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Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Srinath Satyanarayana, Khaing Hnin Phyo, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Aye Aye Mon, Than Than Lwin, Thet Ko Aung, Myo Minn Oo, Zaw Zaw Aung, Thurain Htun, Nang Seng Noon Kham, Theingi Mya, Ajay M V Kumar, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: Early initiation and longer duration of anti-retroviral therapy either as prophylaxis (pARV) or lifelong treatment (ART) in HIV-positive pregnant women prior to delivery has a huge impact in reducing mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, maternal morbidity, mortality and increasing retention in care. In this study, we aimed to determine the following in a 'prevention of mother-to-child transmission' (PMTCT) programme in Central Women Hospital, Mandalay, Myanmar: i) uptake of ART and factors associated with the uptake ii) duration of ART/ pARV received by HIV-positive pregnant women prior to delivery, iii) factors associated with ART/ pARV initiation after delivery and iv) factors associated with shorter duration of ART/ pARV (≤ 8 weeks prior to delivery)...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Benjamin F R Dickson, Patricia M Graves, Ni Ni Aye, Thet Wai Nwe, Tint Wai, San San Win, Myint Shwe, Janet Douglass, Richard S Bradbury, William J McBride
Lymphatic filariasis is widely endemic in Myanmar. Despite the establishment of an elimination program in 2000, knowledge of the remaining burden of disease relies predominantly on programmatic information. To assist the program, we conducted an independent cross-sectional household cluster survey to determine the prevalence of filariasis infection, morbidity and mass-drug administration coverage in four townships of the Mandalay Region: Amarapura, Patheingyi, Tada-U and Wundwin. The survey included 1014 individuals from 430 randomly selected households in 24 villages...
November 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
K Myo, M Zaw, T L Swe, Y Y Kyaw, T Thwin, T T Myo, K O Aye, A A Myint
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay has been recommended for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, there are limited data from the South-East Asian region. SETTING: This study was carried out at a tertiary-level children's hospital in Mandalay, Myanmar. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Xpert as a diagnostic test for PTB in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study of children with suspected PTB...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Dale Halliday, Robert Cumming, Khin-Thida Thwin, Mya Myint Zu Kyaw, Julian White, Sam Alfred, David Warrell, David Bacon, Win Naing, Myat Myat Thein, Nyein Nyein Chit, Sarah Serhal, Chen Au Peh
INTRODUCTION: The global incidence of snakebite is estimated at more than 2.5 million cases annually, with greater than 100,000 deaths. Historically, Myanmar has one of the highest incidences of venomous snakebites. In order to improve the health outcomes of snakebite patients in Myanmar, access to accurate snakebite incidence data is crucial. The last population-based study in Myanmar was conducted more than a decade ago. In 2014, the Ministry of Health and Sports data from health facilities indicated an incidence of about 29...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Daniel O'Keefe, Soe Moe Aung, Naanki Pasricha, Thu Wun, Soe Khaing Linn, Nay Lin, Campbell Aitken, Chad Hughes, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Myanmar has prioritised people who inject drugs (PWID) as a key population for HIV mitigation efforts, with targets for needle and syringe distribution set at a population level. However, individual-level coverage, defined as the percentage of an individual's injecting episodes covered by a sterile syringe, is a more sensitive measure of intervention coverage. We sought to examine individual-level coverage in a sample of PWID in Myanmar. METHODS: We recruited 512 PWID through urban drop-in-centres in Yangon, Mandalay and Pyin Oo Lwin...
August 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
K K K Htet, K T Soe, A M V Kumar, S Saw, H M Win Maung, Z Myint, T M M Khine, S T Aung
SETTING: Regional tuberculosis (TB) centres of the Yangon and Mandalay Regions of Myanmar, which account for 65% of all notified rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) cases countrywide. OBJECTIVE: To determine 1) initial loss to follow-up (LTFU), 2) treatment delay, and 3) factors associated with initial LTFU and treatment delay among RR-TB patients residing in the Yangon and Mandalay regions diagnosed using Xpert® during January-August 2016. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A J Nguyen, C Lee, M Schojan, P Bolton
Background: Recent political changes in Myanmar provide opportunities to expand mental health (MH) services. Given Myanmar's unique situation, we felt a need to assemble and interpret available local information on MH in Myanmar to inform service design, rather than simply drawing lessons from other countries. We reviewed academic and gray literature on the experience of MH problems in Myanmar and the suitability, availability, and effectiveness of MH and psychosocial programming. Methods: We searched: (1) Google Scholar; (2) PubMed; (3) PsychInfo; (4) English-language Myanmar journals and databases; (5) the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) Network resources website; (6) websites and (7) local contacts of organizations identified during 2010 and 2013 mapping exercise of MHPSS providers; (8) the Myanmar Information Management Unit (MIMU) website; (9) University libraries in Yangon and Mandalay; and (10) identified local MH professionals...
2018: Global Mental Health
Eli Coleman, Mariette Pathy Allen, Jessie V Ford
This article describes the gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation of male spirit mediums in Myanmar. Our analysis is based on ethnographic work, field observation, and 10 semi-structured interviews. These observations were conducted from 2010 to 2015, mostly in Mandalay, with some fieldwork in Yangon and Bagan. The focus of this investigation was specifically on achout (gender variant individuals) who were spirit mediums (nat kadaw). Semi-structured interviews explored the ways that participants understood their gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality in relation to their work as spirit mediums and broader social life...
May 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Eliza Schioldann, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Mya Myitzu Kyaw, Dale Halliday, Khin Thida Thwin, Nyein Nyein Chit, Robert Cumming, David Bacon, Sam Alfred, Julian White, David Warrell, Chen Au Peh
BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a major public health problem in many developing countries. Farmers are particularly exposed to snakes, and due to their rural location often experience delays in accessing formal healthcare. The reasons to use traditional healers may include difficulties in accessing formal healthcare, certain beliefs about snakes and snake venom, tradition, and trust in the capacity of traditional healers. Traditional healing, however, may have serious consequences in terms of delays or added complications...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Vanessa Veronese, Zaw Min Oo, Zaw Win Thein, Poe Poe Aung, Bridget L Draper, Chad Hughes, Claire Ryan, Alisa Pedrana, Mark Stoové
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) are a priority population for HIV prevention in Myanmar but report sub-optimal HIV testing frequency. Previous studies have shown that peer involvement in HIV testing can normalize stigmatized sexualities and reduce barriers to testing. We explored the acceptability of peer-delivered HIV testing among 425 undiagnosed MSM and TW in Yangon and Mandalay. An overwhelming majority of participants (86%) reported being 'comfortable/very comfortable' with peer-delivered HIV testing...
August 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Aung Kyaw Kyaw, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Corazon C Buerano, Takeshi Nabeshima, Miako Sakaguchi, Tsuyoshi Ando, Shingo Inoue, Yi Yi Mya, Daisuke Hayasaka, Hlaing Myat Thu, Kyaw Zin Thant, Kouichi Morita
An entomological surveillance of arboviruses was conducted in Myanmar in 2014. A total of 8357 Culex mosquito vectors were collected in the Mandalay area and virus isolation was done by using the mosquito cell line C6/36 E2. A total of eighteen strains of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) were isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui and Cx. fuscocephala. Like other insect-specific flaviviruses, CxFV can replicate only in mosquito cells but not in mammalian cells. These CxFV strains that were isolated in Japan from mosquitoes collected in Myanmar were closely related to the Wang Thong virus detected from Cx fusocephalus in Thailand and Cx...
March 2, 2018: Virus Research
Phyo Theingi, Anthony D Harries, Khin Thet Wai, Hemant D Shewade, Saw Saw, Than Win, Saw Thein, Myo Su Kyi, Htun Nyunt Oo, Si Thu Aung
Background: HIV-associated TB is a serious public health problem in Myanmar. Study objectives were to describe national scale-up of collaborative activities to reduce the double burden of TB and HIV from 2005 to 2016 and to describe TB treatment outcomes of individuals registered with HIV-associated TB in 2015 in the Mandalay Region. Methods: Secondary analysis of national aggregate data and, for treatment outcomes, a cohort study of patients with HIV-associated TB in the Mandalay Region...
September 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Myat K Thu, Ajay M V Kumar, Kyaw T Soe, Saw Saw, Saw Thein, Zaw Mynit, Htet M W Maung, Si T Aung
Background: Since 2011, Myanmar has adopted domiciliary care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients and implemented several patient-support measures such as community-based directly observed treatment, nutritional support and financial incentives for patients and providers. We assessed treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered for treatment in the Yangon and Mandalay Regions of Myanmar during 2012-2014 and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes...
September 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Win Mar
Nuclear Medicine was established in Myanmar in 1963 by Dr Soe Myint and International Atomic Energy expert Dr R. Hochel at Yangon General Hospital. Nuclear medicine diagnostic and therapeutic services started with Probe Scintillation Detector Systems and rectilinear scanner. In the early stage, many Nuclear Medicine specialists from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) spent some time in Myanmar and made significant contributions to the development of Nuclear Medicine in our country. The department participated in various IAEA technical cooperation projects and regional cooperation projects...
2018: Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Biology
H Johnstone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 1880: Indian Medical Gazette
Alessandro Cristalli, Matteo Morini, Arianna Comin, Katia Capello, Kyaw Sunn, Marco Martini
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 first entered Myanmar in 2006 in the Mandalay District. Several H5N1 outbreaks followed and the one of Bago East District (2007) required post outbreak surveillance in the at-risk domestic duck population of the Moyingyi Wetland. A field epidemiological study based on a randomised prospective stratified study with five surveys provided the serological evidence that the avian influenza H5 subtype circulates in the domestic duck population and spreads to almost all the newly housed (and negative) flocks in the time span of a seasonal production cycle...
February 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Myo Minn Oo, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khaing Hnin Phyo, Thet Ko Aung, Theingi Mya, Nilar Aung, Htun Nyunt Oo, Petros Isaakidis
INTRODUCTION: Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016...
2017: PloS One
Amonrattana Roobthaisong, Kazuhisa Okada, Nilar Htun, Wah Wah Aung, Warawan Wongboot, Watcharaporn Kamjumphol, Aye Aye Han, Yi Yi, Shigeyuki Hamada
Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae , remains a global threat to public health. In Myanmar, the availability of published information on the occurrence of the disease is scarce. We report here that cholera incidence in Mandalay generally exhibited a single annual peak, with an annual average of 312 patients with severe dehydration over the past 5 years (since 2011) and was closely associated with the rainy season. We analyzed cholera outbreaks, characterized 67 isolates of V. cholerae serogroup O1 in 2015 from patients from Mandalay, and compared them with 22 V...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Bridget L Draper, Freya J I Fowkes, Zaw Min Oo, Zaw Win Thein, Poe Poe Aung, Vanessa Veronese, Claire Ryan, Myo Thant, Chad Hughes, Mark Stoové
INTRODUCTION: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as a key component of contemporary HIV combination prevention strategies. To explore the local suitability of PrEP, country-specific acceptability studies are needed to inform potential PrEP implementation. In the context of Myanmar, in addition to resource constraints, HIV service access by gay men, other men who have sex with men, and transgender women (GMT) continues to be constrained by legislative and community stigma and marginalization...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Tin Tin Thein, Theingi Myint, Saw Lwin, Win Myint Oo, Aung Kyaw Kyaw, Moe Kyaw Myint, Kyaw Zin Thant
A prospective, quasi-experimental study was carried out in 2009 at urban health centres (UHCs) of five townships of Mandalay, Myanmar, to improve the skill of midwives (MWs) in diagnosis and referral of pre-eclampsia (PE) from UHC to the Central Women's Hospital (CWH) and to enhance the supervision of midwives by lady health visitors (LHVs). The intervention was training on quality antenatal care focusing on PE using an updated training manual. Altogether, 75 health care providers (MWs & LHVs) participated...
July 2012: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
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