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Central Africa republic

Violet N Chihota, Antoinette Niehaus, Elizabeth M Streicher, Xia Wang, Samantha L Sampson, Peter Mason, Gunilla Källenius, Sayoki G Mfinanga, Marnomorney Pillay, Marisa Klopper, Webster Kasongo, Marcel A Behr, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius, Paul D van Helden, David Couvin, Nalin Rastogi, Robin M Warren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes across Africa. METHODS: The SITVIT2 global repository and PUBMED were searched for spoligotype and published genotype data respectively, of M. tuberculosis from Africa. M. tuberculosis lineages in Africa were described and compared across regions and with those from 7 European and 6 South-Asian countries. Further analysis of the major lineages and sub-lineages using Principal Component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were done to describe clustering by geographical regions...
2018: PloS One
Charles M Balagizi, Marcellin M Kasereka, Emilio Cuoco, Marcello Liotta
We report the first δ18 O and δ2 H data of Virunga rainfall in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated on the limit between Central and Eastern Africa. The dataset is from 13 rain gauges deployed at Mount Nyiragongo and its surroundings sampled monthly between December 2013 and October 2015. The δ18 O and δ2 H vary from -6.44 to 6.16‰, and -32.53 to 58.89‰ respectively, and allowed us to define a LMWL of δ2 H = 7.60δ18 O + 16.18. Three main wind directions, i.e. NE, E and SE, were identified in the upper atmosphere corresponding to three major moisture source regions...
July 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pierre Jésus, Maëlenn Guerchet, Sophie Pilleron, Philippe Fayemendy, Alain Maxime Mouanga, Pascal Mbelesso, Pierre Marie Preux, Jean Claude Desport
BACKGROUND: Nutritional status among elderly people living in Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly studied, even though undernutrition and obesity are known to cause many complications and are risk factors for progression and death in several diseases. The aims of this study were to assess the nutritional status of the elderly in Central Africa and to study the factors associated with nutritional disorders (undernutrition and obesity). METHODS: Two cross-sectional population-based studies were carried out in the capitals of Central African Republic (CAR) and Republic of Congo (ROC) between 2008 and 2009...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Daniel Okitundu, Dieudonne Mumba, Michael J Boivin, Thorkild Tylleskär, Desire Tshala-Katumbay
Epidemics of neurodegenerative diseases putatively caused by food toxins have been reported in the tropics with no clear understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. These diseases include the disease named Konzo that has been well documented in sub-Sahara Africa, mostly among children and women of childbearing age. Outbreaks of Konzo have occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Tanzania, Central African Republic, Angola, Cameroun, and most recently in Zambia. The main clinical picture consists of a symmetrical, permanent and irreversible spastic paraparesis (motor neuron disease) with no signs of sensory or genitourinary impairments...
July 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Sébastien Breurec, Clotaire Rafaï, Manuella Onambele, Thierry Frank, Alain Farra, Arnaud Legrand, François-Xavier Weill
Shigella is a major cause of severe diarrhea in children less than the age of 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to describe the (sub-)serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella serogroups from Centrafrican patients with diarrhea between 2002 and 2013. We collected 443 Shigella isolates in total. The most common serogroups were Shigella flexneri ( N = 243, 54.9%), followed by Shigella sonnei ( N = 90, 20.3%) and Shigella dysenteriae ( N = 72, 16.3%). The high diversity of (sub-)serotypes of S...
June 25, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Augustin T Twabela, Georges M Tshilenge, Yoshiro Sakoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Ezekiel Bushu, Philippe Kone, Lidewij Wiersma, Gianpiero Zamperin, Alessandra Drago, Bianca Zecchin, Isabella Monne
In 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in poultry in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Whole-genome phylogeny showed the virus clustered with H5N8 clade strains from birds in central and southern Asia. Emergence of this virus in central Africa represents a threat for animal health and food security.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christopher E Ndehedehe, Onuwa Okwuashi, Vagner G Ferreira, Nathan O Agutu
Monitoring changes in evapotranspiration (ET) is useful in the management of water resources in irrigated agricultural landscapes and in the assessment of crop stress and vegetation conditions of drought-vulnerable regions. Information on the impacts of climate variability on ET dynamics is profitable in developing water management adaptation strategies. Such impacts, however, are generally unreported and not conclusively determined in some regions. In this study, changes in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)-derived ET (2000-2014) over large proportions of Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) are explored...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Christine M Jones, Yoosook Lee, Andrew Kitchen, Travis Collier, Julia C Pringle, Mbanga Muleba, Seth Irish, Jennifer C Stevenson, Maureen Coetzee, Anthony J Cornel, Douglas E Norris, Giovanna Carpi
Anopheles funestus s.s. is a primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its important role in human Plasmodium transmission, evolutionary history, genetic diversity, and population structure of An. funestus in southern and central Africa remains understudied. We deep sequenced, assembled, and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of An. funestus s.s. for the first time, providing a foundation for further genetic research of this important malaria vector species. We further analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes of 43 An...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016...
June 2, 2018: Lancet
Magloire Nkosi Mpembi, Thierry Lukeba, Damien Mayemba, Victoria Kubuta Massamba, Thierry Matonda Ma Nzuzi, Symphorien Gokara, Etienne Vermeiren, Gilbert Mananga Lelo, Samuel Mampunza Ma Miezi
Context: in Africa's zones of conflict, recent studies report a high frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) particularly in community settings. Objective: This study aimed to contribute to a better management of patients experiencing violence subsequent to the Central African Republic socio-political conflict. Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the medical records of patients receiving outpatient treatment in the Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (France) Trauma Center, Bangui...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Martin Cheek, Hirokazu Tsukaya, Paula J Rudall, Kenji Suetsugu
Oxygyne Schltr. (Thismiaceae) is a rare and little-known genus of achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophic perennial herbs with one of the most remarkable distributions of all angiosperm plant genera globally, being disjunct between Japan and West-Central Africa. Each species is known only from a single location, and in most cases from a single specimen. This monographic study names, describes and maps two new species, Oxygyne duncanii Cheek from cloud forest in SW Region Cameroon and O. frankei Cheek from gallery forest in the Central African Republic , representing the first new Oxygyne species described from Africa in 112 years, and raising the number of described Oxygyne species from four to six...
2018: PeerJ
Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Marcel Mbeko Simaleko, Serge Police Camengo, Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde, David Veyer, Mathieu Matta, Leman Robin, Jean De Dieu Longo, Gérard Grésenguet, Hélène Péré, Jean-François Meye, Laurent Belec
BACKGROUND: High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains a great concern in relation to African men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those infected with HIV. The prevalence of HR-HPV and associated risk factors was estimated in a cross-sectional observational study covering MSM living in Bangui, Central African Republic. METHODS: MSM receiving care at the Centre National de Référence des Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles et de la Thérapie Antirétrovirale, Bangui, were included...
2018: PloS One
Divya Venkatesh, Marjolein J Poen, Theo M Bestebroer, Rachel D Scheuer, Oanh Vuong, Mzia Chkhaidze, Anna Machablishvili, Jimsher Mamuchadze, Levan Ninua, Nadia B Fedorova, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Amy Ransier, Timothy B Stockwell, David E Wentworth, Divya Kriti, Jayeeta Dutta, Harm van Bakel, Anita Puranik, Marek J Slomka, Steve Essen, Ian H Brown, Ron A M Fouchier, Nicola S Lewis
Wild ducks and gulls are the major reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIVs). The mechanisms that drive AIV evolution are complex at sites where various duck and gull species from multiple flyways breed, winter, or stage. The Republic of Georgia is located at the intersection of three migratory flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the East Africa/West Asia flyway, and the Black Sea/Mediterranean flyway. For six complete study years (2010 to 2016), we collected AIV samples from various duck and gull species that breed, migrate, and overwinter in Georgia...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
Murielle Simo-Droissart, Tariq Stévart, Bonaventure Sonké, Sandrine Mayogo, Narcisse Kamdem, Vincent Droissart
In the context of producing a revised phylogenetic Linnean taxonomy of angraecoid orchids, the monotypic and narrow-endemic genus Ossiculum is synonymised with Calyptrochilum . Accordingly, a new combination in Calyptrochilum is proposed for Ossiculum aurantiacum . The morphological and DNA-based evidence for this transfer is discussed. Moreover, Calyptrochilum aurantiacum is here firstly reported outside Cameroon, with a record from the Republic of the Congo. The Red List conservation status of this species is reassessed and it is to be downgraded from "Critically Endangered" (CR) to "Endangered" (EN), following the recent discovery of additional subpopulations in Cameroon...
2018: PhytoKeys
Agnès Marchio, Marie Amougou Atsama, Aubin Béré, Narcisse-Patrice Komas, Dominique Noah Noah, Paul Jean Adrien Atangana, Serge-Magloire Camengo-Police, Richard Njouom, Claudine Bekondi, Pascal Pineau
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a major killing malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Lifelong intoxication with aflatoxin B1 is considered as one of the primary causes of this situation. The role of aflatoxin in HCC from a given population is commonly estimated through the prevalence of R249S mutation of TP53, a hallmark for previous exposure to the mycotoxin. However, the role of AFB1 is barely known in large part of Africa. We conducted a survey on circulating cell-free DNA from 149 patients with HCC and 213 control subjects with and without liver diseases from Cameroon and Central African Republic using droplet digital PCR technique...
August 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Pierrot Lebughe, Kurt de Vlam, Rene Westhovens, Jean-Marie Mbuyi-Muamba, Jean Jacques Malemba
OBJECTIVES: To determine the spectrum of spondyloarthritis (SpA) in outpatients with symptoms of rheumatism attending two rheumatology practices in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. DESIGN: A descriptive prospective multicentre outpatient study. SETTING: The present study analysed 6 months data (from 1 December 2012 till 31 May 2013). PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred and eighty-four consecutive outpatients were studied...
May 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Joo Yeon Ko, In-Yong Lee, Byeong Jin Park, Jae Min Shin, Jae-Sook Ryu
The cutaneous myiasis has been rarely reported in the Republic of Korea. We intended to describe here a case of furuncular cutaneous myiasis caused by Cordylobia anthropophaga larvae in a Korean traveler returned from Central Africa. A patient, 55-year-old man, had traveled to Equatorial Guinea, in Central Africa for a month and just returned to Korea. Physical examinations showed 2 tender erythematous nodules with small central ulceration on the left buttock and thigh. During skin biopsy, 2 larvae came out from the lesion...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Julia C Pringle, Giovanna Carpi, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Sha Joe Zhu, Tamaki Kobayashi, Modest Mulenga, Thierry Bobanga, Mike Chaponda, William J Moss, Douglas E Norris
The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine encompasses the central repeats and C-terminal of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP). Although no Phase II clinical trial studies observed evidence of strain-specific immunity, recent studies show a decrease in vaccine efficacy against non-vaccine strain parasites. In light of goals to reduce malaria morbidity, anticipating the effectiveness of RTS,S/AS01 is critical to planning widespread vaccine introduction. We deep sequenced C-terminal Pfcsp from 77 individuals living along the international border in Luapula Province, Zambia and Haut-Katanga Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and compared translated amino acid haplotypes to the 3D7 vaccine strain...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Martin Faye, Oumar Faye, Moussa Moise Diagne, Gamou Fall, Manfred Weidmann, Mbacke Sembene, Amadou Alpha Sall, Ousmane Faye
Bagaza virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first isolated in 1966 in Central African Republic. It has currently been identified in mosquito pools collected in the field in West and Central Africa. Emergence in wild birds in Europe and serological evidence in encephalitis patients in India raise questions on its genetic evolution and the diversity of isolates circulating in Africa. To better understand genetic diversity and evolution of Bagaza virus, we describe the full-genome characterization of 11 West African isolates, sampled from 1988 to 2014...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
Nerly Shirère Gampio Gueye, Francine Ntoumi, Christevy Vouvoungui, Simon Charles Kobawila, Michael NKombo, Alain M Mouanga, Julia Deibert, Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda
As in many sub-Saharan African countries, the burden of malaria has been reduced in the Republic of Congo as a result of massive deployment of insecticide treated nets and availability of artemisinin-combinations therapies (ACTs). High to moderate genetic diversity of msp-1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) has been reported from different parts of the world but limited data are available from Central Africa including the Republic of Congo. For this reason, the aim of study was to investigate the P...
July 2018: Acta Tropica
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