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Professional practice

Sheheryar Banuri, Damien de Walque, Philip Keefer, Ousmane Diadie Haidara, Paul Jacob Robyn, Maurice Ye
The quality of care is a crucial determinant of good health outcomes, but is difficult to measure. Survey vignettes are a standard approach to measuring medical knowledge among health care providers. Given that written vignettes or knowledge tests may be too removed from clinical practice, particularly where "learning by doing" may be an important form of training, we developed a new type of provider vignette. It uses videos presenting a patient visiting the clinic with maternal/early childhood symptoms...
July 27, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Nancy Russell, Susan Jennings, Blair Jennings, Valerie Slee, Lisa Sterling, Mariana Castells, Peter Valent, Cem Akin
BACKGROUND: Mast cell diseases such as mastocytosis and mast cell activation syndrome involve abnormal proliferation and/or activation of these cells leading to many clinically relevant symptoms. OBJECTIVE: In order to determine the characteristics and experiences of people known or suspected to have a mast cell disorder, The Mastocytosis Society, a US based patient advocacy, research and education organization, conducted a survey of patients. METHODS: This web-based survey was publicized through specialty clinics and the Society's newsletter, Web site and online blogs...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
J C Pickup
There continues to be uncertainty about the effectiveness in Type 1 diabetes of insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, CSII) vs. multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). This narrative review discusses the reasons for this uncertainty, summarizes the current evidence base for CSII and suggests some future research needs. There are difficulties in interpreting trials of CSII because effectiveness varies widely due to factors such as differing baseline control, suboptimal use of best CSII practices, and psychological factors, for example, high external locus of control, non-adherence and lack of motivation...
August 11, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Remila Rezhake, Xiao-Qian Xu, Sandrine Montigny, Anouk Berger, Shang-Ying Hu, Zhi-Hua Liu, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, You-Lin Qiao, Partha Basu, Fang-Hui Zhao
Cancer care professionals are pivotal in translating the knowledge into action in the continuum of cancer control process. Unfortunately, in China and the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN), limited training opportunities are available for health professionals in the area of cancer prevention and control. Therefore, the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CICAMS), and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) collaboratively designed and held the China-ASEAN Cancer Control and Prevention Training Program to provide continuing education opportunities for cancer professionals from China and ASEAN countries...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Raymond Li, Colin Curtain, Luke Bereznicki, Syed Tabish Razi Zaidi
Background Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by healthcare professionals is prevalent worldwide. Community pharmacists are the most frequently visited healthcare professional and are well placed to document ADRs as a part of their routine practice. Objective To measure community pharmacists' knowledge and perspectives towards ADR reporting and their reporting practices. Setting Community pharmacists in the New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. Method A survey tool consisting of 28 items was developed, piloted and validated by a panel of expert reviewers...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Heike Schütze, Allan Shell, Henry Brodaty
BACKGROUND: Dementia is the second leading cause of death in Australia. Over half of patients with dementia are undiagnosed in primary care. This paper describes the development, implementation and initial evaluation of the first national continuing medical education program on the timely diagnosis and management of dementia in general practice in Australia. METHODS: Continuing medical education workshops were developed and run in 16 urban and rural locations across Australia (12 were delivered as small group workshops, four as large groups), and via online modules...
August 10, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Samira Sami, Ribka Amsalu, Alexander Dimiti, Debra Jackson, Solomon Kenyi, Janet Meyers, Luke C Mullany, Elaine Scudder, Barbara Tomczyk, Kate Kerber
BACKGROUND: Targeted clinical interventions have been associated with a decreased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In conflict-affected countries such as South Sudan, however, implementation of lifesaving interventions face barriers and facilitators that are not well understood. We aimed to describe the factors that influence implementation of a package of facility- and community-based neonatal interventions in four displaced person camps in South Sudan using a health systems framework...
August 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Kelly Powers, Charlie L Reeve
BACKGROUND: Family presence during resuscitation is not widely implemented in clinical practice. Prior research about nurse factors that may influence their decision to invite family members to remain in the room during resuscitation is contradictory and inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To describe intensive care unit nurses' perceptions, self-confidence, and invitations of family presence during resuscitation, and to evaluate differences according to nurse factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used for descriptive and correlational analyses...
June 28, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Gerry Altmiller, Belinda Deal, Nancy Ebersole, Randi Flexner, Janet Jordan, Vicki Jowell, Tommie Norris, Mary Jo Risetter, Monika Schuler, Kathleen Szymanski, Beth Vottero, Danielle Walker
AIM: The study purpose was to describe students' perceptions of feedback after participating in a teaching strategy designed to foster a view of feedback as an opportunity for improvement. BACKGROUND: Although delivering and receiving constructive feedback are essential to the role of the professional nurse, feedback has been identified as a trigger for incivility in academia and practice. METHOD: Twelve nurse educators from the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Academic Task Force, located at nine schools of nursing across the nation, implemented a presentation about giving and receiving constructive feedback in junior and senior courses...
September 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Desi M Newberry, Tracey Robertson Bell
BACKGROUND: Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare in the United States. Recent immigration patterns to the United States have made the diagnosis of congenital TB an important public health issue. PURPOSE: To explore the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and prognosis for congenital TB. The implications for exposed healthcare professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting are also explored. METHODS/SEARCH STRATEGY: Relevant articles were accessed via PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Mevludin Hasanović, Sian Morgan, Sanja Oakley, Sandi Richman, Šemsa Šabanović, Izet Pajević
INTRODUCTION: The needs for EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing) treatment of Bosnia-Herzegovina (BH) citizens, affected by 1992-1995 war, increased. The Trauma Aid UK (former Humanitarian Assistance Programs UK & Ireland) works in partnership with mental health professionals in BH. AIM: We aim to build an environment in which qualified and experienced professionals trained in EMDR may establish and sustain complete EMDR education and to keep international standards of EMDR practice...
July 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Maria C Dolce, Judith Haber, Judith A Savageau, Erin Hartnett, Christine A Riedy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nurse practitioners (NPs) are a significant segment of the US primary care workforce and have a pivotal role in improving access to oral health (OH) care. The purpose of this research was to assess OH curricular integration in primary care NP programs and to examine factors that influence integration and satisfaction with graduates' level of OH competence. METHODS: A cross-sectional, national survey of NP programs (N = 466) was conducted using an electronically distributed 19-item, self-administered questionnaire...
August 6, 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Raúl Mirza, D Bruce Kirchner
: ACOEM believes that the functions of a professional supervisor in hearing conservation programs are part of the "core practice" of occupational medicine. This guidance emphasizes the role occupational medicine clinicians play in the supervision of audiometric surveillance conducted under the auspices of hearing conservation programs and reviews the regulatory and scientific basis and pertinent practices involved in this supervisory role.
August 7, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Leila Valizadeh, Vahid Zamanzadeh, Maryam Rassouli, Akram Ghahramanian, Mandy M Archibald, Elnaz Asghari
PURPOSE/AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore specialized clinical nurses' (SCNs') perceptions of "good care" through descriptions of actual care experiences. DESIGN: We used a qualitative design with a conventional content analysis approach. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 24 SCNs. These nurses have passed specialized clinical courses, are master's or bachelor's degree prepared, have additional course work beyond the bachelor degree, and practice with an expanded scope of responsibility...
September 2018: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Warren J Cheung, Andrea M Patey, Jason R Frank, Meredith Mackay, Sylvain Boet
PURPOSE: Direct observation is essential to assess and provide feedback to medical trainees. However, calls for its increased use in medical training persist as learners report that direct observation occurs infrequently. This study applied a theory-driven approach to systematically investigate barriers and enablers to direct observation in residency training. METHOD: From September 2016 to July 2017, semi-structured interviews of faculty and residents at The Ottawa Hospital were conducted and analyzed...
August 7, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Amelia Fiske, Alena Buyx, Barbara Prainsack
Health care is increasingly data-driven. Concurrently, there are growing concerns that health professionals lack the time and training to guide patients through the growing medical "data jungle." In the age of big data, ever wider domains of people's lives are "datafied," which renders ever more information-at least in principle-usable for health care purposes. Turning data into meaningful information for clinical practice-and deciding what data or information should not be used for this purpose-requires a significant amount of time, resources, and skill...
August 7, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Margaret Ragland, Katrina F Trivers, C Holly A Andrilla, Barbara Matthews, Jacqueline Miller, Denise Lishner, Barbara Goff, Laura-Mae Baldwin
OBJECTIVE: Routine ovarian cancer screening is ineffective; therefore, no professional organization recommends this screening in asymptomatic patients. However, many physicians have recommended screening, exposing patients to unnecessary risk. Little research exists on how nonprofessional experience with cancer influences physicians' screening practices. This study examines the association between physicians' nonprofessional experience with cancer and reported adherence to ovarian cancer screening guidelines...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Rebeca Barros da Silva, Maria do Céu Barbieri-Figueiredo, Marcia Van Riper
Children with Down syndrome are less likely to be breastfed than typically developing children, and breastfeeding has a lower duration compared to recommendations of the World Health Organization. The aim of this study was to understand the breastfeeding experiences of mothers of children with Down syndrome, including their perceptions of the breastfeeding process and their specific practices. This is a qualitative study with 10 participants, mothers of children aged between 2 months and 9 years. Snowball sampling was used for participants' selection, and semi-structured interviews conducted in participants' households...
August 10, 2018: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
Melissa L Carrion
Recent increases in childhood vaccine exemption rates are a source of concern within the public health community. Drawing from the health belief model and in-depth interviews with 50 mothers ( n = 50) who refused one or more vaccine, the aim of this study was to identify the specific reasons and the broader decision context(s) that underscored participants' vaccine refusal. Results indicate that the vast majority of participants supported vaccination until a particular cue motivated them to consider otherwise, and qualitative analysis identified three main categories into which these cues fell: perceived adverse reactions, endorsements from health care professionals, and perceived contradiction among expert-endorsed messages...
August 10, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
C Camps Herrero, J J Reina Zoilo, D Monge Martín, F Caballero Martínez, V Guillem Porta, E Aranda Aguilar, A Carrato Mena, E Díaz-Rubio García, J García-Foncillas López, M Feijóo Saus, R López López
AIMS: To prove if there is clinical inertia in the identification and treatment of episodes of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP), comparing actual results from clinical practice with clinical oncologists' prior perception. DESIGN: Observational and descriptive study, using information collected by practising medical oncologists, at three moments: (a) questionnaire regarding their professional judgement of the handling of patients with BTcP in their practice, (b) cross-sectional clinical screening, to detect possible existing cases of BTcP in a representative sample of their patients, (c) retrospective self-audit of clinical case histories of patients diagnosed with BTcP to find out about how it has been handled...
August 9, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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