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nature communication

Manfred S Green, James LeDuc, Daniel Cohen, David R Franz
Global terrorism is a rapidly growing threat to world security, and increases the risk of bioterrorism. In this Review, we discuss the potential threat of bioterrorism, agents that could be exploited, and recent developments in technologies and policy for detecting and controlling epidemics that have been initiated intentionally. The local and international response to infectious disease epidemics, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome and west African Ebola virus epidemic, revealed serious shortcomings which bioterrorists might exploit when intentionally initiating an epidemic...
October 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Wei Qi, Wei Liu, Xuxun Liu, Anfeng Liu, Tian Wang, Neal N Xiong, Zhiping Cai
Software defined networks brings greater flexibility to networks and therefore generates new vitality. Thanks to the ability to update soft code to sensor nodes, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) brings profound changes to Internet of Things. However, it is a challenging issue to minimize delay and transmission times and maintain long lifetime when broadcasting data packets in high loss ratio and low duty cycle WSNs. Although there have been some research concerning code dissemination, those schemes can only achieve a tradeoff between different performances, instead of optimizing all these important performances at the same time...
October 18, 2018: Sensors
Stephen Malloch, Colwyn Trevarthen
Music is at the centre of what it means to be human - it is the sounds of human bodies and minds moving in creative, story-making ways. We argue that music comes from the way in which knowing bodies (Merleau-Ponty) prospectively explore the environment using habitual 'patterns of action,' which we have identified as our innate 'communicative musicality.' To support our argument, we present short case studies of infant interactions using micro analyses of video and audio recordings to show the timings and shapes of intersubjective vocalizations and body movements of adult and child while they improvise shared narratives of meaning...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Prabhaker Mishra, C M Pandey, Uttam Singh, Anshul Gupta
Measurement scale is an important part of data collection, analysis, and presentation. In the data collection and data analysis, statistical tools differ from one data type to another. There are four types of variables, namely nominal, ordinal, discrete, and continuous, and their nature and application are different. Graphs are a common method to visually present and illustrate relationships in the data. There are several statistical diagrams available to present data sets. However, their use depends on our objectives and data types...
October 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Asresash D Abathun, Johanne Sundby, Abdi A Gele
BACKGROUND: Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is a harmful traditional practice that affects the physical and mental health of girls and women in many ways. In Ethiopia, although both governmental institutions and None-Governmental- Institutions (NGOs) launched different campaigns against FGC, their effects on the peoples' attitudes towards the practice have not been deeply investigated yet. Hence, this study particularly aimed to investigate the pupils' perspectives on FGC abandonment in the Harari and the Somali Regional States of Ethiopia where the prevalence of the practice was thought to be high...
October 17, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Chessa K Lutter, Lora L Iannotti, Christine P Stewart
Evidence is mounting about the benefits of eggs for child nutrition and potential benefits for women during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Maternal consumption of eggs during lactation may also enhance the breast-milk composition of certain nutrients, thus contributing to the nutrition and potentially also to the development of breastfed children. Relative to single nutrient supplements, eggs deliver nutrients and other hormone or immune factors in compounds that may be more readily absorbed and metabolized...
October 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Ricardo Rodrigues, Stefania Ilinca, Katharine Schulmann
Recent years have witnessed greater involvement of European Union (EU) organisations in health communication campaigns that address chronic diseases and that are designed for implementation in multiple countries. This development raises challenges inherent in adapting the design of public health communication campaigns to multi-national settings. This article provides a first exploratory investigation of these challenges and how to address them based on data gathered from four expert focus groups, each concentrated on a common risk factor for chronic disease: smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle...
2018: PloS One
Brigitte N Durieux, Cailin J Gramling, Viktoria Manukyan, Margaret J Eppstein, Donna M Rizzo, Lindsay M Ross, Aidan G Ryan, Michelle A Niland, Laurence A Clarfeld, Stewart C Alexander, Robert Gramling
BACKGROUND: Systematic measurement of conversational features in the natural clinical setting is essential to better understand, disseminate, and incentivize high quality serious illness communication. Advances in machine-learning (ML) classification of human speech offer exceptional opportunity to complement human coding (HC) methods for measurement in large scale studies. OBJECTIVES: To test the reliability, efficiency, and sensitivity of a tandem ML-HC method for identifying one feature of clinical importance in serious illness conversations: Connectional Silence...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Edwin J Bunggulawa, Wei Wang, Tieying Yin, Nan Wang, Colm Durkan, Yazhou Wang, Guixue Wang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are the substances that are released by most types of cells and have an important role in cell to cell communication. Among the most highly researched EVs are exosome. Recent studies show that exosomes derived from cells have different roles and targets. Many studies show that exosome can efficiently deliver many different kinds of cargo to the target cell. Therefore, they are often used to deliver therapeutic cargo for treatment. The exosomes that have been used include both natural ones and those that have been modified with other substances to increase the delivery ability...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Abdullah Hussain, Rohina Khizer Mufti, Maryam Shahid
OBJECTIVE: To find the frequency and determinants of patients preferring complementary and alternative medicine over registered medical doctors.. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Services Hospital, Mayo Hospital and Jinnah Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, from June 8 to August 20, 2017.A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. . RESULTS: Of the 385 subjects, 200(51...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Kaedi Navarro, Elaine Wainwright, Karen Rodham, Abbie Jordan
Introduction: Parenting a young person with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with high levels of parental distress and numerous emotional, informational, and practical challenges. To meet these challenges, parents seek others undergoing similar experiences, both in face to face and online forums. Objectives: The objective of this study was to conduct a qualitative analysis of online forum data to explore the process of parental forum communication regarding parenting a young person with CRPS in online spaces...
September 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Swathi Jagannath, Aleksandra Sarcevic, Ivan Marsic
We analyzed the nature of verbal communication among team members in a dynamic medical setting of trauma resuscitation to inform the design of a speech-based automatic activity recognition system. Using speech transcripts from 20 resuscitations, we identified common keywords and speech patterns for different resuscitation activities. Based on these patterns, we developed narrative schemas (speech "workflow" models) for five most frequently performed activities and applied linguistic models to represent relationships between sentences...
May 2018: International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare: [proceedings]
Natalie Katharina Yvonne Gedon, Ralf Steffen Mueller
The purpose of this review article is to give an overview of atopic dermatitis in companion animals and of recent developments including knowledge on immunological background, novel treatment options and difficulties in disease management. The prevalence of hypersensitivities seems to be increasing. The pathogenetic mechanisms are not fully understood, yet multiple gene abnormalities and altered immunological processes are involved. In dogs and cats, the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis is based on history, clinical examination and exclusion of other differential diagnoses...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Christian J Sumner, Toby T Wells, Christopher Bergevin, Joseph Sollini, Heather A Kreft, Alan R Palmer, Andrew J Oxenham, Christopher A Shera
Frequency analysis of sound by the cochlea is the most fundamental property of the auditory system. Despite its importance, the resolution of this frequency analysis in humans remains controversial. The controversy persists because the methods used to estimate tuning in humans are indirect and have not all been independently validated in other species. Some data suggest that human cochlear tuning is considerably sharper than that of laboratory animals, while others suggest little or no difference between species...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nitika Pant Pai, Jana Daher, H R Prashanth, Achal Shetty, Rani Diana Sahni, Rajesh Kannangai, Priya Abraham, Rita Isaac
OBJECTIVES: In rural pregnant Indian women, multiple missed antenatal screening opportunities due to inadequate public health facility-based screening result in undiagnosed HIV and sexually transmitted bloodborne infections (STBBIs) and conditions (anaemia). Untreated infections complicate pregnancy management, precipitate adverse outcomes and risk mother-to-child transmission. Additionally, a shortage of trained doctors, rural women's preference for home delivery and health illiteracy affect health service delivery...
October 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Julian Varghese, Sarah Sandmann, Martin Dugas
BACKGROUND: Medical coding is essential for standardized communication and integration of clinical data. The Unified Medical Language System by the National Library of Medicine is the largest clinical terminology system for medical coders and Natural Language Processing tools. However, the abundance of ambiguous codes leads to low rates of uniform coding among different coders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to measure uniform coding among different medical experts in terms of interrater reliability and analyze the effect on interrater reliability using an expert- and Web-based code suggestion system...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Laura Cifrese, Fred Rincon
As medical decisions fall under more scrutiny and society demands increasing transparency of care, it is likely that more opportunities for conflicts will emerge. Similarly, with increasing demand and a static supply, the issue of who receives treatment and for how long naturally will arise. This mismatch leads to discussions of resource utilization and limitation of care in light of patients' values and rights. Clinicians should always be forthcoming with the uncertainty of prognostication while also articulating the severity of a patient's disease in relation to the risk and benefits of an intervention...
October 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Sandip Koley, Meir Rozenbaum, Mike Fainzilber, Marco Terenzio
Neurons need to overcome long distances in order to function in a mature mammal, for example motor neurons and sensory neurons project axons up to a meter long in humans. To this end, a sophisticated network of long-range signaling mechanisms enables communication between neuronal processes and somata. These mechanisms are activated during axonal injury and have essential roles both for sensing the injury and regulating subsequent regeneration. Here we survey the role of one such mechanism, axonal translation, which contributes to both retrograde injury signaling and as a source of proteins for regenerating axons...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Ciara O'Toole, Alice S-Y Lee, Fiona E Gibbon, Anne K van Bysterveldt, Nicola J Hart
BACKGROUND: Communication and language development are areas of particular weakness for young children with Down syndrome. Caregivers' interaction with children influences language development, so many early interventions involve training parents how best to respond to their children and provide appropriate language stimulation. Thus, these interventions are mediated through parents, who in turn are trained and coached in the implementation of interventions by clinicians. As the interventions involve a considerable commitment from clinicians and families, we undertook this review to synthesise the evidence of their effectiveness...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Patricia M Blair, Miriam L Land, Marek J Piatek, Daniel A Jacobson, Tse-Yuan S Lu, Mitchel J Doktycz, Dale A Pelletier
Natural products (NPs) isolated from bacteria have dramatically advanced human society, especially in medicine and agriculture. The rapidity and ease of genome sequencing have enabled bioinformatics-guided NP discovery and characterization. As a result, NP potential and diversity within a complex community, such as the microbiome of a plant, are rapidly expanding areas of scientific exploration. Here, we assess biosynthetic diversity in the Populus microbiome by analyzing both bacterial isolate genomes and metagenome samples...
September 2018: MSystems
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