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nature communication

Andrea De Giorgio, Maha Sellami, Goran Kuvacic, Gavin Lawrence, Johnny Padulo, Marco Mingardi, Luigi Mainolfi
The purpose of this research was to assess how the motor learning skills in 7-years old soccer players can be improved by preventing an internal focus of attention via the use coloured shoes. We painted the classic black soccer shoes in six areas corresponding to six regions of the foot with which it is possible to interact with the ball. Thirty-four 7-years-old soccer players were randomized to two groups (Coloured n = 17 and Black, n = 17) to perform four basic football manoeuvres/tasks: reception (RECP), passing (PASS), ball management (MAGT), and shooting (SHOT)...
2018: PloS One
Geoffrey Belknap
This paper examines how communities of naturalists in mid-nineteenth-century Britain were formed and solidified around the shared practices of public meetings, the publication and reading of periodicals, and the making and printing of images. By focusing on communities of naturalists and the sites of their communication, this article undermines the distinction between amateur and professional scientific practice. Building on the notion of imagined communities, this paper also shows that in some cases the editors and illustrators utilized imagery to construct a specifically British naturalist community...
August 15, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Eun J Choi, Joo H Yeo, Sei M Yoon, Jinu Lee
Gap junctions (GJs) are intercellular channels composed of connexins. Cellular molecules smaller than 1 kDa can diffuse through GJs by a process termed gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which plays essential roles in various pathological and physiological conditions. Gambogic acid (GA), a major component of a natural yellow dye, has been used as traditional medicine and has been reported to have various therapeutic effects, including an anti-cancer effect. In this study, two different GJ assay methods showed that GA and its analogs inhibited GJIC...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zhen Wang, Hangwen Guo, Shuai Shao, Mohammad Saghayezhian, Jun Li, Rosalba Fittipaldi, Antonio Vecchione, Prahald Siwakoti, Yimei Zhu, Jiandi Zhang, E W Plummer
Extended defects are known to have critical influences in achieving desired material performance. However, the nature of extended defect generation is highly elusive due to the presence of multiple nucleation mechanisms with close energetics. A strategy to design extended defects in a simple and clean way is thus highly desirable to advance the understanding of their role, improve material quality, and serve as a unique playground to discover new phenomena. In this work, we report an approach to create planar extended defects-antiphase boundaries (APB) -with well-defined origins via the combination of advanced growth, atomic-resolved electron microscopy, first-principals calculations, and defect theory...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Precious Madula, Fatch Welcome Kalembo, Hong Yu, Atipatsa Chiwanda Kaminga
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the impact of effective healthcare provider-patient communication on facility-based delivery in Malawi. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of communication in the maternity ward, identify facilitators and barriers to healthcare provider-patient communication, and understand how they affect maternal healthcare. METHODS: This was a descriptive study that used qualitative data collection and analysis methods...
August 13, 2018: Reproductive Health
Rachel Jug, Xiaoyin Sara Jiang, Sarah M Bean
CONTEXT: - Feedback is the delivery of information based on direct observation that is meant to improve performance. Learning is at the heart of feedback, and as such, feedback is a required competency in pathology resident education. In the laboratory setting, the ability of laboratory professionals in all practice settings and experience levels to give and receive feedback is crucial to workflow and ultimately patient care. OBJECTIVE: - To summarize the importance of feedback, strategies for optimizing feedback exchange, and overcoming barriers to giving and receiving feedback...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Birgitta Wallerstedt, Eva Benzein, Kristina Schildmeijer, Anna Sandgren
BACKGROUND: Despite increased attention and knowledge in palliative care, there is still confusion concerning how to interpret the concept of palliative care and implement it in practice. This can result in difficulties for healthcare professionals in identifying patients whom would benefit from palliative care, which, in turn, could lead to a delay in meeting patients' needs. AIM: To explore healthcare professionals' perceptions of palliative care. METHOD: Data were collected through twelve interprofessional focus group interviews in community care and hospital wards in south Sweden (n = 74)...
August 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Caroline Vass, Dan Rigby, Katherine Payne
BACKGROUND: Risk is increasingly used as an attribute in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). However, risk and probabilities are complex concepts that can be open to misinterpretation, potentially undermining the robustness of DCEs as a valuation method. This study aimed to understand how respondents made benefit-risk trade-offs in a DCE and if these were affected by the communication of the risk attributes. METHODS: Female members of the public were recruited via local advertisements to participate in think-aloud interviews when completing a DCE eliciting their preferences for a hypothetical breast screening programme described by three attributes: probability of detecting a cancer; risk of unnecessary follow-up; and cost of screening...
August 11, 2018: Patient
Noora Ottman, Lasse Ruokolainen, Alina Suomalainen, Hanna Sinkko, Piia Karisola, Jenni Lehtimäki, Maili Lehto, Ilkka Hanski, Harri Alenius, Nanna Fyhrquist
BACKGROUND: Sufficient exposure to natural environments, in particular soil and its microbes, has been suggested to be protective against allergies. OBJECTIVE: We aim at gaining more direct evidence of the environment-microbiota-health axis by studying the colonization of gut microbiota in mice after exposure to soil and by examining immune status in both a steady-state situation and during allergic inflammation. METHODS: The gastrointestinal microbiota of mice housed on clean bedding or in contact with soil was analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the data were combined with immune parameters measured in the gut mucosa, lung tissue, and serum samples...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Astrid L Martens, Pauline Slottje, Tjabe Smid, Hans Kromhout, Roel C H Vermeulen, Danielle R M Timmermans
INTRODUCTION: Studies found that higher risk appraisal of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is associated with reporting more non-specific symptoms such as headache and back pain. There is limited data available on the longitudinal nature of such associations and what aspects of risk appraisal and characteristics of subjects are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between risk appraisal measures and non-specific symptoms, and assess the role of subject characteristics (sex, age, education, trait negative affect) in a general population cohort...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Ernest J Barthélemy, Yannis K Valtis, Maggie F Cochran, Louine Martineau, Kee Park, Jeffrey B Mendel, Benjamin Warf, Aaron L Berkowitz
INTRODUCTION: /Objective: Hydrocephalus is a common neurosurgical disorder that can lead to significant disability or death if not promptly identified and treated. Data on the burden of hydrocephalus in low-income countries is limited given lack of radiological resources for the diagnosis of this condition. Here, we present an analysis of patterns of hydrocephalus from a large sample of head CTs performed at a public hospital in rural Haiti, a low-income country in the Caribbean. METHODS: We analyzed reports from 3614 head CTs performed between July 2013 and January 2016 for findings that were consistent with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus (report indicating "hydrocephalus," "ventriculomegaly," or "enlargement of the ventricles")...
August 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Melissa L Carrion
Recent increases in childhood vaccine exemption rates are a source of concern within the public health community. Drawing from the health belief model and in-depth interviews with 50 mothers ( n = 50) who refused one or more vaccine, the aim of this study was to identify the specific reasons and the broader decision context(s) that underscored participants' vaccine refusal. Results indicate that the vast majority of participants supported vaccination until a particular cue motivated them to consider otherwise, and qualitative analysis identified three main categories into which these cues fell: perceived adverse reactions, endorsements from health care professionals, and perceived contradiction among expert-endorsed messages...
August 10, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Ben Wisner, Douglas Paton, Eva Alisic, Oliver Eastwood, Cheney Shreve, Maureen Fordham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify strategies for communicating with youth and children pre- and post-disaster in the context of a broader survey of child participation in disaster risk reduction as well as methods for communication with children. RECENT FINDINGS: Youth and children are capable of peer and community education and activism concerning disaster issues and such participation benefits the young actors. Family and sibling support are important in easing the impact of trauma on children...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Amédée Renand, Sarah Habes, Jean-François Mosnier, Hélène Aublé, Jean-Paul Judor, Nicolas Vince, Philippe Hulin, Steven Nedellec, Sylvie Métairie, Isabelle Archambeaud, Sophie Brouard, Jérôme Gournay, Sophie Conchon
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare disease characterized by an immune attack of the liver. This study consists of a comprehensive analysis of immune alterations related to AIH at diagnosis, and during remission phase under treatment. A total of 37 major lymphocyte populations were analyzed from the peripheral blood of new-onset AIH patients (AIHn; n = 14), AIH patients with controlled disease (n = 11), and healthy subjects (n = 14). Liver biopsy analyses were performed to complete the blood phenotypic analysis...
August 2018: Hepatology Communications
Amy Bartlett, Stephen J Kolb, Allison Kingsley, Kathryn J Swoboda, Sandra P Reyna, Ai Sakonju, Basil T Darras, Richard Shell, Nancy Kuntz, Diana Castro, Susan T Iannaccone, Julie Parsons, Anne M Connolly, Claudia A Chiriboga, Craig McDonald, W Bryan Burnette, Klaus Werner, Mathula Thangarajh, Perry B Shieh, Erika Finanger, Christopher S Coffey, Jon W Yankey, Merit E Cudkowicz, Michelle M McGovern, D Elizabeth McNeil, W David Arnold, John T Kissel
Background/Aims: Recruitment and retention of research participants are challenging and critical components of successful clinical trials and natural history studies. Infants with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have been a particularly challenging population to study due to their fragile and complex medical issues, poor prognosis and, until 2016, a lack of effective therapies. Recruitment of healthy infants into clinical trials and natural history studies is also challenging and sometimes assumed to not be feasible...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
J P Daly
John Pringle Nichol (1804-1859), a Scottish Romantic astronomer, educator, and social reformer, used visual representations to develop and communicate key elements of his theory of evolution as a universal principle. Examining four of the diverse representations that appeared in Nichol's popular science books between 1846 and 1850 reveals the rich possibilities of evolutionary imagery prior to the emergence of more dominant forms of representation in the wake of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859)...
August 6, 2018: Endeavour
Bethany R Hughes, Marziye Mirbagheri, Stephen D Waldman, Dae Kun Hwang
Cell-cell communication plays a critical role in a myriad of processes, such as homeostasis, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis, in multi-cellular organisms. Monolayer cell models have notably improved our understanding of cellular interactions. However, the cultured cells on the planar surfaces adopt a two-dimensional morphology, which poorly imitates cellular organization in vivo, providing physiologically-irrelevant cell responses. Non-planar surfaces comprising various patterns have demonstrated great abilities in directing cellular growth and producing different cell morphologies...
August 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Yu Hai, Hanxun Zou, Hebo Ye, Lei You
Achieving complexity is central to the creation of chemical systems, inspired by natural systems. Herein we introduce a strategy of switchable orthogonal dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) toward the regulation of complex dynamic networks. The control of dual reactivity of tautomers and resulting pathways allowed reversible covalent bonding of a large scope of primary amines, secondary amines, alcohols, and thiols with high efficiency. The selection of reaction pathways next enabled the realization of orthogonal but switchable dynamic covalent reactions (DCRs) with nucleophiles pair of amine/alcohol, alcohol/thiol, and amine/thiol by varying protonation and oxidation states...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Masoomeh Kheirkhah, Mojgan Javedani Masrour, Maryam Sefidi, Ezzat Jafar Jalal
Introduction and Aim: Human resources with the quality of desirable performance are the most important assets of the organization and increase the probability of success, survival, and progress of the organization. Midwives have a critical role in promoting the health of mothers and infants and survey the relationship between job motivation and organizational commitment can help health system managers and planners to improve the quality of the services provided. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and correlational study; samples of midwives in Arak University of Medical Sciences were selected by stratified sampling with proportional allocation method...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Gaëtan Merlhiot, Martial Mermillod, Jean-Luc Le Pennec, Laurie Mondillon
Given the growing demand for studies dealing with natural disasters, the research fields of emotion and social cognition require validated picture stimuli of natural hazards. Such material is essential for studying perceptual processes and behaviors of exposed individuals, and it could find practical applications, such as the improvement of communication strategies during crises. We present the Natural Disasters Picture System (NDPS), a database of pictures of natural hazards, with an emphasis on volcanic threats, and their impact on the environment and humans...
2018: PloS One
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