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Albina Nowak, Rebekka S Giger, Pierre-Alexandre Krayenbuehl
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is the most common genetic disease in Caucasians which is characterized by an increased intestinal iron absorption, resulting into a progressive accumulation of iron in organs including liver, heart, and pancreas, leading to their progressive dysfunction. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a long-term complication of HH, which contributes to increased mortality.We evaluated the risk factors of HCC in a prospective cohort of Swiss hemochromatosis patients with a long-term follow-up...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yugo Takaki, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Junko Nishioka, Keisuke Eda, Shuichi Yatsuga, Yushiro Yamashita
RATIONALE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), among the commonest chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents, is considered a reflection of the current obesity epidemic in children and adults. This liver disease has been linked with various metabolic disorders, but not with prolactinoma (PRLoma). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 13-year-old Japanese girl manifested obesity, serum transaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase elevations, and amenorrhea. Abdominal ultrasonography showed fatty liver...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wenhao Chen, Changyi Yang, Hanqiang Chen, Baoquan Zhang
The present study aims to analyze the risk factors for metabolic bone disease (MBD) of prematurity.A total of 238 preterm infants who were born at <34 weeks of gestation and were hospitalized for at least 6 weeks in the Department of Neonatology, Fujian Maternity and Children Hospital between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2015 were enrolled in the study. Sixteen preterm infants diagnosed with MBD were selected as the case group, and 32 non-MBD preterm infants were matched 2:1 at admission into the study...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hon-Jhe Chen, Hao-Yu Yang, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Cheng-Che Shen, Ru-Yi Chen, Hsien-Chung Yu, Tzu-Lin Wang
The study aims to investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and osteoporosis.We employed a retrospective cohort study design using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Our study included 2 cohorts: 4318 patients with NAFLD and 17,272 patients without NAFLD for comparison. They were matched by sex and age on the date of enrollment between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2003. The study population in both groups was observed from the enrollment date until December 31, 2013...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kevser Oksuzoglu, Tunc Ones, Salih Ozguven, Sabahat Inanir, Halil Turgut Turoglu, Emine Bozkurtlar, Cigdem Ataizi Celikel, Tanju Yusuf Erdil
Delayed 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been associated with improved diagnostic yield in several malignancies; however, data on the use of delayed imaging in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is scarce. This study aimed to examine tumoral and background standardized uptake value (SUV) alterations in dual-phase F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging.Fifty-two HCC cases underwent dual-time-point F-FDG PET/CT examination where early and delayed images were obtained...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Romina Grazia Giancipoli, Serena Monti, Olca Basturk, David Klimstra, Mary Louise Keohan, Orazio Schillaci, Giuseppe Corrias, Peter Sawan, Lorenzo Mannelli
RATIONALE: Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare malignant vascular tumor of endothelial origin with a highly variable clinical presentation and natural history. Given its vascular origin, new therapies with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been introduced in the treatment of these patients and have shown promising results. Few reports have described the role of F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) in the evaluation of this tumor after treatment with anti-angiogenic agents...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cameron T Locklear, Pegah Golabi, Lynn Gerber, Zobair M Younossi
BACKGROUND: Various etiologies of chronic liver disease often result in cirrhosis. Beside obvious liver-related complications, cirrhosis also leads to loss of muscle mass and decreased exercise capacity. In this study, our aim was to conduct a systematic review of literature to investigate the efficacy of exercise interventions in patients with cirrhosis. METHOD: PubMed was used to perform the literature search. The mesh terms used were the following: (liver (and) cirrhosis (and) exercise or (exercise therapy))...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yizhou Jiang, Shaoyi Zhou, Gang Shen, Hua Jiang, Jing Zhang
The present study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of microwave ablation (MWA) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the treatment for unresectable hepatoblastoma in infants and children. A total of 17 patients with PRETEXT stage III and IV hepatoblastoma that was unresectable by conventional resection were included in the present study. The patients were treated with TACE, MWA, and chemotherapy. All cases were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and liver tumor biopsy before TACE procedure...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chiara Tersigni, Elisabetta Venturini, Carlotta Montagnani, Leila Bianchi, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
Among parasitic hepatic cystic lesions, the most common disease is represented by cystic echinococcosis, especially in high endemic countries. European epidemiology of cystic echinococcosis in children is very difficult to assess because of under-reporting but is increasing, because of high immigration flows from endemic countries and an increased awareness. Hydatidosis can be localized in every part of the body. The liver and lungs are the most common localizations in both children and adults. Multi-organ involvement is rarely reported in children...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
P Aiden McCormick, Dermot E Malone, James R Docherty, Clifford Kiat, Brian T Christopher, Jun Liong Chin
OBJECTIVES: One of the striking features of splenic imaging is variable heterogeneous gyriform arterial enhancement on dynamic computed tomography (CT). We speculated that these patterns of arterial enhancement may reflect changes in splenic micro-circulation related to changes in portal venous pressure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we evaluated arterial phase CT scans performed before and after liver transplantation (n=91), as this is the most effective way of alleviating portal hypertension...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Pooja Dewan, Anupriya Dixit, Sunil Gomber, Mrinalini Kotru, Basu D Banerjee, Vipin Tyagi, Rajeev K Malhotra
Bone marrow iron estimation remains the gold standard for diagnosing iron-deficiency anemia (IDA); serum ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation are routinely used as surrogate markers of IDA. However, these tests are marred by problems like poor specificity and sensitivity. Recently, hepcidin, a protein hormone synthesized in the liver and excreted in urine, has been shown to be related to iron status. We estimated the serum and urinary hepcidin levels in healthy children aged 6 to 60 months with (n=30) and without IDA (n=30)...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Ankeet Shah, Nima Nassiri, Siamak Daneshmand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of extraretroperitoneal (ERP) germ cell tumor (GCT) is a complex clinical scenario faced by urologic oncologists. This article reviews the indications and approach to management of ERP GCT masses. RECENT FINDINGS: ERP GCT management starts with chemotherapy, and for any residual masses, a careful consideration of surgical intervention versus salvage chemotherapy. Decision-making regarding residual ERP masses hinges on tumor markers, and also the anatomical location...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Jinhyung Bae, Young Sil Min, Yoonjin Nam, Hyun Seok Lee, Uy Dong Sohn
It has been described that Humulus japonicus has potential antituberculosis and anti-inflammatory effects. The antiaging activity of H. japonicus extract (HJE) was also examined not only in yeast but also in human fibroblast cells. We evaluated the protective effect of HJE on hepatotoxicity in this study. We demonstrated the expression of antioxidative enzyme and cytokines in plasma. The vehicle control group received orally administered normal saline. Acute hepatotoxicity rat model was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (30 μg/kg) and d-galactosamine (D-GalN) (500 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection...
October 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Md Saydur Rahman, Peter Thomas
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is an important transcriptions factor that binds/coactivates drug-metabolizing genes in vertebrates. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of two ARNT (ARNT-1 and ARNT-2) genes and their mRNA and protein expression in liver tissues of Atlantic croaker after co-exposure to hypoxia and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77). The full-length croaker ARNT-1 and ARNT-2 genes encode proteins of 537 and 530 amino acids, respectively, and are highly homologous to ARNT-1 and ARNT-2 genes of other vertebrates...
October 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Jianwei Lin, Yuchen Hou, Shanzhou Huang, Ziming Wang, Chengjun Sun, Zekang Wang, Xiaoshun He, Nga Lei Tam, Chenglin Wu, Linwei Wu
Exportin-T (XPOT) belongs to the RAN-GTPase exportin family that mediates export of tRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Up-regulation of XPOT indicates poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, the correlation between XPOT and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we found that high expression of XPOT in HCC indicated worse prognosis via bioinformatics analysis. Consistently, immunohistochemical staining of 95 pairs of tumors and adjacent normal liver tissues (ANLT) also showed up-regulation of XPOT...
October 18, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Fahaid Al-Hashem, Suliman Al-Humayed, Shaimaa N Amin, Samaa S Kamar, Soheir S Mansy, Sarah Hassan, Lubna O Abdel-Salam, Mohamed Abd Ellatif, Mohammed Alfaifi, Mohamed A Haidara, Bahjat Al-Ani
The potential inhibitory effect of the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory drug, metformin on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity associated with the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) axis has not been investigated before. Therefore, we tested whether metformin can protect against liver injuries including fibrosis induced by TAA possibly via the downregulation of mTOR-HIF-1α axis and profibrogenic and inflammatory biomarkers. Rats either injected with TAA (200 mg/kg; twice a week for 8 weeks) before being killed after 10 weeks (model group) or were pretreated with metformin (200 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks before TAA injections and continued receiving both agents until the end of the experiment, at Week 10 (protective group)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Feng-Yong Liu, Xin Li, Hong-Jun Yuan, Yang Guan, Mao-Qiang Wang
Background: The diagnosis and treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) play a vital role in the prognosis of patients with HCC. The purpose of our study was to evaluate angio-computed tomography (angio-CT)-guided immediate lipiodol CT (a CT scan performed immediately after transarterial chemoembolization [TACE]) in the diagnosis of potential HCCs ≤1 cm in diameter. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 31 patients diagnosed with HCCs after routine imaging (contrast-enhanced CT or magnetic resonance imaging) or pathologic examinations with undefined or undetermined tumor lesions (diameter ≤1 cm) from February 2016 to September 2016...
October 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Róbert Langer
The author concludes lessons learned from Hungary joining Eurotransplant five years ago through the more than half a century history of the Hungarian organ transplantation. The result of the stepwise evolution is that today's transplantation activity can be measured by a European benchmark. In comparison to the era before the membership, there are 40% more transplantations in the country. First the numbers of the living donor kidney transplantations significantly raised, followed by the organs transplanted from brain-dead donors: kidney, heart, pancreas, then liver and finally also lung...
October 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Marilena Durazzo, Elena Ponzo, Silvia Bonetto, Sharmila Fagoonee, Rinaldo Pellicano
Due to the progressive increase in life expectancy, the number of elderly people in the world is growing rapidly. Although there are no liver diseases specific of older age, the ageing liver shows some anatomical and physiological changes that can affect the frequency and the clinical behavior of most hepatopathies. In particular, these changes tend to cause an increased vulnerability to acute liver injury and an increased susceptibility to liver fibrosis, accounting for the predisposition to a generally more severe course of liver diseases compared to younger patients...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Medica
Ki Hoon Han
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, i.e. statins, are effective in reducing cardiovascular disease events but also in cardiac-related and overall mortality. Statins are in general well-tolerated, but currently the concerns are raised if statins may increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NOD). In this review, the possible effects of statins on organs/tissues being involved in glucose metabolism, i.e. liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and muscles, had been discussed. The net outcome seems to be inconsistent and often contradictory, which may be largely affected by in vitro experimental settings or/and in vivo animal conditions...
November 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
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