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Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease

Ying Sun, Na An, Jiansheng Li, Jinchan Xia, Yange Tian, Peng Zhao, Xuefang Liu, Haiying Huang, Jianfeng Gao, Xiaoli Zhang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death due to tis high morbidity and mortality. microRNAs have emerged as new biomarkers for the prognosis and diagnosis of patients with COPD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of microRNA-206 (miR-206) in lung tissues from COPD patients and to explore the regulatory role of miR-206 in the human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). Our results showed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) promoted cell apoptosis, increased caspase-3 activity, and upregulated the expression of miR-206 in HPMECs, which was significantly reversed by the miR-206 knockdown...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Krishna Pudi, Gregory Feldman, Faisal Fakih, Peter Mack, Andrea Maes, Shahid Siddiqui, Earl St Rose, Colin Reisner
BACKGROUND: GFF MDI is a glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combination metered dose inhaler formulated using co-suspension delivery technology. This open-label, single-arm multicenter study (NCT02268396) evaluated the accuracy, reliability, and functionality of the GFF MDI AeroCount® dose indicator when used by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled subjects (40-80 years of age) with an established clinical history (≥6 months) of COPD, who completed an electronic diary twice daily to record study-drug administration time, the number of actuations used, and pre- and post-dose dose indicator readings...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Chao-Shun Lin, Chien-Yu Chen, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Chi-Li Chung, Ta-Liang Chen, Chien-Chang Liao
Background: The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and perioperative outcomes remains incompletely understood. Our purpose is to evaluate the features of postoperative adverse outcomes for geriatric surgical patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receiving non-thoracic surgeries. Methods and procedures: We conducted a nationwide study of 15,359 COPD patients aged 65 years and older who received major non-thoracic surgeries in 2008-2013 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
October 18, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Luke V Blakeway, Aimee Tan, Rachael Lappan, Amir Ariff, Janessa L Pickering, Christopher S Peacock, Christopher C Blyth, Charlene M Kahler, Barbara J Chang, Deborah Lehmann, Lea-Ann S Kirkham, Timothy F Murphy, Michael P Jennings, Lauren O Bakaletz, John M Atack, Ian R A Peak, Kate L Seib
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-adapted pathogen, and a major cause of otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The species is comprised of two main phylogenetic lineages, RB1 and RB2/3. Restriction-modification (R-M) systems are among the few lineage-associated genes identified in other bacterial genera, and have multiple functions including defence against foreign invading DNA, maintenance of speciation, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Here we define the repertoire of R-M systems in 51 publicly available M...
October 18, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Songsong Yu, Qiuhong Fang, Yinjuan Li
Acute exacerbations (AE) affect the prognosis of hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pneumonia further affects their prognosis and early diagnosis of pneumonia in AECOPD is important to initiate treatments. This study aimed to examine the differences between hospitalized AECOPD patients with and without pneumonia in order to identify risk factors of pneumonia among hospitalized patients with AECOPD.This was a retrospective case-control study of patients with COPD hospitalized at the respiratory ward of Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from October 2010 to October 2013...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hon-Jhe Chen, Hao-Yu Yang, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Cheng-Che Shen, Ru-Yi Chen, Hsien-Chung Yu, Tzu-Lin Wang
The study aims to investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and osteoporosis.We employed a retrospective cohort study design using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Our study included 2 cohorts: 4318 patients with NAFLD and 17,272 patients without NAFLD for comparison. They were matched by sex and age on the date of enrollment between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2003. The study population in both groups was observed from the enrollment date until December 31, 2013...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fay H Johnston, Farhad Salimi, Grant J Williamson, Sarah B Henderson, Jiayun Yao, Martine Dennekamp, Karen Smith, Michael J Abramson, Geoffrey G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Ambulance data provide a useful source of population-based and spatiotemporally resolved information for assessing health impacts of air pollution in non-hospital settings. We used the clinical records of paramedics to quantify associations between PM2.5 and diabetic, cardiovascular, and respiratory conditions commonly managed by those responding to calls for emergency ambulance services. METHODS: We evaluated 394,217 paramedic assessments from three states in Southeastern Australia (population 13...
October 16, 2018: Epidemiology
Esther A Boudewijns, Giridhara R Babu, Sundeep Salvi, Aziz Sheikh, Onno Cp van Schayck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Ifrah Sohail, Sumit Ghosh, Santhosh Mukundan, Susan Zelewski, M Nadeem Khan
Streptococcus pneumoniae ( Spn ) is a colonizer of the human nasopharynx (NP), causing a variety of infections in humans including otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. The NP is an immune permissive site which allows for the persistence of commensal bacteria. Acute or chronic respiratory airway inflammation constitutes a significant risk factor for the manifestation of Spn infections. The inflammatory conditions caused by an upper respiratory viral infection or respiratory conditions such as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPDs) are implicated in the dysregulation of airway inflammation and tissue damage, which compromise the respiratory barrier integrity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hiroyuki Kagawa, Keisuke Miki, Seigo Kitada, Mari Miki, Kenji Yoshimura, Yohei Oshitani, Kohei Nishida, Nobuhiko Sawa, Kazuyuki Tsujino, Ryoji Maekura
Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show varying mechanisms of exertional dyspnea with different exercise capacities. Methods: To investigate the pathophysiologic conditions related to exertional dyspnea, 294 COPD patients were evaluated using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) with arterial blood analyses, with the patients classified into two groups according to their exercise limitation: the leg fatigue group ( n = 58) and the dyspnea group ( n = 215). The dyspnea group was further subdivided into four groups based on peak oxygen uptake ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Grace C A Manley, Clare A Stokes, Elizabeth K Marsh, Ian Sabroe, Lisa C Parker
Rhinoviral infection is a common trigger of the excessive inflammation observed during exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Rhinovirus (RV) recognition by pattern recognition receptors activates the MAPK pathways, common inducers of inflammatory gene production. A family of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) can regulate MAPK function, but their roles in rhinoviral infection are not known. We hypothesised that DUSPs would negatively regulate the inflammatory response to RV infection...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Miklos Szabo, Laszlo Hajba, Renáta Kuhn, András Guttman, Eszter Csánky
Lung adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of mortality among cancer patients worldwide and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also high in death statistics. In addition, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have high risk for developing primary lung cancer. Prevention, risk estimation and a non-invasive diagnostics are essential to decrease COPD and lung cancer mortality. Therefore, better and more accurate molecular diagnostic markers (biomarkers) are needed for the early differential diagnosis of these lung diseases to help clinicians making better therapeutic decisions...
October 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Paolo T Pianosi
This essay expounds on fundamental, quantitative elements of the exercise ventilation in children, which was the subject of the Tom Rowland Lecture given at the NASPEM 2018 Conference. Our knowledge about how much ventilation rises during aerobic exercise is reasonably solid; our understanding of its governance is a work in progress, but our grasp of dyspnea and ventilatory limitation in children (if it occurs) remains embryonic. This manuscript summarizes ventilatory mechanics during dynamic exercise, then proceeds to outline our current understanding of mechanisms of dyspnea, particularly during exercise (exertional dyspnea)...
October 17, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Catharina Hommelsheim, Mathias Sichau, Roland Heipel, Eckhard Müller, Sören Gatermann, Michael Pfeifer, Santiago Ewig
BACKGROUND: The impact of respiratory tract pathogens and infection on outcomes in patients with prolonged weaning is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We studied predictors of weaning outcomes (death and failure to achieve spontaneous ventilation) in a population treated during a 3.5-year period in a specialized and certified weaning centre. METHODS: Patient data were retrieved retrospectively from the clinical charts. Complete datasets were available in 173 patients...
October 17, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Baimei He, Qiong Chen, Dongbo Zhou, Lijing Wang, Zhaoqian Liu
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis of airway epithelial cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, autophagy is closely related to ERS under apoptosis. Here, this study aimed to investigate the role of the reciprocal interaction between autophagy and ERS in the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced apoptosis of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Protein expression was examined by Western blot...
October 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
Helen Senderovich, Akash Yendamuri
INTRODUCTION: Dyspnea is prominently observed in palliative care (PC). Dyspnea can be multifactorial, primarily caused by obstructive or restrictive lung diseases or secondarily induced by various comorbidities. Numerous interventions exist, with route of administration and efficacy requiring further discussion. Despite opioids being the first line of treatment, their adverse effects lead to reluctance on the side of patients to take them, creating limitations in patient management planning...
October 16, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Joana Verdelho Andrade, Joana Magalhães, Catarina Resende, Dora Gomes, Gabriela Laranjo, Joana Campos, Elisabete Santos, Cristina Faria
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis occur in pediatric age, with unknown incidence, morbidity and mortality. Our aim is to review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, complementary diagnostic tests and prognosis of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive and analytical study of pediatric patients admitted to a Level II hospital for pulmonary thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis, between 2000 and 2014...
September 28, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Haiyan Zhao, Yaping Zhao, Xin Li, Leiqian Xu, Fangxin Jiang, Wanju Hou, Lixia Dong, Jie Cao
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and their coexistence is known as overlap syndrome (OS). Endothelial dysfunction is the initial stage of CVD; however, underlying mechanisms linking OS and CVD are not well understood. The aim of this study was to explore whether OS can lead to more severe inflammation and endothelial apoptosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, and to assess the intervention effects of antioxidant tempol...
November 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Etongola Papy Mbelambela, Masamitsu Eitoku, Sifa Marie Joelle Muchanga, Antonio F Villanueva, Ryoji Hirota, Tiffany Yuka Pulphus, Gedikondele Jérôme Sokolo, Kahoko Yasumitsu-Lovell, Kaori Komori, Narufumi Suganuma
Chronic exposure to cement dust may induce adverse health effects, including a significant decrease in lung function. The study investigated whether the prevalence of COPD and respiratory symptoms was associated with working at different tasks exposed to varying levels of cement dust. The cross-sectional study was carried out among 223 exposed and 156 less exposed workers from two cement factories from November 20 to December 15, 2016 in DRC. Workers completed a questionnaire and spirometry was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupation exposed to cement dust, COPD, and respiratory symptoms, after adjustment for confounders...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Georgia Kourlaba, Georgios Hillas, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Nikos Maniadakis
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide, imposing a substantial socioeconomic burden on societies and patients due to the long-term management required. OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic burden of COPD in Greece and its potential determinants. METHODS: A population-based, random-digit dialled, telephone nationwide survey was conducted to recruit patients with COPD in Greece (N = 351)...
October 17, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
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