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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517320/-laziness-as-the-single-explanation-for-physical-inactivity-commentary-and-reflections-on-discrepancies-between-scientific-evidence-and-media-discourse
#1
Mathias Roberto Loch, Paulo Henrique Guerra
This essay aims to suggest food for thought on discrepancies between scientific evidence on physical inactivity and the associated factors and determinants and information communicated by the media on this topic. We specifically examine a case in which "laziness" was used as the "explanatory" factor for the high levels of physical inactivity in the Brazilian population. We use as examples a scientific article published in Nature and two news stories published in mainstream Brazilian media channels (Veja magazine and O Globo newspaper) that commented on the former...
November 29, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515512/an-eye-tracking-study-of-receptive-verb-knowledge-in-toddlers
#2
Matthew James Valleau, Haruka Konishi, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Sudha Arunachalam
Purpose: We examined receptive verb knowledge in 22- to 24-month-old toddlers with a dynamic video eye-tracking test. The primary goal of the study was to examine the utility of eye-gaze measures that are commonly used to study noun knowledge for studying verb knowledge. Method: Forty typically developing toddlers participated. They viewed 2 videos side by side (e.g., girl clapping, same girl stretching) and were asked to find one of them (e.g., "Where is she clapping?")...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515063/communication-difficulties-as-a-result-of-dementia
#3
REVIEW
Silva Banovic, Lejla Junuzovic Zunic, Osman Sinanovic
Introduction: Population aging increases the number of people with dementia. Dementia is a set of symptoms that include memory difficulties, learning difficulties, speech and language difficulties, disorientation in time and space, difficulties in understanding and behavioral changes. Dementia is not part of natural aging and needs to be understood as such and have to be recognized at time to provide adequate support for people with dementia. Aim: To present the importance of communication: To present communication difficulties which are the result of dementia; To present adaptations in the way of communicating with people with dementia...
October 2018: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514163/the-credibility-of-acted-screams-implications-for-emotional-communication-research
#4
Jonathan Wm Engelberg, Harold Gouzoules
Researchers have long relied on acted material to study emotional expression and perception in humans. It has been suggested, however, that certain aspects of natural expressions are difficult or impossible to produce voluntarily outside of their associated emotional contexts, and that acted expressions tend to be overly intense caricatures. From an evolutionary perspective, listeners' abilities to distinguish acted from natural expressions likely depend on the type of expression in question, the costs entailed in its production, and elements of receiver psychology...
December 4, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511204/reflections-on-a-project-to-prevent-suicide-and-self-harm-among-prisoners-identified-as-high-risk-in-two-prisons-in-northern-england
#5
Paul Biddle, Wendy Dyer, Richard Hand, Charlitta Strinati
BACKGROUND: This article critically explores the implementation and evaluation of a project designed, delivered and evaluated by frontline staff to improve prison responses to prisoner suicide and self-harm. We begin by evidencing the need for the project and detail its content, delivery and attempts at evaluation. We draw on the reflections of the three practitioners most closely involved in its development, delivery and review in order to explore lessons learned for future staff-led projects including those aimed at tackling prison suicide and self-harm...
December 3, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511153/understanding-spoken-language-through-talkbank
#6
Brian MacWhinney
Ongoing advances in computer technology have opened up a deluge of new datasets for understanding human behavior (Goldstone & Lupyan, 2016). Many of these datasets provide information on the use of written language. However, data on naturally occurring spoken-language conversations are much more difficult to obtain. A major exception to this is the TalkBank system, which provides online multimedia data for 14 types of spoken-language data: language in aphasia, child language, stuttering, child phonology, autism spectrum disorder, bilingualism, Conversation Analysis, classroom discourse, dementia, right hemisphere damage, Danish conversation, second language learning, traumatic brain injury, and daylong recordings in the home...
December 3, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510099/safety-netting-for-primary-care-evidence-from-a-literature-review
#7
Daniel Jones, Laurie Dunn, Ian Watt, Una Macleod
BACKGROUND: Ensuring patient safety is vital in primary care. One mechanism to increase patient safety is through a practice known as safety netting. Safety netting is widely recommended in national guidelines; however, a variety of definitions exist with no consensus on when safety netting should be used and what advice or actions it should contain. AIM: This study aimed to identify different definitions of safety netting to provide conceptual clarity and propose a common approach to safety netting in primary care...
December 3, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509809/multiscale-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-boat-noise-on-u-s-virgin-island-coral-reefs
#8
Jason P Dinh, Justin J Suca, Ashlee Lillis, Amy Apprill, Joel K Llopiz, T Aran Mooney
Sound-sensitive organisms are abundant on coral reefs. Accordingly, experiments suggest that boat noise could elicit adverse effects on coral reef organisms. Yet, there are few data quantifying boat noise prevalence on coral reefs. We use long-term passive acoustic recordings at nine coral reefs and one sandy comparison site in a marine protected area to quantify spatio-temporal variation in boat noise and its effect on the soundscape. Boat noise was most common at reefs with high coral cover and fish density, and temporal patterns reflected patterns of human activity...
November 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509505/partners-experience-consequences-too-a-comparison-of-the-sexual-relational-and-psychological-adjustment-of-women-with-sexual-interest-arousal-disorder-and-their-partners-to-control-couples
#9
Natalie O Rosen, Justin P Dubé, Serena Corsini-Munt, Amy Muise
INTRODUCTION: Women diagnosed with female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) report lower health-related quality of life, more depressive symptoms, and lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with healthy control subjects. Despite the impact of FSIAD on women's sexuality and the inherently interpersonal nature of the sexual problem, it remains unclear whether the partners of women with FSIAD also face negative consequences, as seen in other sexual dysfunctions. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the sexual, relational, and psychological functioning of partners of women with FSIAD (as well as the women themselves) to their control counterparts...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503875/simple-organizing-principles-in-microbial-communities
#10
REVIEW
Jeff Gore
There is a great deal of interest in discovering the principles that organize microbial communities, to better understand the structure and diversity of these communities in the natural world. Recent conceptual and technical advances have shown how simple organizing principles can give rise to surprising diversity and complex patterns in these consortia. Understanding competition, cooperation, and communication among microbes has provided novel insights into the structure and behavior of microbial collectives, and the use of simple animal models has advanced our understanding of microbial ecology in the host...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503396/acoustic-predictors-of-gender-attribution-masculinity-femininity-and-vocal-naturalness-ratings-amongst-transgender-and-cisgender-speakers
#11
Teresa L D Hardy, Jana M Rieger, Kristopher Wells, Carol A Boliek
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the most salient set of acoustic predictors of (1) gender attribution; (2) perceived masculinity-femininity; and (3) perceived vocal naturalness amongst a group of transgender and cisgender speakers to inform voice and communication feminization training programs. This study used a unique set of acoustic variables and included a third, androgynous, choice for gender attribution ratings. METHOD: Data were collected across two phases and involved two separate groups of participants: communicators and raters...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503341/evidences-against-vesicle-dependent-trafficking-and-involvement-of-extracellular-proteasomes-into-cell-to-cell-communications
#12
Egor E Diakonov, Anastasiia V Selenina, Alexey N Tomilin, Anna S Tsimokha
The ubiquitin proteasome system is involved in the regulation of most basic intracellular processes, and deregulation of this system can results in certain kinds of human diseases. Proteolytic core this system, the 20S proteasome, has been found in physiological fluids of both healthy humans and patients suffering from a variety of inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. The concentration of these extracellular proteasomes has been found to correlate with the diseased state, being of a prognostic significance...
November 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500217/high-dimensional-entanglement-in-states-with-positive-partial-transposition
#13
Marcus Huber, Ludovico Lami, Cécilia Lancien, Alexander Müller-Hermes
Genuine high-dimensional entanglement, i.e., the property of having a high Schmidt number, constitutes an instrumental resource in quantum communication, overcoming limitations of low-dimensional systems. States with a positive partial transpose (PPT) are generally considered weakly entangled, as they can never be distilled into pure entangled states. This naturally raises the question of whether high Schmidt numbers are possible for PPT states. Volume estimates suggest that optimal, i.e., linear, scaling in the local dimension should be possible, albeit without providing insight into the possible slope...
November 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498532/synthesis-of-pyrrolidine-based-hamamelitannin-analogues-as-quorum-sensing-inhibitors-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Jakob Bouton, Kristof Van Hecke, Reuven Rasooly, Serge Van Calenbergh
Interfering with bacterial cell-to-cell communication is a promising strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance. The natural product hamamelitannin and several of its analogues have been identified as quorum sensing inhibitors. In this paper the synthesis of pyrrolidine-based analogues of a more lead-like hamamelitannin analogue is reported. A convergent synthetic route based on a key ring-closing metathesis reaction was developed and delivered the pyrrolidine analogue in 17 steps in high yield. Chemoselective derivatization of the pyrrolidine nitrogen atom resulted in 6 more compounds...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498462/diffusion-of-a-peer-led-suicide-preventive-intervention-through-school-based-student-peer-and-adult-networks
#15
Trevor A Pickering, Peter A Wyman, Karen Schmeelk-Cone, Chelsey Hartley, Thomas W Valente, Anthony R Pisani, Kelly L Rulison, Charles Hendricks Brown, Mark LoMurray
Background: Peer-led interventions have been applied to prevent various health behavior problems and may be an important complement to individual-level suicide prevention approaches. Sources of Strength trains student "peer leaders" in secondary schools to conduct prevention activities that encourage other students to build healthy social bonds and strengthen help-seeking norms. Prior work examining diffusion of peer-led programs has focused on youths' closeness to peer leaders but minimally on other factors such as connections to adults and suicidal behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498386/conceptualizing-age-appropriate-care-for-teenagers-and-young-adults-with-cancer-a-qualitative-mixed-methods-study
#16
Sarah Lea, Rachel M Taylor, Ana Martins, Lorna A Fern, Jeremy S Whelan, Faith Gibson
Purpose: Teenage and young adult cancer care in England is centralized around 13 principal treatment centers, alongside linked "designated" hospitals, following recommendations that this population should have access to age-appropriate care. The term age-appropriate care has not yet been defined; it is however the explicit term used when communicating the nature of specialist care. The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based, contextually relevant and operational model defining age-appropriate care for teenagers and young adults with cancer...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498215/a-scalable-peptide-gpcr-language-for-engineering-multicellular-communication
#17
Sonja Billerbeck, James Brisbois, Neta Agmon, Miguel Jimenez, Jasmine Temple, Michael Shen, Jef D Boeke, Virginia W Cornish
Engineering multicellularity is one of the next breakthroughs for Synthetic Biology. A key bottleneck to building multicellular systems is the lack of a scalable signaling language with a large number of interfaces that can be used simultaneously. Here, we present a modular, scalable, intercellular signaling language in yeast based on fungal mating peptide/G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pairs harnessed from nature. First, through genome-mining, we assemble 32 functional peptide-GPCR signaling interfaces with a range of dose-response characteristics...
November 29, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496179/unsupervised-speech-recognition-through-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-in-a-convolutional-spiking-neural-network
#18
Meng Dong, Xuhui Huang, Bo Xu
Speech recognition (SR) has been improved significantly by artificial neural networks (ANNs), but ANNs have the drawbacks of biologically implausibility and excessive power consumption because of the nonlocal transfer of real-valued errors and weights. While spiking neural networks (SNNs) have the potential to solve these drawbacks of ANNs due to their efficient spike communication and their natural way to utilize kinds of synaptic plasticity rules found in brain for weight modification. However, existing SNN models for SR either had bad performance, or were trained in biologically implausible ways...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487584/communication-and-quorum-sensing-in-non-living-mimics-of-eukaryotic-cells
#19
Henrike Niederholtmeyer, Cynthia Chaggan, Neal K Devaraj
Cells in tissues or biofilms communicate with one another through chemical and mechanical signals to coordinate collective behaviors. Non-living cell mimics provide simplified models of natural systems; however, it has remained challenging to implement communication capabilities comparable to living cells. Here we present a porous artificial cell-mimic containing a nucleus-like DNA-hydrogel compartment that is able to express and display proteins, and communicate with neighboring cell-mimics through diffusive protein signals...
November 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486476/an-energy-efficient-and-obstacle-avoiding-routing-protocol-for-underwater-acoustic-sensor-networks
#20
Zhigang Jin, Mengge Ding, Shuo Li
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) have become one of the promising technologies for exploring underwater natural resources and collecting scientific data from the aquatic environment. As obstacles hinder the communications among sensor nodes in UASNs, designing an effective bypass routing protocol to avoid obstacles is an urgent need. Moreover, the sensor nodes are typically powered by batteries, which are difficult to replace, restricting the network lifetime of UASNs. In this paper, an Energy-efficient and Obstacle-Avoiding Routing protocol (EOAR) is proposed not only to address the issue of marine animals acting as obstacles that interfere with communications, but also to balance the network energy according to the residual energy...
November 27, 2018: Sensors
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