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Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease

Kuei-Yen Tsai, Hsin-An Chen, Wan-Yu Wang, Ming-Te Huang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications remain relatively high in morbidities that arise after liver surgery and are associated with increased length of hospital stay and higher cost. Identification of possible risk factors in this retrospective analysis may help reduce operative morbidity and achieve better outcomes. METHODS: In all, 363 consecutive patients underwent elective hepatectomies between July 2008 and November 2013 and these were identified and analyzed retrospectively...
December 5, 2018: Digestive Surgery
Tsogyal D Latshang, René P M Tardent, Michael Furian, Deborah Flueck, Sebastian D Segitz, Séverine Mueller-Mottet, Malcolm Kohler, Silvia Ulrich, Konrad E Bloch
Study Objectives: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have impaired pulmonary gas exchange near sea level. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia during a stay at altitude affects nocturnal oxygen saturation, breathing pattern, and sleep in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods: Thirty-two patients with COPD, median age 67 years, FEV1 59% predicted, PaO2 68 mmHg, living below 800 m, underwent polysomnography and questionnaire evaluations in Zurich (490 m), and in Swiss Alpine villages at 1650 and 2590 m, for two nights each, in random order...
December 4, 2018: Sleep
G Kvaratskhelia, E Tikaradze, M Buleishvili, G Sharashenidze, G Ormotsadze, Т Sanikidze
The purpose of our study was to identify the nature of the cause-effect relationship between the risks of developing of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Cardio-vascular Disease (CVD) in patients residing in the villages of Chiatura district, characterized by varying degrees of environmental stress. The residents (n=400) of the Chiatura district living in the villages, Khreiti, Perevisa and Rgani were examined. The villages are characterized by different degrees of ecological tension (the villages differ both in their remoteness from sources of environmental pollution - manganese mining quarries and the scale of its extraction, which allows them to rank according to the degree of environmental tension: Khreiti - low, Perevis - medium, Rgani - high)...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Eric Ka Cheong Wong, Philip Cheuk Shing Lee, Saidul Ansary, Stephen Asha, Keith Hw Wong, Brendon Yee, Andrew T Ng
BACKGROUND: Many patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have type 2 respiratory failure. Often arterial blood gases (ABG) are not performed and correlation with venous blood gases (VBG) is controversial. The venous pH and bicarbonate (HCO3 ) are useful,1 but VBG PCO2 (PvCO2 ) is considered too unpredictable. We examined the utility of VBGs in this cohort of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of AECOPD patients with type 2 respiratory failure presenting to ED was performed...
December 4, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Ho-Fung Chan, Guilhem J Collier, Nicholas D Weatherley, Jim M Wild
PURPOSE: To compare in vivo lung morphometry parameters derived from theoretical gas diffusion models, the cylinder model and stretched exponential model, in a range of acinar microstructural length scales encountered in healthy and diseased lungs with 3 He and 129 Xe diffusion-weighted MRI. METHODS: Three-dimensional multiple b-value 3 He and 129 Xe diffusion-weighted MRI was acquired with compressed sensing at 1.5 T from 51 and 31 subjects, respectively, including healthy volunteers, ex-smokers, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
December 4, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Rajendra Kc, Shakti D Shukla, Sanjay S Gautam, Philip M Hansbro, Ronan F O'Toole
Chronic exposure to household indoor smoke and outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The majority of these deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. Children, women, the elderly and people with underlying chronic conditions are most affected. In addition to reduced lung function, children exposed to biomass smoke have an increased risk of developing lower respiratory tract infections and asthma-related symptoms. In adults, chronic exposure to biomass smoke, ambient air pollution, and opportunistic exposure to fumes and dust are associated with an increased risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infections, including tuberculosis...
December 5, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Bugra Kerget, Omer Araz, Elif Yilmazel Ucar, Ozkan Aydin, Metin Akgun, Leyla Saglam
Sulfasalazine has been used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease for over 60 years. Although the drug is frequently associated with gastrointestinal adverse effects, pulmonary adverse effects are very rare. Herein, we report a case of interstitial fibrosis resulting from 4-month sulfasalazine therapy for ulcerative colitis in a patient under long-term follow-up in our clinic due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
October 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Stylianos Panopoulos, Maria Tektonidou, Alexandros A Drosos, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Alexandros Garyfallos, Lazaros Sakkas, Dimitrios Boumpas, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Dimitrios Daoussis, Konstantinos Thomas, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Georgios Vosvotekas, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos, Petros P Sfikakis
BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in chronic systemic connective tissue diseases and are associated with adverse outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality. Although the prevalence of comorbidities has been well-studied in isolated diseases, comparative studies between different autoimmune diseases are limited. In this study, we compared the prevalence of common comorbidities between patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Between 2016 and 2017, 408 consecutive patients with SSc, aged 59 ± 13 years (87% women), were matched 1:1 for age and gender with 408 patients with RA; mean disease duration was 10 ± 8 and 9 ± 8 years, respectively...
December 4, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Alex Pizzini, Lukas Lunger, Thomas Sonnweber, Guenter Weiss, Ivan Tancevski
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing healthcare concern and will represent the third leading cause of death worldwide within the next decade. COPD is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors, especially cigarette smoking, air pollution, and genetic preconditions, which result in persistent inflammation of the airways. There is growing evidence that the chronic inflammatory state, measurable by increased levels of circulating cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins, may not be confined to the lungs...
December 2, 2018: Nutrients
Siting Zhou, Michael Ciarametaro, Bingcao Wu, Joseph Singer, Robert W Dubois
This study compared utilization patterns of high-cost services and medications for patients receiving care from Accountable Care Organization (ACO)-participating physicians and those receiving care from non-ACO physicians during the initial phases of ACO development in a commercially insured environment. Patients ≥18 years (≥40 years for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) with prevalent rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes, COPD, or chronic low back pain between January 1, 2012, and August 31, 2014 were identified in the HealthCore Integrated Research DatabaseSM ...
December 4, 2018: Population Health Management
Ana Oliveira, Ana Machado, Alda Marques
Interpreting clinical changes during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is challenging due to the absence of established minimal detectable (MDD) and important (MID) differences for most respiratory measures. This study established MDD and MID for respiratory measures in outpatients with AECOPD following pharmacological treatment. COPD assessment test (CAT), modified Borg scale (MBS), modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) questionnaire, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), computerised respiratory sounds and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) were collected within 24-48 hour of an AECOPD and after 45 days of pharmacological treatment...
December 4, 2018: COPD
Dan-Dan Zhang, Gan Lu, Xuan-Feng Zhu, Ling-Ling Zhang, Jia Gao, Li-Cheng Shi, Jian-Hua Gu, Jian-Nan Liu
Background: Neural respiratory drive (NRD) using diaphragm electromyography through an invasive transesophageal multi-electrode catheter can be used as a feasible clinical physiological parameter in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to provide useful information on the treatment response. However, it remains unknown whether the surface diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) could be used to identify the deterioration of clinical symptoms and to predict the necessity of hospitalization in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) patients...
December 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Bryn Lander, Ellen Balka
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Local health administrators implemented chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure admission order sets to increase guideline adherence. We explored the impact of these order sets on workflows and guideline adherence in the internal medicine specialty in two Canadian teaching hospitals. METHODS: A mixed methods study combined shadowing care providers (250 h), meeting observation and interviews (11 h), and patient medical chart audits for heart failure (n = 120) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 120) patients...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Ian G Stiell, Jeffrey J Perry, Catherine M Clement, Robert J Brison, Brian H Rowe, Shawn D Aaron, Andrew D McRae, Bjug Borgundvaag, Lisa A Calder, Alan J Forster, Jennifer Brinkhurst, George A Wells
BACKGROUND: The Ottawa chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Risk Scale (OCRS), which consists of 10 criteria, was previously derived to identify patients in the emergency department with COPD who were at high risk for short-term serious outcomes. We sought to validate, prospectively and explicitly, the OCRS when applied by physicians in the emergency department. METHODS: We conducted this prospective cohort study involving patients in the emergency departments at 6 tertiary care hospitals and enrolled adults with acute exacerbation of COPD from May 2011 to December 2013...
December 3, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Sho Shibata, Kensuke Miyake, Tomoya Tateishi, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Yasunari Miyazaki, Naohiko Inase, Hajime Karasuyama
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has generally been considered a non-Th2-type lung disorder, characterized by progressive airflow limitation with inflammation and emphysema, but its cellular and molecular mechanism remains ill defined, compared with that of asthma characterized by reversible airway obstruction. Here we show a previously unappreciated role for basophils at the initiation phase of emphysema formation in an elastase-induced murine model of COPD in that basophils represent less than 1% of lung-infiltrating cells...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vincent Tedjasaputra, Sean van Diepen, Devin B Phillips, Eric Y L Wong, Mohit Bhutani, Wade W Michaelchuk, Tracey L Bryan, Michael K Stickland
BACKGROUND: Previous work suggests that mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have greater lung dysfunction than previously appreciated from spirometry alone. There is evidence of pulmonary microvascular dysfunction in mild COPD, which may reduce diffusing capacity (DLCO) and increase ventilatory inefficiency during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if DLCO, pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) are diminished during exercise in mild COPD, and whether this is related to ventilatory inefficiency and dyspnea...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Eskandarain Shafuddin, Catherina L Chang, Manisha Cooray, Christine M Tuffery, Sandra J Hopping, Glenda D Sullivan, Glenn A Jacobson, Robert J Hancox
BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction is associated with a higher mortality in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown how the heart responds to treatment of COPD exacerbations. We followed cardiac biomarker levels during hospital admissions for exacerbations of COPD and hypothesised that these biochemical markers of cardiac dysfunction might be affected the severity and treatment of exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin T were measured at admission, 12 h, 72 h, and clinical stability in 176 patients...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
N J Roberts, L Kidd, K Kirkwood, J Cross, M R Partridge
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a core component of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) management with well recognized benefits. While suggestions for educational content within pulmonary rehabilitation have been detailed in clinical guidance, it is unclear what educational content is delivered as part of pulmonary rehabilitation, who delivers it, and how it is delivered. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify what educational content is delivered as part of pulmonary rehabilitation, how is this delivered and who delivers it...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Michael Bogart, Mrudula B Glassberg, Tyler Reinsch, Richard H Stanford
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether there is a benefit to initiating triple therapy (TT; inhaled corticosteroids combined with long-acting β2 -agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists) promptly (within 30 days) following a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related hospitalization or emergency-department (ED) visit compared with delaying treatment (31-180 days). METHODS: This retrospective, observational study (GSK: HO-15-15256) used healthcare claims from a commercial and Medicare claims database (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2015)...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Dejan Radovanovic, Pierachille Santus, Francesco Blasi, Giovanni Sotgiu, Francesca D'Arcangelo, Edoardo Simonetta, Martina Contarini, Elisa Franceschi, Pieter C Goeminne, James D Chalmers, Stefano Aliberti
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend simple spirometry for bronchiectasis patients. However, pulmonary pathophysiology of bronchiectasis is very complex and still poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize lung function in bronchiectasis and identify specific functional sub-groups. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study enrolling consecutive adults with bronchiectasis during stable sate. Patients underwent body-plethysmography before and after acute bronchodilation testing, diffusing lung capacity (DLCO) with a 3-year follow up...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
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