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Eliza Christopoulou, Vasilios Tsimihodimos, Theodosios Filippatos, Moses Elisaf
Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII), a small protein that resides on the surface of lipoprotein particles, is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. The inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the increased assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and the decreased reuptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) by the liver are mechanisms associating elevated serum ApoCIII levels and hypertriglyceridemia. ApoCIII concentration is high in individuals with diabetes mellitus indicating a possible positive correlation with impairment of glucose metabolism...
December 17, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Igor Nasser, Jeffrey Willardson, Renata de Mello Perez, Michel Silva Reis, Anderson de Azevedo Brito, Ingrid Ferreira Dias, Humberto Lameira Miranda
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) responses during and after circuit resistance training with 1 min. (CIR1) vs. 2 min. (CIR2) rest intervals between exercises in liver cirrhosis patients. 10 patients (7 women, 3 men) participated in 2 experimental sessions (CIR1 and CIR2) in random order. Each experimental session consisted of 6 exercises performed for 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 70% of the 10-RM load. The only difference between experimental sessions was taking either 1 min...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Shan Wu, Jian Jun Zhou, Jing Guo, Zhan Hua, Jian Chen Li, Zai Wang
Angiogenesis has a pivotal role in the growth and metastasis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Apatinib inhibits angiogenesis as a highly selective VEGFR2 inhibitor and has been used to treat advanced gastric cancer and malignancies in clinical settings. However, the efficacy of apatinib in PNETs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the antitumor efficacy of apatinib with that of the standard PNET drug sunitinib in our subcutaneous and liver metastasis models of insulinoma and non-functional PNET...
December 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Tolulope Eniola Omolekulo, Olugbenga Samuel Michael, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition has been shown to exert beneficial effects against insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Combined oral contraceptive (COC) treatment is associated with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism but the mechanisms are elusive. We therefore, hypothesized that DPP-4 inhibition ameliorates COC-induced glucose dysregulation and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation through adenosine deaminase (ADA) /xanthine oxidase (XO) /uric acid-dependent pathway. Female Wistar rats received (po) vehicle and COC (1...
December 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Keyang Xu, Shourong Liu, Xu Zhao, Xiantu Zhang, Xiaoqing Fu, Yumei Zhou, Kechen Xu, Liangbin Miao, Zhaoyi Li, Yan Li, Liang Qiao, Jianfeng Bao
Background Hyperuricemia is a recognised risk factor for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of resveratrol (RES) on the treatment of hyperuricemia-related NAFLD in rats and the underlying mechanisms. Methods NAFLD with hyperuricemia was induced in rats using high-yeast high-fat diet containing potassium oxonate. The impact of RES on liver pathology, and the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), fork-head box class O-3a (FOXO3a), and nuclear factor kappa B subunit p65 (NF-κB p65) was analysed...
December 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Maurizio Biselli, Annagiulia Gramenzi, Barbara Lenzi, Marco Dall'Agata, Monica Loreta Pierro, Giovanni Perricone, Marta Tonon, Luca Bellettato, Gennaro D'Amico, Paolo Angeli, Silvia Boffelli, Maria Elena Bonavita, Marco Domenicali, Paolo Caraceni, Mauro Bernardi, Franco Trevisani
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The electrocardiographic QT interval is frequently prolonged in patients with cirrhosis. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding further prolongs corrected QT (QTc) in patients with cirrhosis, which has been associated with increased risk of death within 6 weeks. We aimed to confirm these findings and develop a mortality risk index that incorporates QTc. METHODS: We collected from 274 patients with cirrhosis and acute gastrointestinal bleeding from any cause admitted to a hospital in Bologna, Italy from January 2001 through December 2012 (training set)...
December 14, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Savannah J McFeely, Lanxiang Wu, Tasha K Ritchie, Jashvant Unadkat
The importance of uptake transporters in determining drug disposition is increasingly appreciated. While the focus of regulatory agencies worldwide has been on the hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3, there is another isoform of the OATP sub-family, OATP2B1, which should be considered equally relevant. Unlike the other members of the OATP sub-family, OATP2B1 is expressed in multiple organs in humans, including in the intestine and the liver. Similar to other OATPs, OATP2B1 mediates the hepatic and intestinal uptake of many drugs and endogenous compounds...
December 14, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Asuncion Martinez-Anton, Delphine Gras, Arnaud Bourdin, Patrice Dubreuil, Pascal Chanez
KIT is a receptor tyrosine kinase that after binding to its ligand stem cell factor activates signaling cascades linked to biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell survival. Based on studies performed on SCF and/or KIT mutant animals that presented anemia, sterility, and/or pigmentation disorders, KIT signaling was mainly considered to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, gametogenesis, and melanogenesis. More recently, novel animal models and ameliorated cellular and molecular techniques have led to the discovery of a widen repertoire of tissue compartments and functions that are being modulated by KIT...
December 14, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Hongquan Wang, Chunhua Ding, Jing'an Wang, Xin Zhao, Shengzhen Jin, Jian Liang, Hong Luo, Dongfang Li, Rui Li, Yaoguo Li, Tiaoyi Xiao
The grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been shown to cause lethal infections in the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (C. idella). In order to investigate the immune response to GCRV infection, the full-length cDNA sequences of coagulation factor VIII (CiFVIII) and plasminogen (CiPLG) from C. idella were cloned and their involvement in the immune response was studied. The immunity factor levels in C. idella with different GCRV resistances were also analyzed. The full-length 2478 bp cDNA of CiFVIII contained an open reading frame of 1965 bp and encoded a putative polypeptide of 654 amino acid residues...
December 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kenichi Arai, Daiki Murata, Ana Raquel Verissimo, Yosuke Mukae, Manabu Itoh, Anna Nakamura, Shigeki Morita, Koichi Nakayama
A major challenge in cardiac tissue engineering is the host's immune response to artificial materials. To overcome this problem, we established a scaffold-free system for assembling cell constructs using an automated Bio-3D printer. This printer has previously been used to fabricate other three-dimensional (3D) constructs, including liver, blood vessels, and cartilage. In the present study, we tested the function in vivo of scaffold-free cardiac tubular construct fabricated using this system. Cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iCells), endothelial cells, and fibroblasts were combined to make the spheroids...
2018: PloS One
Min Suk Chae, Hyunjoon Park, Ho Joong Choi, Misun Park, Hyun Sik Chung, Sang Hyun Hong, Chul Soo Park, Jong Ho Choi, Hyung Mook Lee
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage liver disease frequently experience acute kidney injury (AKI) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have increasingly been accepted as a predictor of AKI in clinical settings. This study investigated the predictive role of intraoperative BNP levels in the early development of AKI after LDLT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients (≥19 years old) who had undergone elective LDLT from January 2011 to December 2017 were classified into the non-AKI and AKI groups according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria...
2018: PloS One
José-Daniel Aroca-Aguilar, Ana Fernández-Navarro, Jesús Ontañón, Miguel Coca-Prados, Julio Escribano
Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein with a poorly understood biological function and typically known because of its association with glaucoma. In this study, we analyzed the expression and biological activity of human myocilin in some non-ocular tissues. Western immunoblot showed the presence of myocilin in blood plasma as well as in liver and lymphoid tissues (thymus and lymph node). Quantitative PCR confirmed the expression of MYOC in these lymphoid organs and revealed that its mRNA is also present in T-lymphocytes and leukocytes...
2018: PloS One
Gary Wilk, Rosemary Braun
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with trait diversity and disease susceptibility, yet their functional properties often remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that SNPs in microRNA binding sites may disrupt gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding RNAs that bind to mRNA and downregulate the target gene. While several studies have predicted the location of SNPs in miRNA binding sites, to date there has been no comprehensive analysis of their impact on miRNA regulation...
December 17, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Mary M Flynn, Ram M Subramanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Critical Care Medicine
Richard W Wilsnack, Sharon C Wilsnack, Gerhard Gmel, Lori Wolfgang Kantor
Just as binge drinking rates differ for men and women, the predictors and consequences of binge drinking vary by gender as well. This article examines these differences and how binge drinking definitions and research samples and methods may influence findings. It also describes the relationship between age and binge drinking among men and women, and how drinking culture and environment affect this relationship. It examines gender-specific trends in binge drinking, predictors of binge drinking for men and women, and binge drinking in the context of smoking...
2018: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
Lu Liu, Xiangang Cao, Tingxin Li, Xiaohua Li
1. Catalpol possesses numerous pharmacological activities, and however, little data available for the effects of catalpol on the activity of human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. 2. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of catalpol on the main human liver CYP isoforms. In this study, the inhibitory effects of catalpol on the eight human liver CYP isoforms 1A2, 2A6, 2E1, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, 2C8, and 3A4 were investigated in human liver microsomes. 3. The results indicated that catalpol could inhibit the activity of CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9, with IC50 values of 14...
December 17, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Seung Up Kim, Beom Kyung Kim, Jun Yong Park, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Yong-Beom Park, Kwang-Hyub Han, Sang-Won Lee
Objectives Comorbidities and conventional risk factors influence the prognosis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated whether liver fibrosis burden is associated with all-cause mortality in patients with RA. Methods A total of 2812 patients with RA were retrospectively selected and reviewed. Liver fibrosis was assessed using the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) [age (years)× aspartate aminotransferase level (IU/L)/platelet count (109 /L)/√alanine aminotransferase (IU/L)]. Results The mean patient age was 51...
December 17, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Vahid Zadmajid, Sune Riis Sørensen, Ian Anthony Ernest Butts
Levantine scraper, Capoeta damascina is a candidate species for future stock assessments, conservation studies, and hatchery efforts. Herein, we documented embryonic and early larval development, from egg activation to the exogenous feeding period, using morphological and histological landmarks. Embryos were obtained by in vitro fertilization from hormonally induced wild-caught broodstock, and subsequent development was monitored at temperatures coinciding with native conditions. Embryonic development from fertilization to hatch lasted ~105-110 hr...
January 2019: Journal of Morphology
Tsuyoshi Shimamura, Nobuhisa Akamatsu, Masato Fujiyoshi, Atushi Kawaguchi, Satoshi Morita, Seiji Kawasaki, Shinji Uemoto, Norihiro Kokudo, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, Hideki Ohdan, Hiroto Egawa, Hiroyuki Furukawa, Satoru Todo
Expansion of the liver transplantation indication criteria for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been debated. Here we propose new, expanded living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) criteria for HCC patients based on a retrospective data analysis of the Japanese nationwide survey. A total of 965 HCC patients undergoing LDLT were included, 301 (31%) of whom were beyond the Milan criteria. Here, we applied the Greenwood formula to investigate new criteria enabling the maximal enrollment of candidates while securing a 5-year recurrence rate (95% upper confidence limit) below 10% by examining various combinations of tumor numbers and serum alpha-fetoprotein values, and maintaining the maximal nodule diameter at 5 cm...
December 17, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Tara L Piech, Angela B Royal, Holly Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 17, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
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