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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510464/a-new-species-of-boloponera-from-sekhukhuneland-south-africa-hymenoptera-formicidae-ponerinae
#1
Peter G Hawkes
During an environmental impact assessment survey of a proposed tailings storage facility for a platinum mine in Sekhukhuneland, South Africa, five adult and five larval specimens of a new species of Boloponera were found while excavating soil to a depth of 10-15 cm at the base of a tree in riparian woodland. These specimens represent a 3400 km range extension and the first reported record of the genus since its description in 2006, which was based on a single specimen collected in the Central African Republic in 2001...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486213/a-new-species-new-genus-and-new-records-of-heterostigmatic-mites-acari-heterostigmata-phoretic-on-scarab-beetles-of-the-subfamily-orphninae-coleoptera-scarabaeidae
#2
Alexander A Khaustov, Andrey V Frolov
During the study of heterostigmatic mites phoretic on beetles of the subfamily Orphninae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), ten species from five families were found. One species, Premicrodispus hajiqanbari sp. nov. (Acari: Microdispidae) phoretic on Orphnus luminosus Benderitter, found in Central African Republic is described as new for science. A new monobasic genus Scarabadania gen. nov. with type species Bakerdania tenuispina Sevastianov, 1974 is created in the family Neopygmephoridae. Troxodania problematica (Mahunka, 1975) comb...
November 7, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30448834/high-herpesvirus-diversity-in-wild-rodent-and-shrew-species-in-central-africa
#3
Nkom Felix Ntumvi, Placide Mbala Kingebeni, Ubald Tamoufe, Charles Kumakamba, Valentine Ndze, Ipos Ngay Lukusa, Matthew LeBreton, Joseph Atibu Losoma, Joseph Le Doux Diffo, Frida N'Kawa, Jean-Michel Takuo, Prime Mulembakani, Julius Nwobegahay, Maria Makuwa, Jean J Muyembe Tamfum, Amethyst Gillis, Stephen Harris, Anne W Rimoin, Nicole A Hoff, Joseph M Fair, Corina Monagin, James Ayukekbong, Edward M Rubin, Nathan D Wolfe, Christian E Lange
OBJECTIVE: Herpesviruses belong to a diverse order of large DNA viruses that can cause diseases in humans and animals. With the goal of gathering information about the distribution and diversity of herpesviruses in wild rodent and shrew species in central Africa, animals in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were sampled and tested by PCR for the presence of herpesvirus DNA. METHODS: A broad range PCRs targeting either the Polymerase or the terminase gene were used for virus detection...
November 16, 2018: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405310/-anenteotermescherubimi-sp-n-a-tiny-dehiscent-termite-from-central-africa-termitidae-apicotermitinae
#4
Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Yves Roisin
Anenteotermescherubimi Scheffrahn, sp. n. is described from workers and male imagos collected in Cameroon and Republic of the Congo. This is the smallest soldierless termite known from Africa. As with many soldierless and soil-feeding termite species, the enteric valve morphology is a robust and essential diagnostic character for An.cherubimi . Preserved workers display pre-autothysis morphology and the effects of abdominal autothysis.
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30387174/new-highly-diverse-hepatitis-c-strains-detected-in-sub-saharan-africa-have-unknown-susceptibility-to-direct-acting-antiviral-treatments
#5
Chris Davis, George S Mgomella, Ana da Silva Filipe, Eric H Frost, Genevieve Giroux, Joseph Hughes, Catherine Hogan, Pontiano Kaleebu, Gershim Asiki, John McLauchlan, Marc Niebel, Ponsiano Ocama, Cristina Pomila, Oliver G Pybus, Jacques Pépin, Peter Simmonds, Josh B Singer, Vattipally B Sreenu, Clara Wekesa, Elizabeth H Young, Donald G Murphy, Manj Sandhu, Emma C Thomson
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: The global plan to eradicate hepatitis C (HCV) led by the World Health Organisation (WHO) outlines the use of highly effective direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) to achieve elimination by 2030. Identifying individuals with active disease and investigation of the breadth of diversity of the virus sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is essential as genotypes in this region (where very few clinical trials have been carried out) are distinct from those found in other parts of the world...
November 2, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342095/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-clade-2-3-4-4b-virus-in-uganda-2017
#6
Deo Ndumu, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Eugene Arinaitwe, Richard Erechu, Eugene Kidega, John Kayiwa, Edward Muwanga, Mukasa Kirumira, Gerald Kirembe, Julius Lutwama, Isabella Monne
In early January 2017, outbreaks of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were reported for the first time in wild and domestic birds along the shores and on some islands of Lake Victoria, in central-southern Uganda. Our whole-genome phylogenetic analyses revealed that the H5N8 viruses recovered from the outbreak in Uganda belonged to genetic clade 2.3.4.4 group-B and clustered with viruses collected in 2017 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in West Africa. Our results suggested that infected migratory wild birds might have played a crucial role in the introduction of HPAI H5N8 into this region...
October 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340847/forecasting-life-expectancy-years-of-life-lost-and-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-for-250-causes-of-death-reference-and-alternative-scenarios-for-2016-40-for-195-countries-and-territories
#7
Kyle J Foreman, Neal Marquez, Andrew Dolgert, Kai Fukutaki, Nancy Fullman, Madeline McGaughey, Martin A Pletcher, Amanda E Smith, Kendrick Tang, Chun-Wei Yuan, Jonathan C Brown, Joseph Friedman, Jiawei He, Kyle R Heuton, Mollie Holmberg, Disha J Patel, Patrick Reidy, Austin Carter, Kelly Cercy, Abigail Chapin, Dirk Douwes-Schultz, Tahvi Frank, Falko Goettsch, Patrick Y Liu, Vishnu Nandakumar, Marissa B Reitsma, Vince Reuter, Nafis Sadat, Reed J D Sorensen, Vinay Srinivasan, Rachel L Updike, Hunter York, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Stephen S Lim, Ali H Mokdad, Stein Emil Vollset, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding potential trajectories in health and drivers of health is crucial to guiding long-term investments and policy implementation. Past work on forecasting has provided an incomplete landscape of future health scenarios, highlighting a need for a more robust modelling platform from which policy options and potential health trajectories can be assessed. This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts -and alternative future scenarios-for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322584/global-epidemiology-of-use-of-and-disparities-in-caesarean-sections
#8
REVIEW
Ties Boerma, Carine Ronsmans, Dessalegn Y Melesse, Aluisio J D Barros, Fernando C Barros, Liang Juan, Ann-Beth Moller, Lale Say, Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Mu Yi, Dácio de Lyra Rabello Neto, Marleen Temmerman
In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births...
October 13, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30313142/new-enigmatic-species-of-the-genus-pediobius-hymenoptera-eulophidae-from-afrotropics-with-notes-on-related-genera
#9
Alex Gumovsky
Three new species groups and seven species of the genus Pediobius Walker are described from the Afrotropical realm: the marjoriae group, with P. marjoriae Kerrich (described from Uganda), P. rohombaya Gumovsky sp. n. (from the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Gabon, Uganda) and P. orungu Gumovsky sp. n. (from Gabon); the afroteres group with P. afroteres Gumovsky sp. n. (from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda, DRC, Cameroon) and P. kafroteres Gumovsky sp...
June 21, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284355/prevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-and-its-association-with-dementia-in-older-adults-in-central-africa-a-result-from-the-epidemca-programme
#10
Nathalie Bouscaren, Sophie Pilleron, Pascal Mbelesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Jean-François Dartigues, Jean-Pierre Clément, Pierre-Marie Preux, Marie-Laure Dardé, Maëlenn Guerchet
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in older adults living in Central Africa and investigating its association with dementia using data from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA) programme. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentre population-based study was carried out among participants aged 73 (±7) years on average, living in rural and urban areas of the Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo between November 2011 and December 2012...
October 3, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261186/schistosomes-snails-and-climate-change-current-trends-and-future-expectations
#11
REVIEW
Anna-Sofie Stensgaard, Penelope Vounatsou, Mita E Sengupta, Jürg Utzinger
The exact impact of climate change on schistosomiasis, a blood-fluke affecting more than 250 million people mainly in tropical and subtropical countries, is currently unknown, but likely to vary with the snail-parasite species' specific ecologies and the spatio-temporal scale of investigation. Here, by means of a systematic review to identify studies reporting on impacts of climate change on the agents of schistosomiasis, we provide an updated synthesis of the current knowledge about the climate change-schistosomiasis relation...
September 24, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255569/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-among-older-adults-living-in-two-countries-in-central-africa-epidemca-study
#12
Inès Yoro Zohoun, Philippe Nubukpo, Dismand Houinato, Pascal M'Belesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Jean-Pierre Clément, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Pierre-Marie Preux, Maëlenn Guerchet
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at estimating the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and investigating associated factors among older adults living in two countries in Central Africa (Central African Republic (CAR) and Republic of Congo (ROC)). METHODS: The EPIDEMCA multicentre population-based study was carried out in rural and urban areas of CAR and ROC between 2011 and 2012 among people aged 65 and over. After cognitive screening using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia, participants with low performances underwent neurological examination including the brief version of the NeuroPsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q)...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252848/standardising-visual-control-devices-for-tsetse-east-and-central-african-savannah-species-glossina-swynnertoni-glossina-morsitans-centralis-and-glossina-pallidipes
#13
Mechtilda Byamungu, Tusevo Zacarie, Alexis Makumyaviri M'Pondi, Philémon Mansinsa Diabakana, Andrew McMullin, Thomas Kröber, Steve Mihok, Patrick M Guerin
BACKGROUND: This study focused on the savannah tsetse species Glossina swynnertoni and G. morsitans centralis, both efficient vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in, respectively, East and Central Africa. The aim was to develop long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive devices that induce the strongest landing responses in these two species for use as insecticide-impregnated tools in population suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in different seasons and years in Tanzania (G...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234087/emergence-of-monkeypox-as-the-most-important-orthopoxvirus-infection-in-humans
#14
REVIEW
Nikola Sklenovská, Marc Van Ranst
Monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic disease recognized as the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans in the smallpox post-eradication era. The clinical presentation of monkeypox is similar to the one of smallpox. The case fatality rate of monkeypox (10%) lies between the case fatality rate of variola major (30%) and variola minor (1%). The disease is endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, but other countries of Central and West Africa either reported cases of monkeypox in humans or circulation in wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226900/impact-of-repeated-annual-community-directed-treatment-with-ivermectin-on-loiasis-parasitological-indicators-in-cameroon-implications-for-onchocerciasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-in-areas-co-endemic-with-loa-loa-in-africa
#15
Samuel Wanji, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Fanny Fri Fombad, Jonas Arnaud Kengne-Ouafo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Yolande Flore Longang Tchounkeu, Benjamin Koudou, Moses Bockarie, Grace Fobi, Jean Baptiste Roungou, Peter A Enyong
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is a filarial infection endemic in the rainforest zone of west and central Africa particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Repeated treatments with ivermectin have been delivered using the annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) approach for several years to control onchocerciasis in some Loa loa-Onchocerca volvulus co-endemic areas. The impact of CDTI on loiasis parasitological indicators is not known...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190119/safety-profile-of-fractional-dosing-of-the-17dd-yellow-fever-vaccine-among-males-and-females-experience-of-a-community-based-pharmacovigilance-in-kinshasa-dr-congo
#16
Didier Nzolo, Aline Engo Biongo, Andrea Kuemmerle, Mariano Lusakibanza, Yves Lula, Ntamabyaliro Nsengi, Celestin Nsibu Ndosimao, Gaston Tona Lutete, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: In early 2016, there was a Yellow Fever (YF) outbreak in Central Africa with several deaths reported from Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Due to a shortage in vaccine supply, fractional dosing (0.1 ml) of 17DD Yellow Fever Vaccine (YFV) was proposed in preventive vaccination campaign in Kinshasa in August 2016. A Pharmacovigilance surveillance at community level was implemented to track Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFIs). The objective of this study was to describe AEFIs as captured from community-based pharmacovigilance and to compare the safety profile of the fractional dosing of YFV between gender...
October 1, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181875/mid-upper-arm-circumference-muac-shows-strong-geographical-variations-in-children-with-edema-results-from-2277-surveys-in-55-countries
#17
Jose Luis Alvarez, Nicky Dent, L Browne, Mark Myatt, André Briend
Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is defined by a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) less than 115 mm or a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) less than - 3 but also by the presence of bilateral pitting edema, also known as kwashiorkor or edematous malnutrition. Although edematous malnutrition is a life threatening condition, it has not been prioritized in recent research and has been neglected in global health initiatives. Methods: Two thousand two hundred and seventy-seven survey datasets were collected, and the age, sex, weight, height, MUAC and the presence or absence of edema were analyzed for more than 1...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150604/hhv-8-seroprevalence-and-genotype-distribution-in-africa-1998%C3%A2-2017-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth M Etta, Doyinmola P Alayande, Lufuno G Mavhandu-Ramarumo, George Gachara, Pascal O Bessong
Human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). We systematically reviewed literature published between 1998 and 2017, according to the PRISMA guidelines, to understand the distribution of HHV-8 infection in Africa. More than two-thirds (64%) of studies reported on seroprevalence and 29.3% on genotypes; 9.5% were on both seroprevalence and genotypes. About 45% of African countries had data on HHV-8 seroprevalence exclusively, and more than half (53%) had data on either seroprevalence or genotypes...
August 27, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30149038/high-throughput-drug-screening-using-the-ebola-virus-transcription-and-replication-competent-virus-like-particle-system
#19
Nakyung Lee, David Shum, Alexander König, Hichul Kim, Jinyeong Heo, Saehong Min, Jihye Lee, Yoonae Ko, Inhee Choi, Honggun Lee, Constantin Radu, Thomas Hoenen, Ji-Young Min, Marc P Windisch
The massive epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, followed in recent months by two outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, underline the importance of this severe disease. Because Ebola virus (EBOV) must be manipulated under biosafety level 4 (BSL4) containment, the discovery and development of virus-specific therapies have been hampered. Recently, a transient transfection-based transcription- and replication competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system was described, enabling modeling of the entire EBOV life cycle under BSL2 conditions...
October 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126990/stunted-childhood-growth-is-associated-with-decompartmentalization-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-overgrowth-of-oropharyngeal-taxa
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Pascale Vonaesch, Evan Morien, Lova Andrianonimiadana, Hugues Sanke, Jean-Robert Mbecko, Kelsey E Huus, Tanteliniaina Naharimanananirina, Bolmbaye Privat Gondje, Synthia Nazita Nigatoloum, Sonia Sandrine Vondo, Jepthé Estimé Kaleb Kandou, Rindra Randremanana, Maheninasy Rakotondrainipiana, Florent Mazel, Serge Ghislain Djorie, Jean-Chrysostome Gody, B Brett Finlay, Pierre-Alain Rubbo, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Jean-Marc Collard, Philippe J Sansonetti
Linear growth delay (stunting) affects roughly 155 million children under the age of 5 years worldwide. Treatment has been limited by a lack of understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Stunting is most likely associated with changes in the microbial community of the small intestine, a compartment vital for digestion and nutrient absorption. Efforts to better understand the pathophysiology have been hampered by difficulty of access to small intestinal fluids. Here, we describe the microbial community found in the upper gastrointestinal tract of stunted children aged 2-5 y living in sub-Saharan Africa...
September 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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