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Cytology AND molecular

Kelvin Young, Gilda da Cunha Santos, Paul Card, Natasha Leighl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Piotr Wiśniewski, Maciej Głogowski, Włodzimierz Olszewski
The aim of the study was the evaluation of the efficiency of cytological examination of the material obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and endoscopic ultrasound bronchoscope-guided fine needle aspiration (EUSB-FNA) methods in the diagnosis of lung carcinoma. The usefulness was also assessed of the material obtained in that way for immunocytochemical and molecular tests in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma. The material included cytological preparations obtained by EBUS and EUS methods...
2018: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Ryuko Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki Ohsaki, Sho Hosokawa, Yasunori Tokuhara, Shingo Kamoshida, Yoshiko Sakuma, Tomoo Itoh, Chiho Ohbayashi
OBJECTIVE: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive (+) lung cancers are predictive for response to crizotinib and alectinib. There are many cases of lung cancer in which surgery cannot be performed, and such cases require diagnosis by cytologic specimen or biopsy. Estimating ALK (+) lung cancer from cytomorphology would allow molecular testing to proceed without the waste of a small amount of specimen. The purpose of this study was to assess whether qualitative and quantitative cytomorphologic features are sufficient for distinguishing primary ALK (+) from ALK (-) lung cancer...
December 1, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Ethar Al-Husseinawi, Soheila Hamidpour, Evanthia Omoscharka
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands morphologic and molecular similarities to secretory carcinoma of the breast(sc). (1) Here, we report a 46 year old female who presented with a right submandibular gland mass. Fine needle aspiration differential diagnosis included oncocytosis, oncocytoma, acinic cell carcinoma and MASC.We also review the current literature regarding clinical presentation, and diagnostic workup of this entity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
December 1, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Xinguo Shi, Lemian Liu, Yue Li, Yuchun Xiao, Guangmao Ding, Senjie Lin, Jianfeng Chen
The relationship between algicidal bacteria and harmful-algal-bloom-forming dinoflagellates is understudied and their action modes are largely uncharacterized. In this study, an algicidal bacterium (FDHY-03) was isolated from a bloom of Prorocentrum donghaiense and the characteristics of its action against P. donghaiense was investigated at physiological, molecular, biochemical and cytological levels. 16S rDNA sequence analysis placed this strain in the genus of Alteromonas in the subclass of γ-proteobacteria...
December 2018: Harmful Algae
A V Kovalev, T A Kuprina, O V Samokhodskaya, I V Kondratova
The objective of the present study was the analysis of expert activities of the forensic biological, forensic cytological, and molecular genetic divisions and laboratories of the state agencies carrying out forensic medical expertise in the Russian Federation during the past 15 year period (2003-2017). We scrutinized the data on the organizational structure and the personnel scheduling chart of the aforementioned units. The study has demonstrated the progressive decrease in the number of forensic biological and forensic cytological investigations versus enhanced activities of the molecular genetic laboratories...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Nadine Abdallah, Misako Nagasaka, Eman Abdulfatah, Dongping Shi, Antoinette J Wozniak, Ammar Sukari
Introduction: Histologic transformation from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a well-recognized mechanism of resistance in EGFR -mutant adenocarcinoma upon treatment with TKIs, but rarely reported with programmed death1 (PD-1) inhibitors. We report two cases of potential transformation during treatment with PD-1 inhibitors. Case presentations: Case 1, a 65-year-old man was diagnosed with stage IVa lung adenocarcinoma on pleural fluid cytology...
2018: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Kalpalata Tripathy, Aparajita Mishra, Ajit K Singh, Pragnya L Panda, Arup Mahapatra, Anusaya Lenka
Context: Efficacy of immunocytochemistry (ICC) in determining molecular biomarkers like estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptors (PRs), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Aims: To evaluate biomarkers using ICC in breast cancer as per American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathology (ASCO/CAP) guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was conducted over a period of 2 years from September 2012 to August 2014 and is the first such study in eastern India...
October 2018: Journal of Cytology
Jaroslava Dušková
oelom cavities (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, tunica vaginalis testis) lined with mesothelial lining derived from the mesoderm, represent a frequent place of propagation of pathological processes both from the neighbourhood and primary. These are most often manifested by effusion, whose cytological examination contributes significantly to the diagnosis. Each larger amount of fluid in the coelom spaces is pathological. The primary task is, as a rule, the identification of tumour cells, more often of metastatic origin (with decreasing frequency (adenocarcinomas, melanoma, sarcomas) than primary (mesothelioma, primary lymphomas of coelom cavities)...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Jennifer Maerki, Melissa Klein, Karen Chau, Cecilia Gimenez, Joanna Fishbein, Seema Khutti, Kasturi Das
INTRODUCTION: Currently, molecular studies are widely used as a guiding tool in further management of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. At our institution, clinicians have recently expressed concern over receiving "less positive molecular results" upon switching from an extended 14 gene mutation panel (EGMP) to a 7 gene mutation panel (GMP). Our goal is to compare outcomes of these two tests in regards to the performance characteristics and clinical impact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy specimens sent for molecular studies from 2016 to 2017 were retrospectively studied...
November 29, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Carlie S Sigel
Two-thirds of neuroendocrine neoplasms arising in the human body originate from the gastrointestinal system or pancreas. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are heterogeneous, comprising both well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). The clinical presentation, molecular characteristics, and behavior are distinct for NETs and NECs. Fine-needle aspiration is an important modality for the primary diagnosis and staging of these neoplasms and can provide information of prognostic and therapeutic significance...
November 28, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Patrizia Straccia, Guido Fadda, Francesco Pierconti
OBJECTIVE: The current tools available for detecting malignant neoplasms in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are neurologic examination, followed by neuroimaging, cytology and molecular techniques. To highlight the role of cytology the diagnosis of metastatic tumors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, we present our experience using cytospin and ThinPrep liquid-based cytology (LBC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the pathological records of 8,181 cytological specimens of CSF which were diagnosed over a 17-year period...
November 23, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Shaikhali M Barodawala, Kirti Chadha, Vikas Kavishwar, Anuradha Murthy, Shamma Shetye
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the common cancers in women accounting for 7.9% of all cancers. In India it is the second commonest cancer in women. The immortality of the cancer cell and the relatively long time frame from acquisition of infection to development of cervical cancer was established. As major advancements like LBC, HPV testing were introduced in the recent years, screening has taken a new avatar, the Molecular pap!! The objectives of this study were: To compare gynecologic cytology and abnormal results with respect to conventional and LBC...
November 23, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Lester J Layfield, Magda Esebua, Jonathan Ang, Mohammed M Alnijoumi, Harijyot S Sohal, Richard D Hammer, Nitya Prabhakaran, Robert L Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Ancillary testing including immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics has become an increasingly important component for the evaluation of cytologic specimens. Ancillary testing is important not only for diagnosis but also for predictive and prognostic evaluation. While a number of substrates are appropriate for ancillary testing, cell block specimens are commonly utilized and the success of ancillary testing depends on cell-block cellularity. METHODS: Forty-six pairs of cases each fixed in both formalin and CytoLyt were each analyzed by two evaluators for overall cellularity...
November 23, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Zhuang Meng, Zhiliang Zhang, Tianying Yan, Qingfang Lin, Yu Wang, Weiyuan Huang, Yongji Huang, Zhanjie Li, Qingyi Yu, Jianping Wang, Kai Wang
Chromosome-specific identification is a powerful technique in the study of genome structure and evolution. However, there is no reliable cytogenetic marker to unambiguously identify each of the chromosomes in sugarcane ( Saccharum spp., Poaceae), which has a complex genome with a high level of ploidy and heterozygosity. In this study, we developed a set of oligonucleotide (oligo)-based probes through bioinformatic design and massive synthetization. These probes produced a clear and bright single signal in each of the chromosomes and their eight homologous chromosomes in the ancient species Saccharum spontaneum (2 n = 8 x = 64)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Takashi Murakami, Yoichi Akazawa, Noboru Yatagai, Takafumi Hiromoto, Noriko Sasahara, Tsuyoshi Saito, Naoto Sakamoto, Akihito Nagahara, Takashi Yao
BACKGROUND: Colorectal sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are considered early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway. Recent studies have shown associations of SSA/Ps with lost MLH1 expression, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and BRAF mutations. However, the molecular biological features of SSA/Ps with early neoplastic progression have not yet been fully elucidated, owing to the rarity of cases of SSA/P with advanced histology such as cytologic dysplasia or invasive carcinoma...
November 20, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Ya Xu, Ting Zhou, Wendong Yu, Neda Zarrin-Khameh
Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare highly malignant neoplasm of the soft tissue and usually occurs in the lower extremities of children and young adults. We report two cases of alveolar soft part sarcoma: a 24-year-old Latino man with a 10-cm neck mass and a 56-year-old Latino woman with a recurring thigh mass. Fine-needle aspiration and a core biopsy were performed on both, which was followed by tumor resection on the man. The smears displayed numerous loosely cohesive or single large cells with abundant granular cytoplasm, round nuclei, vesicular chromatin, and occasional prominent nucleoli...
November 20, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Tomoo Jikuzono, Aya Horikawa, Tomoko Ishikawa, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Iwao Sugitani, Takashi Inui, Osamu Ishibashi
OBJECTIVE: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), an important diagnostic tool given its simplicity, safety, and cost-effectiveness, is fast becoming a popular procedure in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Generally, cells isolated from biopsies are transferred directly to microscope slides to prepare smears for cytopathological examination; however, the technical difficulties of this procedure often cause poor reproducibility, which limits the accuracy of diagnostic results. Liquid-based cytology (LBC), in which isolated cells are collected in a fixative solution, is advantageous in that it facilitates the preparation of homogenous cytological specimens...
November 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
K Torres-Poveda, M Bahena-Román, K Delgado-Romero, V Madrid-Marina
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by a persistent infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). While most HPV infections are transient, persistent HPV infections are a significant health problem in Mexico. With an estimated HPV prevalence of 10% among women in reproductive age, approximately 25% of these women present at least a positive result in triage test, which according to previous studies is expected to be confirmed as positive CIN-2/3. The immune system has a key role in the natural history of HPV infection; alterations in the cellular immune response are responsible for the failure to eliminate HPV...
November 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
James Farrell, Mohammad Al-Haddad, Sara A Jackson, Tamas Gonda
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We determined the incremental predictive value of pancreatic cyst fluid molecular analysis to assessing malignancy risk over long term follow-up of a well-characterized cohort, given the underlying predictive value of imaging parameters routinely used to triage such patients. METHODS: Patients who lacked initial cytologic malignancy in cyst fluid and had final pathology or a follow-up period of >2 years were included. Patient outcomes determined the malignancy-free survival of patients with high-risk stigmata (HRS), worrisome features (WFs) and DNA abnormalities...
November 14, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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