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Alessio Soggiu, Cristian Piras, Viviana Greco, Paola Devoto, Andrea Urbani, Luigino Calzetta, Marco Bortolato, Paola Roncada
The enzyme 5α-reductase (5αR) catalyzes the conversion of progesterone and testosterone into neuroactive steroids implicated in a wide array of behavioral functions. The prototypical 5αR inhibitor, finasteride (FIN), is clinically approved for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent evidence has shown that FIN, albeit generally well tolerated, can induce untoward psychological effects in a subset of patients; furthermore, this drug may have therapeutic efficacy for a number of different neuropsychiatric conditions, ranging from Tourette syndrome to schizophrenia...
October 6, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ping Lu, Xiaolong Chen, Yun Feng, Qiao Zeng, Cizhong Jiang, Xianmin Zhu, Guoping Fan, Zhigang Xue
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients carry the expansion of over 200 CGG repeats at the promoter of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), leading to decreased or absent expression of its encoded fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). However, the global transcriptional alteration by FMRP deficiency has not been well characterized at single nucleotide resolution, i.e., RNA-seq. Here, we performed in-vitro neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were derived from fibroblasts of a FXS patient (FXS-iPSC)...
October 11, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Estefanía Torres-Vega, María Durán-Moreno, Manuel Sánchez Del Pino, Yania Yáñez, Adela Cañete, Victoria Castel, Rogelio López-Cuevas, Juan Jesús Vílchez, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus, José Manuel García Verdugo, Luis Bataller
We aimed to identify new cell-membrane antigens implicated in opsoclonus-myoclonus with neuroblastoma. The sera of 3 out of 14 patients showed IgG electron-microscopy immunogold reactivity on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments using rat brain synaptosomes and SH-SY5Y cells led to the identification of: (1) thirty-one nuclear/cytoplasmic proteins (including antigens HuB, HuC); (2) seven neuronal membrane proteins, including the Shaw-potassium channel Kv3.3 (KCNC3), whose genetic disruption in mice causes ataxia and generalized muscle twitching...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
S Barresi, M Niceta, P Alfieri, V Brankovich, G Piccini, A Bruselles, M R Barone, R Cusmai, M Tartaglia, E Bertini, G Zanni
Congenital Ataxias are nonprogressive neurological disorders characterized by neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay and ataxia, variably associated with intellectual disability and other neurological or extraneurological features. We performed trio-based whole exome sequencing of 12 families with congenital cerebellar and/or vermis atrophy in parallel with targeted next-generation sequencing of known ataxia genes (CACNA1A, ITPR1, KCNC3, ATP2B3 and GRM1) in 12 additional patients with a similar phenotype. Novel pathological mutations of ITPR1 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1) were found in 7 patients from 4 families (4/24, ~16,8%) all localized in the IRBIT (inositol triphosphate receptor binding protein) domain which plays an essential role in the regulation of neuronal plasticity and development...
April 7, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Yalan Zhang, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Matthew R Fleming, Anahita Amiri, Lynda El-Hassar, Alexei A Surguchev, Callen Hyland, David P Jenkins, Rooma Desai, Maile R Brown, Valeswara-Rao Gazula, Michael F Waters, Charles H Large, Tamas L Horvath, Dhasakumar Navaratnam, Flora M Vaccarino, Paul Forscher, Leonard K Kaczmarek
Mutations in the Kv3.3 potassium channel (KCNC3) cause cerebellar neurodegeneration and impair auditory processing. The cytoplasmic C terminus of Kv3.3 contains a proline-rich domain conserved in proteins that activate actin nucleation through Arp2/3. We found that Kv3.3 recruits Arp2/3 to the plasma membrane, resulting in formation of a relatively stable cortical actin filament network resistant to cytochalasin D that inhibits fast barbed end actin assembly. These Kv3.3-associated actin structures are required to prevent very rapid N-type channel inactivation during short depolarizations of the plasma membrane...
April 7, 2016: Cell
Christine Zühlke, Barbara Mikat, Dagmar Timmann, Dagmar Wieczorek, Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach, Katrin Bürk
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28) is related to mutations of the ATPase family gene 3-like 2 gene (AFG3L2). To date, 13 private missense mutations have been identified in families of French, Italian, and German ancestry, but overall, the disorder seems to be rare in Europe. Here, we report a kindred of German ancestry with four affected family members presenting with slowly progressive ataxia, mild pyramidal tract signs and slow saccades. METHODS: After excluding repeat expansions in the genes for SCA1-3, 6-8, 10, 12, and 17, Sanger sequencing of the coding regions of TTBK2 (SCA11), KCNC3 (SCA13), PRKCG (SCA14), FGF14 (SCA27) and AFG3L2 (SCA28) was performed...
2015: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Yalan Zhang, Leonard K Kaczmarek
The voltage-dependent potassium channel subunit Kv3.3 is expressed at high levels in cerebellar Purkinje cells, in auditory brainstem nuclei and in many other neurons capable of firing at high rates. In the cerebellum, it helps to shape the very characteristic complex spike of Purkinje cells. Kv3.3 differs from other closely related channels in that human mutations in the gene encoding Kv3.3 (KCNC3) result in a unique neurodegenerative disease termed spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13). This primarily affects the cerebellum, but also results in extracerebellar symptoms...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Ricardo Parolin Schnekenberg, Emma M Perkins, Jack W Miller, Wayne I L Davies, Maria Cristina D'Adamo, Mauro Pessia, Katherine A Fawcett, David Sims, Elodie Gillard, Karl Hudspith, Paul Skehel, Jonathan Williams, Mary O'Regan, Sandeep Jayawant, Rosalind Jefferson, Sarah Hughes, Andrea Lustenberger, Jiannis Ragoussis, Mandy Jackson, Stephen J Tucker, Andrea H Németh
Cerebral palsy is a sporadic disorder with multiple likely aetiologies, but frequently considered to be caused by birth asphyxia. Genetic investigations are rarely performed in patients with cerebral palsy and there is little proven evidence of genetic causes. As part of a large project investigating children with ataxia, we identified four patients in our cohort with a diagnosis of ataxic cerebral palsy. They were investigated using either targeted next generation sequencing or trio-based exome sequencing and were found to have mutations in three different genes, KCNC3, ITPR1 and SPTBN2...
July 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Anna Duarri, Esther A R Nibbeling, Michiel R Fokkens, Michel Meijer, Melissa Boerrigter, Corien C Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Berry P H Kremer, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dennis Dooijes, Erik Boddeke, Richard J Sinke, Dineke S Verbeek
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder of the cerebellum caused by mutations in the voltage gated potassium channel KCNC3. To identify novel pathogenic SCA13 mutations in KCNC3 and to gain insights into the disease prevalence in the Netherlands, we sequenced the entire coding region of KCNC3 in 848 Dutch cerebellar ataxia patients with familial or sporadic origin. We evaluated the pathogenicity of the identified variants by co-segregation analysis and in silico prediction followed by biochemical and electrophysiological studies...
2015: PloS One
Aikaterini S Papadopoulou, Lutgarde Serneels, Tilmann Achsel, Wim Mandemakers, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, James Dooley, Pierre Lau, Torik Ayoubi, Enrico Radaelli, Marco Spinazzi, Melanie Neumann, Sébastien S Hébert, Asli Silahtaroglu, Adrian Liston, Rudi D'Hooge, Markus Glatzel, Bart De Strooper
miR-29 is expressed strongly in the brain and alterations in expression have been linked to several neurological disorders. To further explore the function of this miRNA in the brain, we generated miR-29a/b-1 knockout animals. Knockout mice develop a progressive disorder characterized by locomotor impairment and ataxia. The different members of the miR-29 family are strongly expressed in neurons of the olfactory bulb, the hippocampus and in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Morphological analysis showed that Purkinje cells are smaller and display less dendritic arborisation compared to their wildtype littermates...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Disease
Carolina Gallego-Iradi, Justin S Bickford, Swati Khare, Alexis Hall, Jerelyn A Nick, Donya Salmasinia, Kolja Wawrowsky, Serguei Bannykh, Duong P Huynh, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Stefan M Pulst, Harry S Nick, Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Michael F Waters
Spinocerebellar ataxia 13 (SCA13) is an autosomal dominant disease resulting from mutations in KCNC3 (Kv3.3), a voltage-gated potassium channel. The KCNC3(R420H) mutation was first identified as causative for SCA13 in a four-generation Filipino kindred with over 20 affected individuals. Electrophysiological analyses in oocytes previously showed that this mutation did not lead to a functional channel and displayed a dominant negative phenotype. In an effort to identify the molecular basis of this allelic form of SCA13, we first determined that human KCNC3(WT) and KCNC3(R420H) display disparate post-translational modifications, and the mutant protein has reduced complex glycan adducts...
November 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
Elisabet Mateu-Huertas, Laia Rodriguez-Revenga, Maria Isabel Alvarez-Mora, Irene Madrigal, Rob Willemsen, Montserrat Milà, Eulàlia Martí, Xavier Estivill
Male premutation carriers presenting between 55 and 200 CGG repeats in the Fragile-X-associated (FMR1) gene are at risk of developing Fragile X Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS), and females undergo Premature Ovarian Failure (POF1). Here, we have evaluated gene expression profiles from blood in male FMR1 premutation carriers and detected a strong deregulation of genes enriched in FXTAS relevant biological pathways, including inflammation, neuronal homeostasis and viability. Gene expression profiling distinguished between control individuals, carriers with FXTAS and carriers without FXTAS, with levels of expanded FMR1 mRNA being increased in FXTAS patients...
May 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
Sarra Dimassi, Audrey Labalme, Gaetan Lesca, Gabrielle Rudolf, Nadine Bruneau, Edouard Hirsch, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Jacques Motte, Anne de Saint Martin, Nadia Boutry-Kryza, Robin Cloarec, Afaf Benitto, Agnès Ameil, Patrick Edery, Philippe Ryvlin, Julitta De Bellescize, Pierre Szepetowski, Damien Sanlaville
OBJECTIVES: Rolandic epilepsies (REs) represent the most frequent epilepsy in childhood. Patients may experience cognitive, speech, language, reading, and behavioral issues. The genetic origin of REs has long been debated. The participation of rare copy number variations (CNVs) in the pathophysiology of various human epilepsies has been increasingly recognized. However, no systematic search for microdeletions or microduplications has been reported in RE so far. METHODS: Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to analyze the genomic status of a series of 47 unrelated RE patients who displayed various types of electroclinical manifestations...
February 2014: Epilepsia
Andrea H Németh, Alexandra C Kwasniewska, Stefano Lise, Ricardo Parolin Schnekenberg, Esther B E Becker, Katarzyna D Bera, Morag E Shanks, Lorna Gregory, David Buck, M Zameel Cader, Kevin Talbot, Rajith de Silva, Nicholas Fletcher, Rob Hastings, Sandeep Jayawant, Patrick J Morrison, Paul Worth, Malcolm Taylor, John Tolmie, Mary O'Regan, Ruth Valentine, Emily Packham, Julie Evans, Anneke Seller, Jiannis Ragoussis
Many neurological conditions are caused by immensely heterogeneous gene mutations. The diagnostic process is often long and complex with most patients undergoing multiple invasive and costly investigations without ever reaching a conclusive molecular diagnosis. The advent of massively parallel, next-generation sequencing promises to revolutionize genetic testing and shorten the 'diagnostic odyssey' for many of these patients. We performed a pilot study using heterogeneous ataxias as a model neurogenetic disorder to assess the introduction of next-generation sequencing into clinical practice...
October 2013: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lan Peng, Chunrong Wang, Zhao Chen, Jun-Ling Wang, Bei-Sha Tang, Hong Jiang
The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders, among which SCA subtype 13 (SCA13) was found associated with mutations in the KCNC3 gene. Among 522 Chinese Han SCA patients (including familial and sporadic) we have collected since 1995, approximately 40% of them have not yet been assigned genotype. To investigate the mutation frequency of KCNC3 in SCA patients from mainland Chinese Han population, we analyzed the KCNC3 gene in 201 unrelated patients diagnosed with dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxia using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) method...
July 2013: International Journal of Neuroscience
Katrin Bürk, Adam Strzelczyk, Philipp S Reif, Karla P Figueroa, Stefan M Pulst, Christine Zühlke, Wolfgang H Oertel, Hajo M Hamer, Felix Rosenow
We report a female patient of German descent with a molecular diagnosis of SCA13 who presented with a history of cerebellar ataxia and epilepsy. The underlying mutation R420H had been shown to cause a dominant negative effect on the functional properties of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3. Despite widespread KCNC3 expression in the central nervous system, the patient presented with a left mesiotemporal electroencephalogram focus and left hippocampal sclerosis. This is the first case, which reports an association between mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and spinocerebellar ataxia type 13...
April 2013: International Journal of Neuroscience
Kosho Kinoshita, Mohammad Said Ashenagar, Masaki Tabuchi, Hideaki Higashino
Clarification of the genetic nature and more effective care for hypertension are required, given the high incidences of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. Thus, we surveyed candidate genes for hypertension with rat whole gene DNA microarrays using three novel methods. Gene expression analyses were conducted as follows: Method 1, three types of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) substrains, SHR, stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP) and malignant type of SHRSP (M-SHRSP) were used and compared to normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats; Method 2, the expressed genes between rats of different ages were compared for different blood pressures; and Method 3, genes that were expressed in rats treated with or without an acute hypotensive stimulus, the antihypertensive hydralazine hydrochloride, were compared...
March 2011: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Giovanni Stevanin, Alexandra Dürr
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 13 and 25 are two genetic entities among the autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias, initially mapped in two French families to chromosomes 19q and 2p, respectively. The SCA13 locus was confirmed by the identification of a second kindred of Filipino ancestry. SCA13 patients have cerebellar ataxia of adult onset, or of early onset when associated with mental impairment. SCA25 patients present with cerebellar ataxia with sensory neuropathy and frequent gastrointestinal features...
2012: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Karla P Figueroa, Michael F Waters, Vartan Garibyan, Thomas D Bird, Christopher M Gomez, Laura P W Ranum, Natali A Minassian, Diane M Papazian, Stefan M Pulst
BACKGROUND: Gain-of function or dominant-negative mutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3) were recently identified as a cause of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia. Our objective was to describe the frequency of mutations associated with KCNC3 in a large cohort of index patients with sporadic or familial ataxia presenting to three US ataxia clinics at academic medical centers. METHODOLOGY: DNA sequence analysis of the coding region of the KCNC3 gene was performed in 327 index cases with ataxia...
2011: PloS One
Alexandra Durr
Cerebellar ataxias with autosomal dominant transmission are rare, but identification of the associated genes has provided insight into the mechanisms that could underlie other forms of genetic or non-genetic ataxias. In many instances, the phenotype is not restricted to cerebellar dysfunction but includes complex multisystemic neurological deficits. The designation of the loci, SCA for spinocerebellar ataxia, indicates the involvement of at least two systems: the spinal cord and the cerebellum. 11 of 18 known genes are caused by repeat expansions in the corresponding proteins, sharing the same mutational mechanism...
September 2010: Lancet Neurology
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