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vestibular disorder

B Shaw, R S Raghavan
BACKGROUND: Dissociation between caloric and head impulse test results in patients with vestibular disorders has been well documented since the introduction of video head impulse testing. Prior to the introduction of video head impulse testing, vestibular diagnostic services relied mainly on caloric testing, and it is now known that the caloric testing shows more positive results than video head impulse testing. A dissipation model was proposed to explain this dissociation.Case reportsThis paper presents two cases in which caloric testing indicated an absent or significantly reduced response on the horizontal semicircular canal plane but video head impulse testing showed near-normal or normal vestibulo-ocular reflex gain on the same plane...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Tadashi Kitahara, Masaharu Sakagami, Taeko Ito, Tomoyuki Shiozaki, Koichi Kitano, Akinori Yamashita, Ichiro Ota, Yoshiro Wada, Toshiaki Yamanaka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of neuro-otological examination, blood tests, and scoring questionnaire data with treatment-resistant intractability of persistent dizziness in Ménière's disease. METHODS: We managed 1520 successive vertigo/dizziness patients at the Vertigo/Dizziness Center in Nara Medical University from May 2014 to April 2018. Five hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with Ménière's disease (522/1520; 34...
July 30, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Katarzyna Pierchała, Magdalena Lachowska, Jarosław Wysocki, Krzysztof Morawski, Kazimierz Niemczyk
BACKGROUND: Among the elderly, instability leading to falls (and consequences of them) is one of the most important problems. The etiology of falls is usually complex, but balance, posture and gait problems are considered to be the most important risk factors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) in differentiating multi-fallers from single-fallers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied group included 92 patients aged >60 years with balance disorders and falls in their history...
July 30, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Magdalena Józefowicz-Korczyńska, Anna Pajor, Wojciech Skóra
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic vertigo, dizziness and balance disorders following head trauma range from 15% to 78% in the general population. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common vestibular disorder in such patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of BPPV in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and determine the outcome of treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 179 patients, with a mean age of 45...
July 30, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Sergio Zanini, Claudia Cordaro, Lucia Martucci, Ivana Del Piero, Simonetta Geotti, Marta Makuc, Annalisa Csillaghy, Marina Godio, Monica Cazzagon
Purpose: To describe visual and vestibular functioning and the effects of age and surgery effects on postural control in healthy children with vertical strabismus. Design: This is a comparative case series. Methods: We evaluated participants at the Scientific Institute Eugenio Medea during routine clinical activities. We enrolled 30 consecutive children/adolescents (age range 4-13 years) with isolated vertical strabismus, with and without corrective surgery...
January 2018: Therapeutic advances in ophthalmology
Zahra N Sayyid, Grace S Kim, Alan G Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary purpose of this review is to summarize current literature in the field of vestibular regeneration with a focus on recent developments in molecular and gene therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the discovery of limited vestibular hair cell regeneration in mammals in the 1990s, many elegant studies have improved our knowledge of mechanisms of development and regeneration of the vestibular system. A better understanding of the developmental pathways of the vestibular organs has fueled various biological strategies to enhance regeneration, including novel techniques in deriving vestibular hair cells from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells...
July 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Tadashi Kitahara, Ichiro Ota, Akira Horinaka, Hiroki Ohyama, Masaharu Sakagami, Taeko Ito, Tomoyuki Shiozaki, Yoshiro Wada, Toshiaki Yamanaka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of neuro-otological examination, blood test, and scoring questionnaire data with treatment-resistant intractability in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) patients. METHODS: We experienced 1520 successive vertigo/dizziness patients at the Vertigo/Dizziness Center in Nara Medical University during May 2014 to April 2018. Six hundred and eleven patients were diagnosed as BPPV (611/1520; 40...
July 2, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Jennifer B Christy
This perspective explores common pediatric diagnoses that could present with central vestibular pathway dysfunction, leading to delays in motor development and postural control, and gaze instability. Specifically, the following diagnoses are considered: cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, vestibular migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, developmental coordination disorder, concussion, childhood cancer, congenital muscular torticollis, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and autism. Suggestions for clinical screening, vestibular function testing, and vestibular rehabilitation for children with these diagnoses are based on evidence for the efficacy of testing and interventions for children with peripheral vestibular hypofunction...
August 2018: Seminars in Hearing
Sylvette R Wiener-Vacher, Juliette Quarez, Audrey Le Priol
The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of vestibular impairment (VI) in children ( n  = 2,528) referred for complete vestibular testing because of balance disorders (BD) or hearing loss (H). A VI was shown in 51.5% of the children tested (1,304/2,528). For BD (e.g., vertigo, dizziness, instability, delay in posturomotor development), VI was found in 36.5% ( n  = 379/1,037). The most frequent causes of BD with VI included inner ear malformation (13.5%), delay in posturomotor development (13...
August 2018: Seminars in Hearing
Qingxiu Yao, Chunqin Xu, Hui Wang, Haibo Shi, Dongzhen Yu
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss with vertigo and vestibular neuritis are two disorders that could be caused by similar pathomechanisms. A quick and convenient tool, the video head impulse test (vHIT), was developed to measure and quantitatively analyze the function of each semicircular canal. Auditory and vestibular function in the two disorders, using PTA and vHIT, could help determine whether these disorders have similar degree of severity and scope of affected semicircular canals. The affected semicircular canals and severity of functional loss in the canals differed between the SHLV and VN groups by assessing the vestibulo-ocular reflex(VOR) gain (vHIT-G) and asymmetry values...
July 20, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Chih-Chung Chen, Hsiao-Shan Cho, Hsun-Hua Lee, Chaur-Jong Hu
With the exception of migraines, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in patients with preexisting central neurologic disorders (CND) is rarely discussed in the literature. Demographic features of this patient group and the efficacy of repositioning therapy are still unknown. We hypothesized that a CND may alter the function of the central vestibular pathway, thus changing the pattern of BPPV and outcomes of repositioning. In this study, we enrolled 93 consecutive idiopathic BPPV patients and categorized them into two groups according to the presence or absence of a CND...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Nathan J Smischney, Emily M Pollard, Asha U Nookala, Oludare O Olatoye
BACKGROUND Serotonin syndrome is a life-threatening condition that can lead to neurologic complications and is associated with the use of serotonergic medications. As the use of antidepressant medications has increased, the incidence of perioperative serotonin syndrome has transitioned from a rare diagnosis to one that should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any patient displaying signs of neuroexcitation. CASE REPORT A 70-year-old man (ASA 2) with a history of vestibular migraines (treated with venlafaxine), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to our institution for photoselective vaporization of the prostate...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Jeremy D Schmahmann
What the cerebellum does to sensorimotor and vestibular control, it also does to cognition, emotion, and autonomic function. This hypothesis is based on the theories of dysmetria of thought and the universal cerebellar transform, which hold that the cerebellum maintains behavior around a homeostatic baseline, automatically, without conscious awareness, informed by implicit learning, and performed according to context. Functional topography within the cerebellum facilitates the modulation of distributed networks subserving multiple different functions...
July 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Gerardo Salvato, Martina Gandola, Laura Veronelli, Manuela Berlingeri, Massimo Corbo, Gabriella Bottini
The vestibular system plays a pivotal role in behavioural and physiological aspects of body representation. If on the one hand, the stimulation of the vestibular system in healthy subjects provokes body representation distortions, accompanied by a decrease of body temperature, on the other hand, in brain-damaged patients it transiently restores body representation disorders. So far, the physiological counterpart of such behavioural amelioration on patients has never been explored. Here we aimed at investigating body temperature variations following Caloric Vestibular Stimulation (CVS), in a patient affected by somatoparaphrenia who regained the sense of body part ownership after the stimulation...
October 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Gary P Jacobson, Erin G Piker, Kelsey Hatton, Kenneth E Watford, Timothy Trone, Devin L McCaslin, Marc L Bennett, Alejandro Rivas, David S Haynes, Richard A Roberts
OBJECTIVES: Dizziness, vertigo, and unsteadiness are common complaints of patients who present to primary care providers. These patients often are referred to otology for assessment and management. Unfortunately, there are a small number of specialists to manage these patients. However, there are several dizziness disorders that can be successfully managed by primary care providers if the disorder is properly identified. To assist in the identification of several of the most common dizziness disorders, we developed the dizziness symptom profile (DSP)...
July 3, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Yasuto Inukai, Mitsuhiro Masaki, Naofumi Otsuru, Kei Saito, Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Hideaki Onishi
BACKGROUND: Balance disorders are a risk factor for falls in the elderly. Although noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) has been reported to improve balance in young people, randomised control trials targeting community-dwelling elderly people have not been conducted to date. We aimed to assess the influence of nGVS on COP sway in the open-eye standing posture among community-dwelling elderly people in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial of 32 community-dwelling elderly people randomly assigned to control (sham stimulation) and an nGVS groups...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Dumot Chloé, Sindou Marc
Good knowledge of anatomy of veins is of crucial importance for the functional surgery of the cranial nerve (CN) disorders, especially microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia (VGPN). Although controversial, veins may be involved in neurovascular conflicts (NVCs) and may constitute dangerous obstacles to the access of the CNs. With the aims to estimate implications of veins in those pathologies and evaluate the linked surgical difficulties, the authors carried out a review of the literature from 2000 to end of February 2018...
June 29, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Guangwei Zhou, Cassandra Goutos, Sophie Lipson, Jacob Brodsky
OBJECTIVE: To analyze spontaneous nystagmus recorded in pediatric patients and determine its diagnostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 86 patients (mean age = 13.9 ± 4.7 years) with definitive spontaneous nystagmus recorded by videonystagmography (VNG). Spontaneous nystagmus was categorized and analyzed based on its characteristics. Correlations between spontaneous nystagmus and established clinical diagnoses were explored. RESULTS: Among the patients seen in a period of three years at our pediatric vestibular clinic, 15...
August 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Emre Ocak, Rebecca S Eshraghi, Ali Danesh, Rahul Mittal, Adrien A Eshraghi
The etiology and underlying pathogenetic mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are still largely unknown. In this manuscript, a comprehensive review of the studies which are relevant to ASD and CAPD is conducted and the relationship of ASD and central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) is discussed in the light of recent studies on this subject that may provide new paths in the therapeutical perspective. Many studies confirm that most of the individuals with ASD have some degree of sensory dysfunction related to disorders of processing auditory, visual, vestibular and/or tactile stimuli...
June 28, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Aasef G Shaikh, Chrystalina Antoniades, James Fitzgerald, Fatema F Ghasia
Discovery of inter-latching circuits in the basal ganglia and invention of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for their modulation is a breakthrough in basic and clinical neuroscience. The DBS not only changes the quality of life of hundreds of thousands of people with intractable movement disorders, but it also offers a unique opportunity to understand how the basal ganglia interacts with other neural structures. An attractive yet less explored area is the study of DBS on eye movements and vestibular function. From the clinical perspective such studies provide valuable guidance in efficient programming of stimulation profile leading to optimal motor outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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