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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340847/forecasting-life-expectancy-years-of-life-lost-and-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-for-250-causes-of-death-reference-and-alternative-scenarios-for-2016-40-for-195-countries-and-territories
#1
Kyle J Foreman, Neal Marquez, Andrew Dolgert, Kai Fukutaki, Nancy Fullman, Madeline McGaughey, Martin A Pletcher, Amanda E Smith, Kendrick Tang, Chun-Wei Yuan, Jonathan C Brown, Joseph Friedman, Jiawei He, Kyle R Heuton, Mollie Holmberg, Disha J Patel, Patrick Reidy, Austin Carter, Kelly Cercy, Abigail Chapin, Dirk Douwes-Schultz, Tahvi Frank, Falko Goettsch, Patrick Y Liu, Vishnu Nandakumar, Marissa B Reitsma, Vince Reuter, Nafis Sadat, Reed J D Sorensen, Vinay Srinivasan, Rachel L Updike, Hunter York, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Stephen S Lim, Ali H Mokdad, Stein Emil Vollset, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding potential trajectories in health and drivers of health is crucial to guiding long-term investments and policy implementation. Past work on forecasting has provided an incomplete landscape of future health scenarios, highlighting a need for a more robust modelling platform from which policy options and potential health trajectories can be assessed. This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts -and alternative future scenarios-for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories...
October 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322584/global-epidemiology-of-use-of-and-disparities-in-caesarean-sections
#2
REVIEW
Ties Boerma, Carine Ronsmans, Dessalegn Y Melesse, Aluisio J D Barros, Fernando C Barros, Liang Juan, Ann-Beth Moller, Lale Say, Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Mu Yi, Dácio de Lyra Rabello Neto, Marleen Temmerman
In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births...
October 13, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30313142/new-enigmatic-species-of-the-genus-pediobius-hymenoptera-eulophidae-from-afrotropics-with-notes-on-related-genera
#3
Alex Gumovsky
Three new species groups and seven species of the genus Pediobius Walker are described from the Afrotropical realm: the marjoriae group, with P. marjoriae Kerrich (described from Uganda), P. rohombaya Gumovsky sp. n. (from the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Gabon, Uganda) and P. orungu Gumovsky sp. n. (from Gabon); the afroteres group with P. afroteres Gumovsky sp. n. (from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda, DRC, Cameroon) and P. kafroteres Gumovsky sp...
June 21, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284355/prevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-and-its-association-with-dementia-in-older-adults-in-central-africa-a-result-from-the-epidemca-programme
#4
Nathalie Bouscaren, Sophie Pilleron, Pascal Mbelesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Jean-François Dartigues, Jean-Pierre Clément, Pierre-Marie Preux, Marie-Laure Dardé, Maëlenn Guerchet
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in older adults living in Central Africa and investigating its association with dementia using data from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA) programme. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentre population-based study was carried out among participants aged 73 (±7) years on average, living in rural and urban areas of the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo between November 2011 and December 2012...
October 3, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261186/schistosomes-snails-and-climate-change-current-trends-and-future-expectations
#5
REVIEW
Anna-Sofie Stensgaard, Penelope Vounatsou, Mita E Sengupta, Jürg Utzinger
The exact impact of climate change on schistosomiasis, a blood-fluke affecting more than 250 million people mainly in tropical and subtropical countries, is currently unknown, but likely to vary with the snail-parasite species' specific ecologies and the spatio-temporal scale of investigation. Here, by means of a systematic review to identify studies reporting on impacts of climate change on the agents of schistosomiasis, we provide an updated synthesis of the current knowledge about the climate change-schistosomiasis relation...
September 24, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255569/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-among-older-adults-living-in-two-countries-in-central-africa-epidemca-study
#6
Inès Yoro Zohoun, Philippe Nubukpo, Dismand Houinato, Pascal M'Belesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Jean-Pierre Clément, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Pierre-Marie Preux, Maëlenn Guerchet
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at estimating the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and investigating associated factors among older adults living in two countries in Central Africa (Central African Republic (CAR) and Republic of Congo (ROC)). METHODS: The EPIDEMCA multicentre population-based study was carried out in rural and urban areas of CAR and ROC between 2011 and 2012 among people aged 65 and over. After cognitive screening using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia, participants with low performances underwent neurological examination including the brief version of the NeuroPsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q)...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252848/standardising-visual-control-devices-for-tsetse-east-and-central-african-savannah-species-glossina-swynnertoni-glossina-morsitans-centralis-and-glossina-pallidipes
#7
Mechtilda Byamungu, Tusevo Zacarie, Alexis Makumyaviri M'Pondi, Philémon Mansinsa Diabakana, Andrew McMullin, Thomas Kröber, Steve Mihok, Patrick M Guerin
BACKGROUND: This study focused on the savannah tsetse species Glossina swynnertoni and G. morsitans centralis, both efficient vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in, respectively, East and Central Africa. The aim was to develop long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive devices that induce the strongest landing responses in these two species for use as insecticide-impregnated tools in population suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in different seasons and years in Tanzania (G...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234087/emergence-of-monkeypox-as-the-most-important-orthopoxvirus-infection-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Nikola Sklenovská, Marc Van Ranst
Monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic disease recognized as the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans in the smallpox post-eradication era. The clinical presentation of monkeypox is similar to the one of smallpox. The case fatality rate of monkeypox (10%) lies between the case fatality rate of variola major (30%) and variola minor (1%). The disease is endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but other countries of Central and West Africa either reported cases of monkeypox in humans or circulation in wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226900/impact-of-repeated-annual-community-directed-treatment-with-ivermectin-on-loiasis-parasitological-indicators-in-cameroon-implications-for-onchocerciasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-in-areas-co-endemic-with-loa-loa-in-africa
#9
Samuel Wanji, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Fanny Fri Fombad, Jonas Arnaud Kengne-Ouafo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Yolande Flore Longang Tchounkeu, Benjamin Koudou, Moses Bockarie, Grace Fobi, Jean Baptiste Roungou, Peter A Enyong
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is a filarial infection endemic in the rainforest zone of west and central Africa particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Repeated treatments with ivermectin have been delivered using the annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) approach for several years to control onchocerciasis in some Loa loa-Onchocerca volvulus co-endemic areas. The impact of CDTI on loiasis parasitological indicators is not known...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190119/safety-profile-of-fractional-dosing-of-the-17dd-yellow-fever-vaccine-among-males-and-females-experience-of-a-community-based-pharmacovigilance-in-kinshasa-dr-congo
#10
Didier Nzolo, Aline Engo Biongo, Andrea Kuemmerle, Mariano Lusakibanza, Yves Lula, Ntamabyaliro Nsengi, Celestin Nsibu Ndosimao, Gaston Tona Lutete, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: In early 2016, there was a Yellow Fever (YF) outbreak in Central Africa with several deaths reported from Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Due to a shortage in vaccine supply, fractional dosing (0.1 ml) of 17DD Yellow Fever Vaccine (YFV) was proposed in preventive vaccination campaign in Kinshasa in August 2016. A Pharmacovigilance surveillance at community level was implemented to track Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFIs). The objective of this study was to describe AEFIs as captured from community-based pharmacovigilance and to compare the safety profile of the fractional dosing of YFV between gender...
October 1, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181875/mid-upper-arm-circumference-muac-shows-strong-geographical-variations-in-children-with-edema-results-from-2277-surveys-in-55-countries
#11
Jose Luis Alvarez, Nicky Dent, L Browne, Mark Myatt, André Briend
Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is defined by a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) less than 115 mm or a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) less than - 3 but also by the presence of bilateral pitting edema, also known as kwashiorkor or edematous malnutrition. Although edematous malnutrition is a life threatening condition, it has not been prioritized in recent research and has been neglected in global health initiatives. Methods: Two thousand two hundred and seventy-seven survey datasets were collected, and the age, sex, weight, height, MUAC and the presence or absence of edema were analyzed for more than 1...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150604/hhv-8-seroprevalence-and-genotype-distribution-in-africa-1998%C3%A2-2017-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth M Etta, Doyinmola P Alayande, Lufuno G Mavhandu-Ramarumo, George Gachara, Pascal O Bessong
Human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). We systematically reviewed literature published between 1998 and 2017, according to the PRISMA guidelines, to understand the distribution of HHV-8 infection in Africa. More than two-thirds (64%) of studies reported on seroprevalence and 29.3% on genotypes; 9.5% were on both seroprevalence and genotypes. About 45% of African countries had data on HHV-8 seroprevalence exclusively, and more than half (53%) had data on either seroprevalence or genotypes...
August 27, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149038/high-throughput-drug-screening-using-the-ebola-virus-transcription-and-replication-competent-virus-like-particle-system
#13
Nakyung Lee, David Shum, Alexander König, Hichul Kim, Jinyeong Heo, Saehong Min, Jihye Lee, Yoonae Ko, Inhee Choi, Honggun Lee, Constantin Radu, Thomas Hoenen, Ji-Young Min, Marc P Windisch
The massive epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, followed in recent months by two outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, underline the importance of this severe disease. Because Ebola virus (EBOV) must be manipulated under biosafety level 4 (BSL4) containment, the discovery and development of virus-specific therapies have been hampered. Recently, a transient transfection-based transcription- and replication competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system was described, enabling modeling of the entire EBOV life cycle under BSL2 conditions...
October 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126990/stunted-childhood-growth-is-associated-with-decompartmentalization-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-overgrowth-of-oropharyngeal-taxa
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Pascale Vonaesch, Evan Morien, Lova Andrianonimiadana, Hugues Sanke, Jean-Robert Mbecko, Kelsey E Huus, Tanteliniaina Naharimanananirina, Bolmbaye Privat Gondje, Synthia Nazita Nigatoloum, Sonia Sandrine Vondo, Jepthé Estimé Kaleb Kandou, Rindra Randremanana, Maheninasy Rakotondrainipiana, Florent Mazel, Serge Ghislain Djorie, Jean-Chrysostome Gody, B Brett Finlay, Pierre-Alain Rubbo, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Jean-Marc Collard, Philippe J Sansonetti
Linear growth delay (stunting) affects roughly 155 million children under the age of 5 years worldwide. Treatment has been limited by a lack of understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Stunting is most likely associated with changes in the microbial community of the small intestine, a compartment vital for digestion and nutrient absorption. Efforts to better understand the pathophysiology have been hampered by difficulty of access to small intestinal fluids. Here, we describe the microbial community found in the upper gastrointestinal tract of stunted children aged 2-5 y living in sub-Saharan Africa...
September 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121441/where-there-is-no-brain-imaging-safety-and-diagnostic-value-of-lumbar-puncture-in-patients-with-neurological-disorders-in-a-rural-hospital-of-central-africa
#15
Deby Mukendi, Jean-Roger Lilo Kalo, Tharcisse Kayembe, Pascal Lutumba, Barbara Barbé, Philippe Gillet, Jan Jacobs, Cedric P Yansouni, François Chappuis, Kristien Verdonck, Marleen Boelaert, Andrea S Winkler, Emmanuel Bottieau
Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained by lumbar puncture (LP) is an essential step for the diagnostic approach of neurological disorders, in particular neuro-infections. In low-resource settings, it is even often the only available diagnostic method. Despite its key contribution, little is known on the risks and benefits of LP in the large tropical areas where hospital-based neuroimaging is not available. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and diagnostic yield of LP in a rural hospital of central Africa and to identify predictors of CSF pleocytosis (white blood cell count >5/μL) as surrogate marker of neuro-infections...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112379/the-impact-of-artesunate-amodiaquine-on-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-among-children-infected-by-plasmodium-in-rural-area-of-lemfu-kongo-central-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#16
Kennedy Makola Mbanzulu, Josué Kikana Zanga, Jean Pierre Kambala Mukendi, Felly Mbaya Ntita, Junior Rika Matangila, Hypolite Mavoko Muhindo, Sylvain Mpoyi Wa Mpoyi, Michel Ntetani Aloni, Roger Wumba
Background: Malaria and schistosomiasis remain life-threatening public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. The infection pattern related to age indicates that preschool and school-age children are at the highest risk of malaria and schistosomiasis. Both parasitic infections, separately or combined, may have negative impacts on the haemoglobin concentration levels. The existing data revealed that artemisinin derivatives commonly used to cure malaria present also in antischistosomal activities...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067763/geospatial-distribution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genotypes-in-africa
#17
Violet N Chihota, Antoinette Niehaus, Elizabeth M Streicher, Xia Wang, Samantha L Sampson, Peter Mason, Gunilla Källenius, Sayoki G Mfinanga, Marnomorney Pillay, Marisa Klopper, Webster Kasongo, Marcel A Behr, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius, Paul D van Helden, David Couvin, Nalin Rastogi, Robin M Warren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes across Africa. METHODS: The SITVIT2 global repository and PUBMED were searched for spoligotype and published genotype data respectively, of M. tuberculosis from Africa. M. tuberculosis lineages in Africa were described and compared across regions and with those from 7 European and 6 South-Asian countries. Further analysis of the major lineages and sub-lineages using Principal Component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were done to describe clustering by geographical regions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045530/influence-of-moisture-source-dynamics-and-weather-patterns-on-stable-isotopes-ratios-of-precipitation-in-central-eastern-africa
#18
Charles M Balagizi, Marcellin M Kasereka, Emilio Cuoco, Marcello Liotta
We report the first δ18 O and δ2 H data of Virunga rainfall in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated on the limit between Central and Eastern Africa. The dataset is from 13 rain gauges deployed at Mount Nyiragongo and its surroundings sampled monthly between December 2013 and October 2015. The δ18 O and δ2 H vary from -6.44 to 6.16‰, and -32.53 to 58.89‰ respectively, and allowed us to define a LMWL of δ2 H = 7.60δ18 O + 16.18. Three main wind directions, i.e. NE, E and SE, were identified in the upper atmosphere corresponding to three major moisture source regions...
July 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014868/undernutrition-and-obesity-among-elderly-people-living-in-two-cities-of-developing-countries-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-the-edac-study
#19
Pierre Jésus, Maëlenn Guerchet, Sophie Pilleron, Philippe Fayemendy, Alain Maxime Mouanga, Pascal Mbelesso, Pierre Marie Preux, Jean Claude Desport
BACKGROUND: Nutritional status among elderly people living in Sub-Saharan Africa is poorly studied, even though undernutrition and obesity are known to cause many complications and are risk factors for progression and death in several diseases. The aims of this study were to assess the nutritional status of the elderly in Central Africa and to study the factors associated with nutritional disorders (undernutrition and obesity). METHODS: Two cross-sectional population-based studies were carried out in the capitals of Central African Republic (CAR) and Republic of Congo (ROC) between 2008 and 2009...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981837/konzo-a-distinct-neurological-disease-associated-with-food-cassava-cyanogenic-poisoning
#20
REVIEW
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Daniel Okitundu, Dieudonne Mumba, Michael J Boivin, Thorkild Tylleskär, Desire Tshala-Katumbay
Epidemics of neurodegenerative diseases putatively caused by food toxins have been reported in the tropics with no clear understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. These diseases include the disease named Konzo that has been well documented in sub-Sahara Africa, mostly among children and women of childbearing age. Outbreaks of Konzo have occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Tanzania, Central African Republic, Angola, Cameroun, and most recently in Zambia. The main clinical picture consists of a symmetrical, permanent and irreversible spastic paraparesis (motor neuron disease) with no signs of sensory or genitourinary impairments...
July 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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