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Ebv Vaccine

Christopher T Haley, Uyen Ngoc Mui, Ramya Vangipuram, Peter L Rady, Stephen K Tyring
In 1964, the first human oncovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), was identified in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Since then, six other human oncoviruses have been identified: human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1), and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). These viruses are causally linked to 12% of all cancers, many of which have mucocutaneous manifestations. Additionally, oncoviruses are associated with multiple benign mucocutaneous diseases...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Uyen Ngoc Mui, Christopher T Haley, Ramya Vangipuram, Stephen K Tyring
In 1964, the first human oncovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), was identified in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Since then, six other human oncoviruses have been identified: human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1), and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). These viruses are causally linked to 12% of all cancers, many of which have mucocutaneous manifestations. Additionally, oncoviruses are associated with many benign mucocutaneous diseases...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Meili Li, Tao Chen, Xingmei Zou, Zuo Xu, Yuanfang Wang, Ping Wang, Xiaowen Ou, Yiwen Li, Daixiong Chen, Tao Peng, Yao Wang, Mingsheng Cai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BFLF2, the homologue of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL31, is crucial for the efficient viral DNA packaging and primary egress across the nuclear membrane. However, we still do not know its subcellular transport mechanisms. METHODS: Interspecies heterokaryon assays were utilized to detect the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of BFLF2, and mutation analysis, plasmid transfection and fluorescence microscopy assays were performed to identify the functional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and nuclear export sequence (NES) of BFLF2 in live cells...
November 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
A Gregory Bruce, Serge Barcy, Jeannette Staheli, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Minako Ikoma, Kellie Howard, Timothy M Rose
Macaque RFHV and LCV are close homologs of human KSHV and EBV, respectively. No experimental model of RFHV has been developed due to the lack of a source of culturable infectious virus. Screening of macaques at the Washington National Primate Research Center detected RFHV in saliva of SIV-infected macaques from previous vaccine studies. A pilot experimental infection of two naïve juvenile pig-tailed macaques was initiated by inoculation of saliva from SIV-infected pig-tailed and cynomolgus macaque donors, which contained high levels of DNA (> 106 genomes/ml) of the respective species-specific RFHV strain...
2018: PloS One
Shahinaz Bedri, Ali A Sultan, Moussa Alkhalaf, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa, Semir Vranic
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-characterized oncovirus, associated with several malignancies. The complex and heterogeneous nature of colorectal cancer (CRC) has led to many epidemiological causal associations with CRC. However, a direct causal link between microbial infections and CRC has not been established yet. Our review indicates that the current evidence for the presence and role in EBV in CRC is insufficient and contradictory. The design of the analyzed studies, sample size as well as methodology used for EBV detection varied markedly and consequently may not lead to meaningful conclusions...
October 31, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Rupal Ojha, Raj Nandani, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Cancer is one of the common lifestyle diseases and is considered to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected individuals remain asymptomatic; but under certain stress conditions, EBV may lead to the development of cancers such as Burkitt's and Hodgkin's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. EBV-associated cancers result in a large number of deaths in Asian and African population, and no effective cure has still been developed. We, therefore, tried to devise a subunit vaccine with the help of immunoinformatic approaches that can be used for the prevention of EBV-associated malignancies...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Douglas G Widman, Savanna Gornisiewicz, Sharon Shacham, Sharon Tamir
Infection of immunocompromised individuals with normally benign opportunistic viruses is a major health burden globally. Infections with viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Kaposi's sarcoma virus (KSHV), adenoviruses (AdV), BK virus (BKPyV), John Cunningham virus (JCPyV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) are significant concerns for the immunocompromised, including when these viruses exist as a co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These viral infections are more complicated in patients with a weakened immune system, and often manifest as malignancies resulting in significant morbidity and mortality...
2018: PloS One
Harini D de Silva, Rosemary A Ffrench, Maya Korem, Eva Orlowski, David J Curtis, Andrew Spencer, Sharon Avery, Sushrut Patil, Catherine Orla Morrissey
Objectives: Infections are a major cause of mortality after allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), and immune recovery is necessary for prevention. Novel transplant procedures have changed the epidemiology of infections but contemporary data on functional immune recovery are limited. In this pilot study, we aimed to measure immune recovery in the current era of alloHSCT. Methods: Twenty, 13, 11, 9 and 9 alloHSCT recipients had blood collected at baseline (time of conditioning) and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-months post-alloHSCT, respectively...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Nicholas A Smith, Paul C Baresel, Conner L Jackson, Sidney Ogolla, Eunice N Toko, Sara Heit, Erwan Piriou, Odada P Sumba, Jaap M Middeldorp, Kathryn L Colborn, Rosemary Rochford
Background: The EBV viral glycoprotein gp350 has been proposed as a candidate antigen for an EBV vaccine. However, the proposed formulations of these vaccines have not taken into account the presence of two unique EBV strains (EBV-1 and EBV-2) present in areas of high incidence of the EBV associated cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods: In this study, we analyze the kinetics of EBV-1 and EBV-2 infection in an asymptomatic infant cohort from Kisumu, Kenya. We also analyzed the kinetics of the antibody response against five EBV antigens, gp350 (IgG and IgA), VCA (IgG), EBNA-1 (IgG), EAd (IgG), and Zta (IgG)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mengying Hong, Kejun Tang, Jing Qian, Hongyu Deng, Musheng Zeng, Shu Zheng, Kefeng Ding, Yushen Du, Ren Sun
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common head and neck malignancies in southern China and Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, 70% of NPC patients have locally advanced disease at the first diagnosis. Radiotherapy alone and concurrent chemoradiotherapy are important treatment approaches for NPC, but they have a limited effect on patients with locally advanced or distantly metastatic disease. 1-5 Nevertheless, the unique immune environment of the EBV-associated NPC provides rational targets for immunotherapy...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Widodo, Bambang Pristiwanto, Muhaimin Rifa'i, Irfan Mustafa, Fahrul Zaman Huyop
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with the high incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in worldwide. Vaccination is one strategy with the potential to prevent the occurrence of EBV-associated cancers, but a suitable vaccine is yet to be licensed. Much vaccine development research focuses on the GP350/220 protein of EBV as it contains an immunogenic epitope at residues 147-165, which efficiently stimulates IgG production in vitro . We examined the ability of this epitope (EBVepitope) to induce IgG production in mice...
November 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Salvatrice Mancuso, Melania Carlisi, Marco Santoro, Mariasanta Napolitano, Simona Raso, Sergio Siragusa
One of the most important determinants of aging-related changes is a complex biological process emerged recently and called "immunosenescence". Immunosenescence refers to the inability of an aging immune system to produce an appropriate and effective response to challenge. This immune dysregulation may manifest as increased susceptibility to infection, cancer, autoimmune disease, and vaccine failure. At present, the relationship between immunosenescence and lymphoma in elderly patients is not defined in a satisfactory way...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Nancy Rihana, Sowmya Nanjappa, Cara Sullivan, Ana Paula Velez, Narach Tienchai, John N Greene
The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1995 had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of the HIV population, and subsequently, the natural history of cancer has changed. The purpose of our study was to review the prevalence of AIDS-defining malignancies and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC), taking into consideration racial and gender variations. After the institutional review board approval, the study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of 279 HIV-infected patients who were treated at the Moffitt Cancer Center between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Lei Lei, Jianhui Li, Meiqing Liu, Xiaoming Hu, Ya Zhou, Shiming Yang
CD40L, a costimulatory molecule for dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, can serve as an adjuvant for enhancing the specific immune response induced by DNA vaccine carrying tumor-associated antigens. In this study, we investigated the potential of CD40L as an adjuvant to enhance the anti-tumor effect mediated by a DNA vaccine based on the Epstein-Barr virus-latent membrane protein 2 (EBV-LMP2) antigen. The plasmids capable of expressing the fusion protein EBV-LMP2-CD40L were constructed. Expression vector pVAX1 and plasmid expressing the individual antigen EBV-LMP2 were used as control groups...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Samantha Correia, Ray Bridges, Fanny Wegner, Cristina Venturini, Anne Palser, Jaap M Middeldorp, Jeffrey I Cohen, Mario A Lorenzetti, Irene Bassano, Robert E White, Paul Kellam, Judith Breuer, Paul J Farrell
One hundred thirty-eight new Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome sequences have been determined. One hundred twenty-five of these and 116 from previous reports were combined to produce a multiple-sequence alignment of 241 EBV genomes, which we have used to analyze variation within the viral genome. The type 1/type 2 classification of EBV remains the major form of variation and is defined mostly by EBNA2 and EBNA3, but the type 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the EBNA3 locus extend into the adjacent gp350 and gp42 genes, whose products mediate infection of B cells by EBV...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Petar Scepanovic, Cécile Alanio, Christian Hammer, Flavia Hodel, Jacob Bergstedt, Etienne Patin, Christian W Thorball, Nimisha Chaturvedi, Bruno Charbit, Laurent Abel, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Darragh Duffy, Matthew L Albert, Jacques Fellay
BACKGROUND: Humoral immune responses to infectious agents or vaccination vary substantially among individuals, and many of the factors responsible for this variability remain to be defined. Current evidence suggests that human genetic variation influences (i) serum immunoglobulin levels, (ii) seroconversion rates, and (iii) intensity of antigen-specific immune responses. Here, we evaluated the impact of intrinsic (age and sex), environmental, and genetic factors on the variability of humoral response to common pathogens and vaccines...
July 27, 2018: Genome Medicine
Queenie Fernandes, Maysaloun Merhi, Afsheen Raza, Varghese Philipose Inchakalody, Nassima Abdelouahab, Abdul Rehman Zar Gul, Shahab Uddin, Said Dermime
The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the development and progression of tumor cells has been described in various cancers. Etiologically, EBV is a causative agent in certain variants of head and neck cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Proteins expressed by the EVB genome are involved in invoking and perpetuating the oncogenic properties of the virus. However, these protein products were also identified as important targets for therapeutic research in the past decades, particularly within the context of immunotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Jérémie Rosain, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Caroline Deswarte, Hannah Verdin, Stéphane Marot, Garyfallia Syridou, Mahboubeh Mansouri, S Alireza Mahdaviani, Edna Venegas-Montoya, Maria Tsolia, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Liudmyla Chernyshova, Yuriy Stepanovskiy, Nima Parvaneh, Davood Mansouri, Sigifredo Pedraza-Sánchez, Anastasia Bondarenko, Sara E Espinosa-Padilla, Marco A Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Alejandro Nieto-Patlán, Gaspard Kerner, Nathalie Lambert, Corinne Jacques, Emilie Corvilain, Mélanie Migaud, Virginie Grandin, María T Herrera, Fabienne Jabot-Hanin, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Capucine Picard, Patrick Nitschke, Anne Puel, Frederic Tores, Laurent Abel, Lizbeth Blancas-Galicia, Elfride De Baere, Christine Bole-Feysot, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante
PURPOSE: Inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Autosomal recessive complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is the most frequent genetic etiology of MSMD. Only two of the 84 known mutations are copy number variations (CNVs), identified in two of the 213 IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients and two of the 164 kindreds reported. These two CNVs are large deletions found in the heterozygous or homozygous state. We searched for novel families with IL-12Rβ1 deficiency due to CNVs...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Jeffrey I Cohen
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and lymphomas in immunocompromised persons, as well as multiple sclerosis. A vaccine is currently unavailable. While monomeric EBV gp350 was shown in a phase 2 trial to reduce the incidence of infectious mononucleosis, but not the rate of EBV infection, newer formulations of gp350 including multimeric forms, viruslike particles, and nanoparticles may be more effective...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yunshan Ning, Jianbin Ye, Junjie Wen, Danlin Wu, Zhongbiao Chen, Yanqing Lin, Bingxin Hu, Meiqun Luo, Jun Luo, Lijun Ning, Yan Li
Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells play an essential role in effective immunity against Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Lpp20, a conserved lipoprotein of H. pylori , has been investigated as one of major protective antigens for vaccination strategies. Our previous study identified two H-2d -restricted CD4+ T cell epitopes within Lpp20 and an epitope vaccine based on these epitopes was constructed, which protected mice in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori infection. Immunodominant CD4+ T cell response is an important feature of antiviral, antibacterial, and antitumor cellular immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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