetic risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the Mediterranean diet in determining the risk of AGA. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of the hospital "Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata, Rome, Italy". We included 104 males and 108 controls not affected by AGA. Controls were frequency matched to cases. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking and diet were collected for all patients...
November 27, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
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