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I V Kholodenko, R V Kholodenko, A Yu Lupatov, K N Yarygin
Transplantation of solid organs, including liver, induces a number of serious complications related to immune incompatibility and requiring long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Finding the ways to inducing recipient immunological tolerance to the grafts is a top priority in organ transplantation and immunology. Along with the search for immunosupressive therapy, the development of alternative approaches to induction of immunological tolerance based on cell technologies is now in progress. In this regard, studies of the so-called spontaneous operational tolerance observed in ~20% patients after orthotopic liver transplantation is a promising trend...
August 18, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
N A Pal'chikova, V G Selyatitskaya, O I Kuz'minova, K V Pasechnaya
The glucocorticoid status and activities of ALT, AST, and tyrosine aminotransferase in the liver are studied in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in response to repeated intraperitoneal injections of mifepristone. Diabetic rats develop an increase of the blood corticosterone and liver aminotransferase levels in response to mifepristone. These results indicate that in diabetic animals the glucocorticoid hormones with high blood concentrations, increasing still more in response to mifepristone, overcome the receptor blockade, and realize their regulatory functions in hepatocytes...
August 18, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Nalini Bansal, Vivek Vij, Mukul Rastogi, Manav Wadhawan, Ajay Kumar
Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is the most virulent species of the genus Echinococcus. It causes a highly lethal helminthic disease in humans. The disease may present as hepatic mass mimicking a malignant neoplasm. Due to the vascular and neural invasion, protean clinical manifestations including Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) may be the clinical presentation of this condition. We herein report three cases of Echinococcus multilocularis; the first case presenting as multiple hepatic space-occupying lesions, second as liver mass infiltrating the nerve bundles, and the third as a hepatic mass infiltrating the large vessels including inferior vena cava and right hepatic vein presenting as BCS...
August 18, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Dina M Abo-Elmatty, Eman T Mehanna
Preeclampsia and gestational diabetes are common pregnancy disorders that may be interrelated. MIR146A rs2910164 (G/C) is a functional polymorphism that was associated with several diseases. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of rs2910164 polymorphism and its possible correlation with the incidence of preeclampsia in gestational diabetes patients. The study involved 250 pregnant women divided into 80 healthy control subjects, 85 gestational diabetes patients only, and 85 patients of gestational diabetes combined with preeclampsia...
August 18, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Carlos Martin Esquivel, Manuel Garcia, Lucas Armando, Guillermo Ortiz, Fernando Martínez Lascano, José María Foscarini
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); 66-99% of the obese population could suffer some grade of NAFLD. It can progress into cirrhosis, which is associated to hepatocellular carcinoma, and a liver transplant could be indicated. NAFLD represents the third cause of liver transplant, and it is expected to be the first by 2025. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is the most common bariatric procedure over the world. There is scant literature regarding NAFLD after SG, and there are no prospective studies published up to date...
August 18, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Akshay Shetty, Jennifer W Hsu, Paul P Manka, Wing-Kin Syn
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized nations and is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD continues to rise along with the epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic homeostasis is linked to the circadian clock (rhythm), with multiple signaling pathways in organs regulated by circadian clock genes, and recent studies of circadian clock gene functions suggest that disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including the metabolic syndrome...
August 18, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
S Sultan, S M Irfan, S M Zaidi
BACKGROUND: It is being increasingly recognised that thalassemia major patients, like intermedia, have increased propensity for thromboembolism. Deficiency of natural anticoagulants is more recently defined finding contributing to the hypercoagulable state. The aim this study is to determine natural anticoagulants levels and their correlation with maternal characteristics, haematological and biochemical markers. METHODS: This is a prospective case-control study...
August 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Allison J Judkins, Brianna C MacQueen, Robert D Christensen, Jessica Comstock, Rong Mao, Josue Flores-Daboub
A late-preterm infant with a prenatal diagnosis of non-immune hydrops was born with hypotonia, poor respiratory effort, chylothorax, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, progressive hepatic failure, and refractory pulmonary hypertension. Life support was withdrawn at 7 days of life due to multisystem organ failure. Rapid whole exome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY); each novel variant was carried by an asymptomatic parent. Reports of neonates with other AHCY mutations describe a pathology of varying severity...
August 17, 2018: Neonatology
Yongxia Zheng, Jiansheng Zhou, Xuebo Li, Guangtao Xu, Mingliang Jin, Ruilin Shen, Ruibing Su, Shuyu Zhan, Baoyue Ding, Mingguang Jia, Yuzhong Cui, Xiaojun Yu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) were considered as a promising hepatocyte source of cell therapy for liver disease due to their self-renewal and differentiation capacities, while little is known about the mechanism of LPC differentiate into hepatocytes. This study aims to explore the effect of miR-382, a member of Dlk1-Dio3 microRNA cluster, during hepatic differentiation from LPCs. METHODS: In this study, we used rat liver progenitor cell WB-F344 as LPC cell model and HGF as inducer to simulate the process of LPCs hepatic differentiation, then microRNAs were quantified by qPCR...
August 17, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jihua Fu, Chen Li, Guangli Zhang, Xin Tong, Haiwei Zhang, Jie Ding, Yingying Ma, Ru Cheng, Shanshan Hou, Shanshan An, Xin Li, Shaoxin Ma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previously, we confirmed that liver-synthesized 5-HT rather than non-liver 5-HT, acting on the 5-HT2 receptor (5-HT2R), modulates lipid-induced excessive lipid synthesis (ELS). Here, we further revealed the effects of the hepatocellular 5-HT system in diabetes-related disorders. METHODS: Studies were conducted in male ICR mice, human HepG2 cells, and primary mouse hepatocytes (PMHs) under gene or chemical inhibition of the 5-HT system, key lipid metabolism, and inflammation-related factors...
August 17, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Deepak Raj, Ming-Hsin Yang, David Rodgers, Eric N Hampton, Julfa Begum, Arif Mustafa, Daniela Lorizio, Irene Garces, David Propper, James G Kench, Travis S Young, Alexandra Aicher, Christopher Heeschen
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a disease of unmet medical need. While immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells has shown much promise in haematological malignancies, their efficacy for solid tumours is challenged by the lack of tumour-specific antigens required to avoid on-target, off-tumour effects. Switchable CAR-T cells whereby activity of the CAR-T cell is controlled by dosage of a tumour antigen-specific recombinant Fab-based 'switch' to afford a fully tunable response may overcome this translational barrier...
August 18, 2018: Gut
Yanhang Gao, Zhou Zhou, Tianyi Ren, Seung-Jin Kim, Yong He, Wonhyo Seo, Adrien Guillot, Yanhua Ding, Ruihong Wu, Shuang Shao, Xiaomei Wang, Hong Zhang, Wei Wang, Dechun Feng, Mingjiang Xu, Elaine Han, Wei Zhong, Zhanxiang Zhou, Pal Pacher, Junqi Niu, Bin Gao
OBJECTIVE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a key enzyme to detoxify acetaldehyde in the liver, exists in both active and inactive forms in humans. Individuals with inactive ALDH2 accumulate acetaldehyde after alcohol consumption. However, how acetaldehyde affects T-cell hepatitis remains unknown. DESIGN: Wild-type (WT) and Aldh2 knockout ( Aldh2 -/- ) mice were subjected to chronic ethanol feeding and concanavalin A (ConA)-induced T-cell hepatitis. Effects of acetaldehyde on T-cell glucose metabolism were investigated in vitro...
August 18, 2018: Gut
Esther Paulo, Dongmei Wu, Peter A Hecker, Yun Zhang, Biao Wang
Numerous studies have suggested that beige adipocyte abundance is correlated with improved metabolic performance, but direct evidence showing that beige adipocyte expansion protects animals from the development of obesity is missing. Previously, we have described that the Liver kinase b1 (Lkb1) regulates beige adipocyte renaissance in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) through a class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4)-dependent mechanism. This study investigates the physiological impact of persistent beige adipocyte renaissance in energy homeostasis in mice...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Xuedong Wang, Yuansi Zheng, Yan Ma, Liyang Du, Fangyu Chu, Haidong Gu, Randy A Dahlgren, Yanyan Li, Huili Wang
β-Diketone antibiotics (DKAs) are widely used in human and veterinary medicine to prevent and treat a large variety of infectious diseases. Long-term DKA exposure to zebrafish can result in lipid metabolism disorders and liver function abnormalities. Based on our previous miRNA-seq analyses, miR-144 and miR-125b were identified as target genes regulating lipid metabolism. DKA-exposure at 12.5 and 25 mg/L significantly increased the expressions of miR-144 and miR-125b. The expression levels for the two miRNAs exhibited an inverse relationship with their lipid-metabolism-related target genes (ppardb, bcl2a, pparaa and pparda)...
August 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Abdulwahid M Salih, Fahmi H Kakamad, Rawezh Q Salih, Hawbash M Rahim, Imad J Habibullah, Hunar A Hassan, Tomas M Mikael
INTRODUCTION: Hydatid diseases are cystic parasitic infestation caused by Echinococci. The most frequently affected organs are liver and lung. The aim of this study is to report a rare case of hydatid disease of the thigh. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 34-year-old female presented with mild, continuous lower abdominal pain. Concomitantly, she was complaining of gradually increasing swelling of the left thigh for about 9 month duration. On examination, there was tender, 3 × 4 cm, suprapubic mass with firm non-tender 10 × 17 cm swelling at the lateral aspect of left thigh...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jaclyn F Hechtman, Ghassan K Abou Alfa, Zsofia K Stadler, Diana L Mandelker, Michael H A Roehrl, Ahmet Zehir, Efsevia Vakiani, Sumit Middha, David S Klimstra, Jinru Shia
Mutations of Hepatocyte-Nuclear-Factor-1-Homeobox-A gene and loss of Liver-Fatty-Acid-Binding-Protein are well documented in hepatocellular adenoma. However, the role of Hepatocyte-Nuclear-Factor-1-Homeobox-A mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma remains to be determined. In this study, all hepatocellular neoplasms evaluated by our institutional Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutational Profiling of Actionable Clinical Targets assay or the Cancer Genome Atlas sequencing, and cases reported in the literature, were queried for Hepatocyte-Nuclear-Factor-1-Homeobox-A mutations...
August 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Kaled Diab, Suhas Kochat, James McClintic, Heather L Stevenson, Steven C Agle, Kelly Olino, Douglas S Tyler, Kimberly M Brown
BACKGROUND: Image-guided microwave ablation (MWA) is a technically demanding procedure, involving advanced visual-spatial perception skills. This study sought to create and evaluate a low-cost model and training curriculum for open ultrasound-guided liver tumor MWA. METHODS: Simulated tumors were created, implanted into bovine livers, and visualized by ultrasound. A high-fidelity abdominal model was constructed, with a total cost of $30. Experienced physicians in MWA performed simulated ablations and evaluated the model...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Qingyun Yang, Peng Wang, Su Wang, Yashuo Wang, Shuoqi Feng, Shicui Zhang, Hongyan Li
C-type lectins (CTLs) have a diverse range of functions including cell-cell adhesion, immune response to pathogens and apoptosis. Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), also known as hepatic lectin, a member of CTLs, was the first animal lectin identified, yet information regarding it remains rather limited in teleost. In this study, we identified a putative protein in zebrafish, named as the zebrafish hepatic lectin (Zhl). The zhl encoded a typical Ca2+ -dependent carbohydrate-binding protein, and was mainly expressed in the liver in a tissue specific fashion...
August 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shaffer R S Mok, David L Diehl, Amitpal S Johal, Harshit S Khara, Bradley D Confer, Prashant R Mudireddy, H Lester Kirchner, Zong-Ming E Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As EUS-guided liver biopsy (EUS-LB) becomes more widely used, further studies have investigated ways to improve tissue yields. Use of a heparin primed needle may lead to less clotting of blood within the needle, improve tissue recovery, and decrease fragmentation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate wet suction using a heparin primed needle for EUS-LB. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-over study evaluating wet suction for EUS-LB in parenchymal liver disease...
August 15, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Xilin Li, Zemin Wang, James E Klaunig
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the western countries. The histological spectrum of NAFLD includes simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Nuclear receptors are a large group of ligand-dependent transcription factors that sense the environmental and endogenous changes and regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes. Accumulating evidence has suggested that a dysregulation of nuclear receptors in NAFLD may effect on the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous chemicals in the liver...
August 15, 2018: Toxicology
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