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Ebv Vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111570/sequence-variation-of-epstein-barr-virus-viral-types-geography-codon-usage-and-diseases
#1
Samantha Correia, Ray Bridges, Fanny Wegner, Cristina Venturini, Anne Palser, Jaap M Middeldorp, Jeffrey I Cohen, Mario A Lorenzetti, Irene Bassano, Robert E White, Paul Kellam, Judith Breuer, Paul J Farrell
138 new Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome sequences have been determined. 125 of these and 116 from previous reports were combined to produce a multiple sequence alignment of 241 EBV genomes, which we have used to analyze variation within the viral genome. The type 1/type2 classification of EBV remains the major form of variation and is defined mostly by EBNA2 and EBNA3, but the type 2 SNPs at the EBNA3 locus extend into the adjacent gp350 and gp42 genes, whose products mediate infection of B cells by EBV. A small insertion within the BART miRNA region of the genome was present in 21 EBV strains...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053915/human-genetic-variants-and-age-are-the-strongest-predictors-of-humoral-immune-responses-to-common-pathogens-and-vaccines
#2
Petar Scepanovic, Cécile Alanio, Christian Hammer, Flavia Hodel, Jacob Bergstedt, Etienne Patin, Christian W Thorball, Nimisha Chaturvedi, Bruno Charbit, Laurent Abel, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Darragh Duffy, Matthew L Albert, Jacques Fellay
BACKGROUND: Humoral immune responses to infectious agents or vaccination vary substantially among individuals, and many of the factors responsible for this variability remain to be defined. Current evidence suggests that human genetic variation influences (i) serum immunoglobulin levels, (ii) seroconversion rates, and (iii) intensity of antigen-specific immune responses. Here, we evaluated the impact of intrinsic (age and sex), environmental, and genetic factors on the variability of humoral response to common pathogens and vaccines...
July 27, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035101/role-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-the-pathogenesis-of-head-and-neck-cancers-and-its-potential-as-an-immunotherapeutic-target
#3
REVIEW
Queenie Fernandes, Maysaloun Merhi, Afsheen Raza, Varghese Philipose Inchakalody, Nassima Abdelouahab, Abdul Rehman Zar Gul, Shahab Uddin, Said Dermime
The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the development and progression of tumor cells has been described in various cancers. Etiologically, EBV is a causative agent in certain variants of head and neck cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Proteins expressed by the EVB genome are involved in invoking and perpetuating the oncogenic properties of the virus. However, these protein products were also identified as important targets for therapeutic research in the past decades, particularly within the context of immunotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995221/a-variety-of-alu-mediated-copy-number-variations-can-underlie-il-12r%C3%AE-1-deficiency
#4
Jérémie Rosain, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Caroline Deswarte, Hannah Verdin, Stéphane Marot, Garyfallia Syridou, Mahboubeh Mansouri, S Alireza Mahdaviani, Edna Venegas-Montoya, Maria Tsolia, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Liudmyla Chernyshova, Yuriy Stepanovskiy, Nima Parvaneh, Davood Mansouri, Sigifredo Pedraza-Sánchez, Anastasia Bondarenko, Sara E Espinosa-Padilla, Marco A Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Alejandro Nieto-Patlán, Gaspard Kerner, Nathalie Lambert, Corinne Jacques, Emilie Corvilain, Mélanie Migaud, Virginie Grandin, María T Herrera, Fabienne Jabot-Hanin, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Capucine Picard, Patrick Nitschke, Anne Puel, Frederic Tores, Laurent Abel, Lizbeth Blancas-Galicia, Elfride De Baere, Christine Bole-Feysot, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante
PURPOSE: Inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Autosomal recessive complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is the most frequent genetic etiology of MSMD. Only two of the 84 known mutations are copy number variations (CNVs), identified in two of the 213 IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients and two of the 164 kindreds reported. These two CNVs are large deletions found in the heterozygous or homozygous state. We searched for novel families with IL-12Rβ1 deficiency due to CNVs...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896681/vaccine-development-for-epstein-barr-virus
#5
Jeffrey I Cohen
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and lymphomas in immunocompromised persons, as well as multiple sclerosis. A vaccine is currently unavailable. While monomeric EBV gp350 was shown in a phase 2 trial to reduce the incidence of infectious mononucleosis, but not the rate of EBV infection, newer formulations of gp350 including multimeric forms, viruslike particles, and nanoparticles may be more effective...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875738/identification-of-two-lpp20-cd4-t-cell-epitopes-in-helicobacter-pylori-infected-subjects
#6
Yunshan Ning, Jianbin Ye, Junjie Wen, Danlin Wu, Zhongbiao Chen, Yanqing Lin, Bingxin Hu, Meiqun Luo, Jun Luo, Lijun Ning, Yan Li
Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells play an essential role in effective immunity against Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Lpp20, a conserved lipoprotein of H. pylori , has been investigated as one of major protective antigens for vaccination strategies. Our previous study identified two H-2d -restricted CD4+ T cell epitopes within Lpp20 and an epitope vaccine based on these epitopes was constructed, which protected mice in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori infection. Immunodominant CD4+ T cell response is an important feature of antiviral, antibacterial, and antitumor cellular immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765376/immunization-with-fc-based-recombinant-epstein-barr-virus-gp350-elicits-potent-neutralizing-humoral-immune-response-in-a-balb-c-mice-model
#7
Bingchun Zhao, Xiao Zhang, Claude Krummenacher, Shuo Song, Ling Gao, Haojiong Zhang, Miao Xu, Lin Feng, Qisheng Feng, Musheng Zeng, Yuting Xu, Yixin Zeng
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human virus proved to be closely associated with tumor development, such as lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. Despite many efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines against EBV infection and diseases, no candidates have succeeded in effectively blocking EBV infection in clinical trials. Previous investigations showed that EBV gp350 plays a pivotal role in the infection of B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, using monomeric gp350 proteins as antigens has not been effective in preventing infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728427/to-ebv-or-not-to-ebv-rational-vaccine-design-for-a-common-infection
#8
Sarah E Henrickson
A human antibody that prevents EBV infection is identified by studying memory B cells that recognize core EBV fusion proteins.
May 4, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723986/ebv-positive-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients-exhibit-increased-anti-dutpase-antibodies
#9
Marshall Williams, Maria Eugenia Ariza
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is a ubiquitous γ-herpesvirus, establishes a latent infection in more than 90% of the global adult population. EBV-associated malignancies have increased by 14.6% over the last 20 years, and account for approximately 1.5% of all cancers worldwide and 1.8% of all cancer deaths. However, the potential involvement/contribution of lytic proteins to the pathophysiology of EBV-associated cancers is not well understood. We have previously demonstrated that the EBV-deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) modulates innate and adaptive immune responses by engaging the Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2), which leads to the modulation of downstream genes involved in oncogenesis, chronic inflammation, and in effector T-cell function...
May 1, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718378/evaluation-of-total-and-iga-specific-antibody-targeting-epstein-barr-virus-glycoprotein-350-and-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-risk
#10
Anna E Coghill, Wei Bu, Wan-Lun Hsu, Hanh Nguyen, Kelly J Yu, Yin-Chu Chien, Chien-Jen Chen, Jeffrey I Cohen, Allan Hildesheim
Background: We previously reported that higher levels of antibody targeting EBV glycoprotein350 (gp350), an EBV vaccine candidate, were protective against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in genetically high-risk families from Taiwan. The current study attempted to extend this association to a general population cohort. Methods: We compared total and IgA-specific gp350 antibody levels in 35 incident NPC cases and 81 disease-free controls from the Cancer Screening Program in Taiwan (23,943 individuals recruited from 1991-1992)...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669253/an-antibody-targeting-the-fusion-machinery-neutralizes-dual-tropic-infection-and-defines-a-site-of-vulnerability-on-epstein-barr-virus
#11
Joost Snijder, Michael S Ortego, Connor Weidle, Andrew B Stuart, Matthew D Gray, M Juliana McElrath, Marie Pancera, David Veesler, Andrew T McGuire
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with 200,000 new cases of cancer and 140,000 deaths annually. Subunit vaccines against this pathogen have focused on the gp350 glycoprotein and remain unsuccessful. We isolated human antibodies recognizing the EBV fusion machinery (gH/gL and gB) from rare memory B cells. One anti-gH/gL antibody, AMMO1, potently neutralized infection of B cells and epithelial cells, the two major cell types targeted by EBV. We determined a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the gH/gL-gp42-AMMO1 complex and demonstrated that AMMO1 bound to a discontinuous epitope formed by both gH and gL at the Domain-I/Domain-II interface...
April 17, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669245/inhibiting-ebv-the-key-to-carefree-smooching
#12
Shee-Mei Lok
There are no vaccines or therapies to treat Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Snijder et al. (2018) isolated a potent human antibody against EBV that blocks infection of both B cells and epithelial cells. Structural analysis of the antibody complexed with a viral surface protein complex identified a site that may be useful in vaccine development.
April 17, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599765/herpesviruses-in-the-activated-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey I Cohen
The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is important for multiple stages of herpesvirus replication including virus entry, replication, latency, and reactivation. Recently, patients with gain-of-function mutations in the p110δ-catalytic subunit of PI3K or in the p85-regulatory subunit of PI3K have been reported. These patients have constitutively active PI3K with hyperactivation of Akt. They present with lymphoproliferation and often have infections, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and/or severe virus infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570629/constructing-tc-1-gluc-lmp2-model-tumor-cells-to-evaluate-the-anti-tumor-effects-of-lmp2-related-vaccines
#14
Liying Sun, Yanzhe Hao, Zhan Wang, Yi Zeng
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is related to a variety of malignant tumors, and its encoded protein, latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), is an effective target antigen that is widely used to construct vector vaccines. However, the model cells carrying LMP2 have still not been established to assess the oncolytic effect of LMP2-related vaccines at present. In this study, TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 tumor cells were constructed as target cells to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of LMP2-assosiated vaccines. The results showed that both LMP2 and Gaussia luciferase ( GLuc ) genes could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 cells...
March 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560474/designing-and-overproducing-a-tandem-epitope-of-gp350-220-that-shows-a-potential-to-become-an-ebv-vaccine
#15
Widodo, Nadya Veronica Margarecaesha Anyndita, Nurul Dluha, Muhaimin Rifa'i, Karimatul Himmah, Mulya Dwi Wahyuningsih
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can cause cancer in people from around the world. There is no EBV vaccine available for use on a global scale. However, emerging evidence suggests that the epitope on the gp350/220 capsid protein may be developed into an EBV vaccine. Nevertheless, the production of small, single epitope is challenging of stability issues and possible alteration of peptide structure. In this study, a tandem epitope was developed consisting of three single epitopes, aimed to improve stability, antigenicity and preserve epitope structure...
March 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534721/t-cell-mediated-immunity-induced-by-the-live-attenuated-shigella-flexneri-2a-vaccine-candidate-cvd-1208s-in-humans
#16
Franklin R Toapanta, Paula J Bernal, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Marcelo B Sztein
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis persists as a public health problem worldwide causing ~ 165,000 deaths every year, of which ~ 55,000 are in children less than 5 years of age. No vaccine against shigellosis is currently licensed. The live-attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate CVD 1208S (S. flexneri 2a; ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen) demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. Earlier reports focused on humoral immunity. However, Shigella is an intracellular pathogen and therefore, T cell mediated immunity (T-CMI) is also expected to play an important role...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525635/primary-epstein-barr-virus-infection
#17
REVIEW
Samantha K Dunmire, Priya S Verghese, Henry H Balfour
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects about 90% of adults worldwide. It is the main cause of infectious mononucleosis, which is observed most frequently in adolescents. The disease can last several weeks and is characterized by lymphocytosis, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and fatigue. Exposure to oral secretions during deep kissing has been identified as the major source for primary EBV infection in adolescents. Oral secretions are also thought to be the source for younger children through intimate intact or sharing food and eating utensils, although this has not been confirmed...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508025/cd137l-dendritic-cells-induce-potent-response-against-cancer-associated-viruses-and-polarize-human-cd8-t-cells-to-tc1-phenotype
#18
Bhushan Dharmadhikari, Emily Nickles, Zulkarnain Harfuddin, Nur Diana Binte Ishak, Qun Zeng, Antonio Bertoletti, Herbert Schwarz
Therapeutic tumor vaccination based on dendritic cells (DC) is safe; however, its efficacy is low. Among the reasons for only a subset of patients benefitting from DC-based immunotherapy is an insufficient potency of in vitro generated classical DCs (cDCs), made by treating monocytes with GM-CSF + IL-4 + maturation factors. Recent studies demonstrated that CD137L (4-1BBL, TNFSF9) signaling differentiates human monocytes to a highly potent novel type of DC (CD137L-DCs) which have an inflammatory phenotype and are closely related to in vivo DCs...
June 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483919/human-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-infection-tumorigenesis-and-immune-control-in-mice-with-reconstituted-human-immune-system-components
#19
REVIEW
Christian Münz
The human γ-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or HHV4) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) are each associated with around 2% of all tumors in humans worldwide. However, investigations into their infection, oncogenesis, and immune responses that protect from the associated tumors have been hampered by the exclusive tropism of these pathogens for humans. Mice with reconstituted human immune system components (HIS mice) provide the unique opportunity to study persistent infection, virus associated lymphoma formation, and cell-mediated immune control of EBV and KSHV...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404275/oncogenic-viruses-and-breast-cancer-mouse-mammary-tumor-virus-mmtv-bovine-leukemia-virus-blv-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-and-epstein-barr-virus-ebv
#20
REVIEW
James S Lawson, Brian Salmons, Wendy K Glenn
Background: Although the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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