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Cytology AND molecular

Huimin Liang, Aijie Chen, Xuan Lai, Jia Liu, Junrong Wu, Yiyuan Kang, Xinying Wang, Longquan Shao
BACKGROUND: The extensive biological applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in stomatology have created serious concerns about their biotoxicity. In our previous study, ZnO NPs were confirmed to transfer to the central nervous system (CNS) via the taste nerve pathway and cause neurodegeneration after 30 days of tongue instillation. However, the potential adverse effects on the brain caused by tongue-instilled ZnO NPs are not fully known. METHODS: In this study, the biodistribution of Zn, cerebral histopathology and inflammatory responses were analysed after 30 days of ZnO NPs tongue instillation...
October 19, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Giacomo Gattoni, Violetta Insolia, Graziella Bernocchi
Pulmonate gastropods provide unique opportunities to examine physiological and biochemical adaptation strategies when cellular metabolic activity is reduced. In this study, cytochemical changes in metacerebral neurons of the cerebral ganglia were investigated in the garden snail Cornu aspersum during the hibernation phase. The immunocytochemical expression of three cytoskeletal markers: microtubule-associate protein 2-like (MAP-2-li), phosphorylated form of tau-like (P-Tau-li) and heavy subunit of neurofilaments-like (NF-H-li), and of two calcium-binding proteins: calmodulin-like (CaM-li) and parvalbumin-like (PV-li) was compared in active and hibernated snails...
October 17, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Cindy Canivet, Sophie Gourgou-Bourgade, Bertrand Napoléon, Laurent Palazzo, Nicolas Flori, Pierre Guibert, Guillaume Piessen, Dominique Farges-Bancel, Jean-François Seitz, Eric Assenat, Véronique Vendrely, Stéphanie Truant, Geoffroy Vanbiervliet, Philippe Berthelémy, Stéphane Garcia, Anne Gomez-Brouchet, Louis Buscail, Barbara Bournet
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for pancreatic cancer remains poor despite diagnostic advances and treatments with new chemotherapeutic regimens. The five year survival rate remains below 3%. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new treatments to significantly improve the prognosis. In addition, there is a big gap in terms of the screening, early diagnosis and prevention of pancreatic cancer the incidence of which is increasing dramatically. METHODS: Design: the BACAP cohort is a prospective multicenter pancreatic cancer cohort (pancreatic ductal carcinoma) with clinical and multiple biological samples; Participating centers: 15 French academic and private hospitals; Study Population: any cytologically and/or histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma regardless of the stage (resectable, borderline, locally advanced or metastatic) or treatment (surgery, palliative chemotherapy, best supportive care)...
October 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Haixia Guan, Danielle Matonis, Gianluca Toraldo, Stephanie L Lee
Objectives: To examine the prevalence of genetic alterations of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor ( TSHR ) gene and sodium-iodine symporter ( NIS ) in a series of thyroid fine needle biopsy (FNB) specimens with indeterminate cytology, and to assess the correlation of the type of genetic changes with clinical features and follow-up results in the target thyroid nodule. Methods: Between February 2015 and September 2017, 388 consecutive FNBs with indeterminate cytology were evaluated for TSHR mutations and NIS gene overexpression using ThyroSeqV...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marcos Tadeu Santos, Ana Lígia Buzolin, Ricardo Ribeiro Gama, Eduardo Caetano Albino Silva, Rozany Mucha Dufloth, David Livingstone Alves Figueiredo, André Lopes Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules can be identified in up to 68% of the population. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytopathology classifies 20%-30% of nodules as indeterminate, which are often referred for surgery due to the risk of malignancy. However, histological postsurgical reports indicate that up to 84% of cases are benign, highlighting a high rate of unnecessary surgeries. We sought to develop and validate a miRNA-based thyroid molecular classifier for precision endocrinology (mir-THYpe) with both high sensitivity and high specificity, to be performed on the FNA cytology smear slide with no additional FNA...
October 15, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Zhenyi Chang, Mingna Jin, Wei Yan, Hui Chen, Shijun Qiu, Shan Fu, Jixing Xia, Yuchen Liu, Zhufeng Chen, Jianxin Wu, Xiaoyan Tang
BACKGROUND: The pollen wall, which protects male gametophyte against various stresses and facilitates pollination, is essential for successful reproduction in flowering plants. The pollen wall consists of gametophyte-derived intine and sporophyte-derived exine. From outside to inside of exine are tectum, bacula, nexine I and nexine II layers. How these structural layers are formed has been under extensive studies, but the molecular mechanisms remain obscure. RESULTS: Here we identified two osabcg3 allelic mutants and demonstrated that OsABCG3 was required for pollen development in rice...
October 11, 2018: Rice
Francesco Chiappelli
Health care is optimized when the best evidence base (BEB) is translated into policies whose effectiveness can be verified. Bioinformation disseminates BEB and is critical to translational health care. The survival of all prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including mammals, and ultimately our species, depends upon their ability to adapt to changes in their micro-environmental milieu and to the challenges of their surrounding macro-environment. Disturbances in the organism's macro-environment, such as the stressful stimuli derived from environmental changes akin to the current climate crisis, alter its physiological, cytological, biological, epigenetic and molecular microenvironment, and trigger concerted allostatic responses to regain homeostasis...
2018: Bioinformation
Hui Li, Zhi-Wei Liu, Zhi-Jun Wu, Yong-Xin Wang, Rui-Min Teng, Jing Zhuang
Tea is an important non-alcoholic beverage worldwide. Tea quality is determined by numerous secondary metabolites in harvested tea leaves, including tea polyphenols, theanine, caffeine, and ascorbic acid (AsA). AsA metabolism in harvested tea leaves is affected by storage and transportation temperature. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism in harvested tea leaves exposed to different storage and transportation temperature conditions remain unclear. Here we performed RP-HPLC to detect dynamic changes in AsA content in tea leaves subjected to high- (38 °C), low- (4 °C), or room-temperature (25 °C) treatments...
2018: Horticulture Research
Jiří Vávra, Ivan Fiala, Pavla Krylová, Adam Petrusek, Miroslav Hyliš
Microsporidia (Opisthosporidia, Microsporidia) are frequent parasites of planktonic cladocerans, including Daphnia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda). Analysis of available molecular data (ITS region and partial ssu and lsu rDNA) of these parasites indicates that many microsporidia infecting daphnids have a common ancestor and represent a large clade, which splits during evolution into a number of well supported subclades. These subclades are cytologically different, but may be most conveniently characterised by their specific ITS barcode...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Mauro Ajaj Saieg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Rachel E Simpson, Nathan J Cockerill, Michele T Yip-Schneider, Eugene P Ceppa, Michael G House, Nicholas J Zyromski, Attila Nakeeb, Mohammad A Al-Haddad, C M Schmidt
BACKGROUND: For pancreatic cysts with negative cytology, Integrated Molecular Pathology (IMP) is a malignancy risk score integrating clinical criteria with pancreatic cyst fluid DNA profiling. Aside from main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter, integrated clinical criteria are not International Consensus Guidelines High-Risk Stigmata. We predicted exclusion of clinical criteria except MPD diameter could simplify the IMP and better distinguish invasive/malignant disease. METHODS: Records of >1100 patients with IPMN were reviewed retrospectively...
October 4, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Albert Sánchez-Font, Roberto Chalela, Clara Martín-Ontiyuelo, Raquel Albero-González, Alba Dalmases, Raquel Longarón, Virginia Alonso-Espinaco, Víctor Curull, Beatriz Bellosillo, Lara Pijuan
BACKGROUND: More than 60% of patients with lung cancer are diagnosed at advanced stages. The introduction of targeted therapies requires molecular diagnosis to guide treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of performing mutational analysis with brushing specimens obtained by radial-miniprobe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) plus fluoroscopy-guided bronchoscopy in patients with peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Brushing specimens were deposited on cytological slides and were conserved in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) culture medium...
October 6, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Isabella Piga, Stefano Casano, Andrew Smith, Silvia Tettamanti, Davide Leni, Giulia Capitoli, Angela Ida Pincelli, Marcella Scardilli, Stefania Galimberti, Fulvio Magni, Fabio Pagni
An accurate diagnostic classification of thyroid lesions remains an important clinical aspect that needs to be addressed in order to avoid 'diagnostic' thyroidectomies. Among the several 'omics' techniques, proteomics is playing a pivotal role in the search for diagnostic markers. In recent years, different approaches have been used, taking advantage of the technical improvements related to mass spectrometry that have occurred. Areas covered: The review provides an update of the recent findings in diagnostic classification, in genetic definition and in the investigation of thyroid lesions based on different proteomics approaches and on different type of specimens: cytological, surgical and biofluid samples...
October 5, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Yorihiko Takase, Yoshiki Naito, Yoshinobu Okabe, Yusuke Ishida, Tomohiko Yamaguchi, Hideyuki Abe, Kazuya Murata, Takaaki Ito, Masahiko Tanigawa, Akihiko Kawahara, Hirohisa Yano, Jun Akiba
BACKGROUND: Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) has been reported to be a useful marker for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). However, INSM1 expression in endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration cytology (EUS-FNAC) has not been examined. We evaluated INSM1 expression in the cytology of cases diagnosed with PNETs. METHODS: We immunocytochemically stained INSM1 and Ki-67 in 14 PNET cases, and according to the 2017 World Health Organization criteria, 7 PNET Grade 1 (G1) cases, 4 Grade 2 (G2) cases, and 3 Grade 3 (G3)/neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) cases were identified...
October 5, 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Can Qin, Bing Wei, Zhuang Ma
Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a useful technique for the diagnosis and staging of the lung and mediastinal lesions, which is crucial for selecting treatment protocol. Under EBUS guidance, transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is widely applied for obtaining specimens for histological, cytological, and molecular evaluation. Recently, the EBUS scope designed for adults has been used in large pediatric candidates. The presence of lung masses and mediastinal lymphadenopathy in the pediatric population presents a diagnostic challenge; however, EBUS is a promising tool for pediatricians to address these challenging issues...
August 28, 2018: Endoscopic Ultrasound
Sheetal Arora, Deepshikha Rana, Mukta Pujani, Varsha Chauhan
Primary malignant spindle cell tumors are rare constituting 1.0% of breast malignancies. Spindle cell lesions occurring in soft tissues can occur in breast with overlapping morphologies. It can present as benign lesion and have inconclusive cytological findings, so easily missed if not properly dealt with. Stromal sarcoma should be diagnosed only after thorough sectioning and negative staining for p63, broad spectrum, and high molecular weight keratin. We present a case of right breast lump. Cytological features revealed fibro histiocytic lesion...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Michiko Matsushita, Satoshi Kuwamoto
BACKGROUND: SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcoma is a recently proposed entity of soft tissue tumors associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Its cytologic features have not been well described in the literature yet. CASE: A woman in her early 30s who presented with chest pain was found to have a tumor in the right chest wall. Cytologic smears revealed numerous atypical round-to-polygonal cells appearing singly or in loosely cohesive clusters. These cells had a well-defined cell border, scant-to-moderate cytoplasm, and enlarged vesicular nuclei with prominent nucleoli...
October 4, 2018: Acta Cytologica
Moritz Maas, Jens Bedke, Arnulf Stenzl, Tilman Todenhöfer
PURPOSE: Diagnosis and follow-up in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) rely on cystoscopy and urine cytology. The aim of this review paper is to give an update on urinary biomarkers and their diagnosis and surveillance potential. Besides FDA-approved markers, recent approaches like DNA methylation assays, mRNA gene expression assays and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are evaluated to assess whether replacing cystoscopy with urine markers is a potential scenario for the future...
October 3, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Ellen G East, Cody S Carter, Celina G Kleer
CONTEXT.—: Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a challenging diagnosis defined by cytologic and architectural features that carries an increased risk of subsequent carcinoma when diagnosed in isolation. In addition, ADH may secondarily involve benign breast lesions, wherein it carries variable clinical significance. OBJECTIVES.—: To review the diagnostic criteria and clinical significance of ADH in isolation and as it involves benign breast lesions, and to review the evolving literature on its molecular signature...
October 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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