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Professional practice

Péter Rajna, János Tajti
Two leading managers of the scientific journal currently publishing its 71st volume give an overview on the history and content- and form-related development of the journal. Recognizing the constantly decreasing role of paper-based literature products, the value system and the priorities of the journal were established more than 20 years ago: 1) preservation of high standards by achieving and maintaining international registration and annual qualification (i.e. impact factor); 2) enabling publication in Hungarian language for scientists living in Hungary and abroad; 3) displaying an ever broader spectrum of clinical neurosciences in the publications; 4) presentation of cutting-edge findings (related to the etiology, diagnostics, therapy, and care) of the most frequent and most relevant diseases in order to assure and enhance the quality of national clinical practice; 5) providing the possibility for the highest possible standard of scientific publication for Hungarian clinical neuroscientist; and finally 6) maintaining a readily available interaction surface and debate forum for the involved professionals in clinical questions of public interest...
September 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Margaret Bearman, Jennene Greenhill, Debra Nestel
CONTEXT: Simulation-based education (SBE) includes a broad spectrum of simulation activities, which are individually well researched. An extensive literature reports on SBE methods, topics and modalities, but there are limited studies investigating how simulation as a holistic phenomenon promotes learning. This study seeks to identify the ways in which health professionals narrate powerful SBE experiences and through this to understand in what ways SBE may influence learning. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-seven narratives about powerful learning through SBE were gathered from participants' online reflections from a national faculty development programme in SBE...
October 18, 2018: Medical Education
Shala Cunningham, Bini Litwin, Alicia Fernandez-Fernandez, Jennifer Canbek, Richard Jackson
Introduction: With the globalization of higher education through online training, opportunities exist for collaboration between institutions to promote ongoing advancement of healthcare professionals in resource-limited countries. The success of these programs is dependent on the ability of the program to meet the educational needs of the student and assist with implementation of the new information into practice. A post graduate residency program for physical therapists was introduced to Kenya to promote the development of the profession of physical therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Daiana Colledani, Dora Capozza, Rossella Falvo, Gian Antonio Di Bernardo
The main goal of the present study was to validate the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction (W-BNS) scale in the Italian social context. Three studies were carried out. Study 1 was conducted on two samples of employees. Exploratory factor analysis and parallel analysis were run on the first sample, whereas confirmatory factor analyses were run on the second. Results supported the three-dimensional structure of the W-BNS scale. Study 2 was conducted on a third sample of employees. Results supported the construct validity of the scale, by showing that needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness were associated with job resources (social support, job autonomy, professional growth), low burnout, and job attitudes (job satisfaction, turnover intentions, commitment)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Alireza Esmaeili, William G Hopkins, Andrew M Stewart, George P Elias, Brendan H Lazarus, Robert J Aughey
Aim: Relationships between athlete monitoring-derived variables and injury risk have been investigated predominantly in isolation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of multiple factors on the risk of soft-tissue non-contact injuries in elite team sport athletes. Methods: Fifty-five elite Australian footballers were prospectively monitored over two consecutive seasons. Internal and external training load was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion and GPS/accelerometry, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lynsey C Smith, Rachana J Patel, Deanna Kurz, Beverly A Kroner
PURPOSE: Leadership experiences taught within the Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) ambulatory care pharmacy residency program were evaluated. METHODS: KPCO leadership training incorporated 6 mandatory leadership sessions and offered a 6-week elective rotation. In this qualitative study, an 18-item semistructured interview guide was developed, tested, and administered telephonically to former KPCO PGY2 residents who had been in clinical practice for a minimum of 1 year...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Rafael Santos Santana, Evandro de Oliveira Lupatini, Fernando Zanghelini, Ricardo de March Ronsoni, Norberto Rech, Silvana Nair Leite
Each year, evidence-based clinical guidelines gain more space in the health professionals' practice and in services organization. Due to the scarcity of scientific publications focused on diseases of poverty, the development of well-founded clinical guidelines becomes more and more important. In view of that, this paper aims to evaluate the quality of Brazilian guidelines for those diseases. The AGREE II method was used to evaluate 16 guidelines for poverty-related diseases (PRD) and 16 guidelines for global diseases whose treatment require high-cost technologies (HCD), with the ultimate aim of comparing the results...
2018: PloS One
Iacopo Franconi, Olga Theou, Lindsay Wallace, Andrea Malagoli, Cristina Mussini, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Standard care for HIV clinical practice has started focusing on age-related problems, but despite this recent change physicians involved in HIV care do not often screen HIV patients for frailty. Our aim was to construct three indexes from an HIV clinical database (i.e. Frailty Index, (FI), HIV Index, (HIVI), and Protective Index (PI)) and to assess levels of frailty, HIV severity and demographic and protective lifestyle factors among HIV patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included data from 1612 patients who attended an Italian HIV clinic between September 2016 and December2017 (mean±SD age: 53...
2018: PloS One
Jasmijn A van Balveren, Wilhelmine P H G Verboeket-van de Venne, Lale Erdem-Eraslan, Albert J de Graaf, Annemarieke E Loot, Ruben E A Musson, Wytze P Oosterhuis, Martin P Schuijt, Heleen van der Sijs, Rolf J Verheul, Holger K de Wolf, Ron Kusters, Rein M J Hoedemakers
Intake of drugs may influence the interpretation of laboratory test results. Knowledge and correct interpretation of possible drug-laboratory test interactions (DLTIs) is important for physicians, pharmacists and laboratory specialists. Laboratory results may be affected by analytical or physiological effects of medication. Failure to take into account the possible unintended influence of drug use on a laboratory test result may lead to incorrect diagnosis, incorrect treatment and unnecessary follow-up. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the literature investigating the clinical impact and use of DLTI decision support systems on laboratory test interpretation...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Yuzhu Huang, Wei Wang, Haijian Zhao, Yuxuan Du, Jiali Liu, Falin He, Kun Zhong, Shuai Yuan, Zhiguo Wang
Background This study aimed to evaluate the ability of comment providers who were responsible for interpreting results in clinical laboratories in China and to improve the quality of interpretative comments. Methods Basic information and interpretative comments for five cases of 1912 routine chemistry External Quality Assessment (EQA) participant laboratories were collected by web-based EQA system in May 2018. EQA organizers assigned scores to each key phrase of comments based on predetermined marking scale and calculated total scores for each participant's answer...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Marianela Ferreira, Alexandra Lopes, Miguel Guimarães, Henrique Barros
INTRODUCTION: This article addresses the organization and management of medical careers in Portugal within the framework of the National Health Service. It focuses, in particular, on some indicators of motivation and professional satisfaction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article is part of a broader research project on the organization of medical careers in Portugal. It draws on the results of a survey carried out to active medical doctors, residents and those that have already abandoned the National Health Service...
September 28, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Kevin Woo, Rosemary Hill, Kimberly LeBlanc, Steven L Percival, Gregory Schultz, Dot Weir, Terry Swanson, Dieter O Mayer
The characteristic clinical signs of chronic wounds, which remain in a state of prolonged inflammation, include increased production of devitalised tissue and exudate, pain and malodour. The presence of necrotic tissue, slough and copious exudate encourages microbial proliferation, potentially resulting in planktonic and/or biofilm infection. For patients, the consequences can include leakage of exudate, pain and reduced mobility, which can impair their ability to socialise and perform activities of daily living...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
Andrew A Guccione, Brian T Neville, Steven Z George
For over 30 years, the physical therapy profession has openly pursued the concept of diagnosis.1,2 More recently, the attention on diagnosis has shifted to postulation of a "movement system" as the unique and overarching construct of the profession's body of knowledge and the foundation of physical therapist practice as such practice seeks to optimize movement as movement is related to health.3,4 The term "movement system" has been defined as "represent(ing) the collection of systems (cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, integumentary, nervous, and musculoskeletal) that interact to move the body or its component parts...
October 17, 2018: Physical Therapy
Birgit A Greiner, Sheilah Nolan, Dervla A M Hogan
Background: Research with physical therapists reveals high rates of work-related musculoskeletal injuries, especially low back pain, with early career onset. Less focus has been given to upper limb disorder (ULD) in these professionals who are frequently performing repetitive arm/hand and precision finger motions during work. Objective: The objective was to estimate prevalence of body-site-specific upper limb (UL) symptoms and diagnosed ULD in Irish chartered physiotherapists, physical therapists, and athletic therapists, with adjustment for leisure time injury, and document first onset of specific UL symptoms...
October 17, 2018: Physical Therapy
Richard Crevenna, Franz Kainberger, Christoph Wiltschke, Christine Marosi, Michael Wolzt, Fadime Cenik, Mohammad Keilani
BACKGROUND: Cancer rehabilitation has the goal to improve functional status, quality of life, participation, and can improve quality of patient-centered programs and health care efficiencies. In Austria, inpatient cancer rehabilitation is well established but outpatient rehabilitation has not yet established well. METHODS: The present article is describing current rehabilitation in practice and focuses on cancer rehabilitation in Austria, namely bringing together a descriptive account of current trends and practices within an Austrian University Hospital Center (General Hospital of Vienna linked to the Medical University of Vienna) and the Comprehensive Cancer Centre (CCC) Vienna, Austria...
October 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Robert Stanton, Amanda Rebar, Simon Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a well-established treatment for depression, and its use in clinical care is supported by consumers and clinicians. However, whether public health messages regarding the benefits of exercise for depression have translated to public knowledge remains unknown. This study aims to examine the community's mental health literacy, and views regarding exercise delivery for people with depression. METHODS: A vignette was presented as part of the telephone-based 2017 National Social Survey (n = 1,265)...
October 17, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Alex Kappel Kørup, Jens Søndergaard, René dePont Christensen, Connie Thurøe Nielsen, Giancarlo Lucchetti, Parameshwaran Ramakrishnan, Klaus Baumann, Eunmi Lee, Eckhard Frick, Arndt Büssing, Nada A Alyousefi, Azimatul Karimah, Esther Schouten, Andreas Schulze, Inga Wermuth, Niels Christian Hvidt
Research to date has shown that health professionals often practice according to personal values, including values based on faith, and that these values impact medicine in multiple ways. While some influence of personal values are inevitable, awareness of values is important so as to sustain beneficial practice without conflicting with the values of the patient. Detecting when own personal values, whether based on a theistic or atheistic worldview, are at work, is a daily challenge in clinical practice. Simultaneously ethical guidelines of tone-setting medical associations like American Medical Association, the British General Medical Council and Australian Medical Association have been updated to encompass physicians' right to practice medicine in accord with deeply held beliefs...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Elizabeth Moulton, Rosemary Wilson, Pilar Camargo Plazas, Kathryn Halverson
As nursing continues to develop as a professional discipline, it is important for nurses to have a central question to guide their research. Since the 1800s, nursing practice and research have covered a wide scope in cooperation with other disciplines. This wide area of nursing practice and research has led to the proposal that the central question be: How can the well-being of a person, family, community, or population be improved? The proposed question must remain flexible and open to revision because nurses will continue to adapt to the changing needs of their patients and populations and to their complex and evolving work environments...
October 17, 2018: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Christina Lamb, Marilyn Evans, Yolanda Babenko-Mould, Carol Wong, Ken Kirkwood
AIMS: To explore the meaning of conscience for nurses in the context of conscientious objection (CO) in clinical practice. DESIGN: Interpretive phenomenology was used to guide this study. DATA SOURCES: Data were collected from 2016 - 2017 through one-on-one interviews from eight nurses in Ontario. Iterative analysis was conducted consistent with interpretive phenomenology and resulted in thematic findings. REVIEW METHODS: Iterative, phased analysis using line-by-line and sentence highlighting identified key words and phrases...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Frances Penny, Michelle Judge, Elizabeth Brownell, Jacqueline M McGrath
Background The benefits of human milk for the preterm infant are well established. Preterm infants have lower breastfeeding rates and often face breastfeeding challenges. It is important that feeding practices for preterm infants optimize their chances of breastfeeding. Objective The purpose of this integrated review is to synthesize and critically analyze research related to the safety and efficacy of cup feeding as an alternative, supplemental feeding method for breastfed infants. Data Sources The electronic data bases of PubMed, CINAHL and were used to identify studies published in English from 1998- 2017...
October 16, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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