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Torben Hoffmeister, Dirk Schwenke, Nadine Wachsmuth, Oliver Krug, Mario Thevis, William Byrnes, Walter Schmidt
Cobaltous ions (Co2+ ) stabilize HIFα, increase endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) production, and may, therefore, be used as performance-enhancing substance. To date, the dosage necessary to stimulate erythropoiesis is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the minimum dosage necessary to increase erythropoietic processes. In a first double-blind placebo-controlled study (n=5), single oral Co2+ dosages of 5 mg (n=6) and 10 mg (n=7) were administered to healthy young men. Cubital venous blood and urine samples were collected before and up to 24 h after Co2+ administration...
August 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Hiran Thabrew, Karolina Stasiak, Sarah E Hetrick, Stephen Wong, Jessica H Huss, Sally N Merry
BACKGROUND: Long-term physical conditions affect 10% to 12% of children and adolescents worldwide; these individuals are at greater risk of developing psychological problems, particularly anxiety and depression. Access to face-to-face treatment for such problems is often limited, and available interventions usually have not been tested with this population. As technology improves, e-health interventions (delivered via digital means, such as computers and smart phones and ranging from simple text-based programmes through to multimedia and interactive programmes, serious games, virtual reality and biofeedback programmes) offer a potential solution to address the psychological needs of this group of young people...
August 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Solène M Laville, Marie Metzger, Bénédicte Stengel, Christian Jacquelinet, Christian Combe, Denis Fouque, Maurice Laville, Luc Frimat, Carole Ayav, Elodie Speyer, Bruce M Robinson, Ziad A Massy, Sophie Liabeuf
AIMS: Drug prescription is difficult to manage in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the prevalence and determinants of inappropriate drug prescriptions (whether contraindications or inappropriately high doses) with regard to kidney function in patients with CKD under nephrology care. We also assessed the impact of the equation used to estimate GFR on the prevalence estimates. METHODS: The CKD-REIN cohort includes 3033 outpatients with CKD (eGFR between 15-60 ml/min per 1...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Lijuan Chai, Kun Zhou, Shaoxia Wang, Han Zhang, Na Fan, Jie Li, Xiaofeng Tan, Limin Hu, Xiang Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Psoralen and bakuchiol are the main active compounds found in the traditional Chinese medicine Psoralea corylifolia L., and have been used to treat osteoporosis. This study aims to investigate the anti-osteoporosis effects of these two compounds using osteoclasts precursor differentiation and bone absorption assays in vitro. METHODS: Primary mouse osteoclasts precursor cells were induced by M-CSF (macrophage colony stimulating factor) plus RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand) in vitro...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Vincenzo De Luca, Gianfranco Spalletta, Renan P Souza, Ariel Graff, Luciana Bastos-Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Camargos Bicalho
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 influencing the age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, the AAO of dementia varies from 40 to 90 years. Usually, AD patients who develop symptoms before the age of 65 are considered as early-onset AD (EOAD). However, considering the heterogeneity of the AD onset, the definition of late-onset AD (LOAD) cannot rely on an arbitrary cut-off. Thus, we aim to validate the anticipation effect of the APOE e4 allele in LOAD...
August 15, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Annika W M Goorsenberg, Julia N S d'Hooghe, Daniel M de Bruin, Inge A H van den Berk, Jouke T Annema, Peter I Bonta
BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an endoscopic treatment for severe asthma targeting airway smooth muscle (ASM) with radiofrequent energy. Although implemented worldwide, the effect of BT treatment on the airways is unclear. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique, based on near-infrared light, that generates high-resolution cross-sectional airway wall images. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and feasibility of OCT in severe asthma patients and determine acute airway effects of BT by OCT and compare these to the untreated right middle lobe (RML)...
August 15, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Chong Chen, Haining Tan, Jiaqi Bi, Zheng Li, Tianhua Rong, Youxi Lin, Liang Sun, Xingye Li, Jianxiong Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a result of anomalous development of vertebrae and is frequently associated with somitogenesis malformation. Although noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been recently determined to be involved in the pathogenesis of CS, the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks in CS remain largely unknown. METHODS: Sequencing was conducted to explore the ncRNA expression profiles in rat embryos (gestation day 9) following vitamin A deficiency (VAD) (n = 9 for the vitamin A deficiency-induced congenital scoliosis (VAD-CS) group and n = 4 for the control group)...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
George Drosos, Fotini Ampatzidou, Pantelis Sarafidis, Theodoros Karaiskos, Athanasios Madesis, Afroditi K Boutou
BACKGROUND: Most studies evaluating predictors of renal replacement therapy (RRT) following cardiac surgery use arbitrary defined limits of preoperative serum creatinine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative renal function using either estimated-glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) derived using Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) or serum creatinine alone as a predictor for RRT after cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative data of all patients who underwent an elective, urgent, or emergency cardiac surgery between 2012 and 2016 in a single center were analyzed in order to identify multivariate parameters determining the need for RRT after surgery...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Chun-Wen Cheng, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Yi-Hsien Hsieh, Wen-Ling Liao, Jia-Ching Shieh, Chung-Chin Yao, Huei-Jane Lee, Po-Ming Chen, Pei-Ei Wu, Chen-Yang Shen
Background /Aims: Recent studies of microRNA (miRNA) involvement in tumorigenesis have indicated the critical role of these non-coding small RNAs in malignant transformation, but the prognostic role, if any, of miRNAs in breast cancer remains undetermined. Therefore, we assessed the prognostic significance of microRNA-9 (miR-9) and miR-221 in breast cancer toward the goal of understanding the contribution(s) of these miRNAs to cancer cell stemness. METHODS: The level of each of miR-9 and miR-221 in 206 paired laser capture microdissected tumor cells and non-tumor cells was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR)...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hadi Tabani, Saeed Nojavan, Michal Alexovič, Ján Sabo
Monitoring of target analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, endogenous compounds) present in biological samples usually requires a preliminary step toward analyte isolation from surrounding matrix and enrichment for trace analysis. Evident developments have been recently made to introduce novel "green" analytical approaches (which keep the requirements of Green Analytical Chemistry - GAC) being effective, economical, eco-friendly, and amenable to hyphenated analytical instrumentations. Modern membrane-based extraction techniques provide the smart options against classical sample preparations e...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Nitzan Kutnowski, Hagay Shmuely, Idit Dahan, Fania Shmulevich, Geula Davidov, Anat Shahar, Jerry Eichler, Raz Zarivach, Boaz Shaanan
Protein-DNA interactions are highly dependent on salt concentration. To gain insight into how such interactions are maintained in the highly saline cytoplasm of halophilic archaea, we determined the 3-D structure of VNG0258H/RosR, the first haloarchaeal DNA-binding protein from the extreme halophilic archaeon Halobactrium salinarum. It is a dimeric winged-helix-turn-helix (wHTH) protein with unique features due to adaptation to the halophilic environment. As ions are major players in DNA binding processes, particularly in the halophilic environments, we investigated the solution structure of the ionic envelope and located anions in the first shell around the protein in the crystal using anomalous scattering...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Lin Yang, Cui Ma, Lixin Zhang, Min Zhang, Fei Li, Chen Zhang, Xiufeng Yu, Xiaoying Wang, Siyu He, Daling Zhu, Yinli Song
15-Lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) have been considered as latent mediators of diverse biological processes including cancer. However, their functions in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) are unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether 15-LOX-2/15(S)-HETE is involved in the proliferation and migration of A549 cells and to identify the signaling pathways that participate in this process. We used immunohistochemistry to identify the expression levels of 15-LOX-2 in lung cancer tissue samples...
August 12, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Esra Nurten Yer, Mehmet Cengiz Baloglu, Sezgin Ayan
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) play a key role for regulation of the changes during different stress conditions including salinity, drought, heavy metal and extreme temperature. Molecular based studies on the response mechanisms of forest trees to abiotic stresses started in 2006 when Populus trichocarpa genome sequence was completed as a model tree species. In recent years, bioinformatic analyzes have been carried out to determine functional gene regions of tree species. In this study, sHsp, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp90 and Hsp100 gene family members were identified in poplar genome...
August 12, 2018: Gene
Chun-Yuan Chen, Rainer B Lanz, Christopher J Walkey, Wen-Hsuan Chang, Wange Lu, Deborah L Johnson
RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes a variety of small untranslated RNAs involved in transcription, RNA processing, and translation. RNA pol III and its components are altered in various human developmental disorders, yet their roles in cell fate determination and development are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Maf1, a transcriptional repressor, promotes induction of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into mesoderm. Reduced Maf1 expression in mESCs and preadipocytes impairs adipogenesis, while ectopic Maf1 expression in Maf1-deficient cells enhances differentiation...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Michelle Meyer, Asuka Yoshida, Palaniappan Ramanathan, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Peter L Collins, James E Crowe, Siba Samal, Alexander Bukreyev
Comparative immune response profiling is important for selecting next-generation vaccines. We comprehensively evaluated the antibody responses from a panel of nine respiratory vaccines against Ebola virus (EBOV) derived from human and avian paramyxoviruses expressing EBOV glycoprotein (GP). Most vaccines were protective in guinea pigs but yielded antibody repertoires that differed in proportion targeting key antigenic regions, avidity, neutralizing antibody specificities, and linear epitope preferences. Competition studies with monoclonal antibodies from human survivors revealed that some epitopes in GP targeted for neutralization were vector dependent, while EBOV-neutralizing titers correlated with the response magnitude toward the receptor-binding domain and GP1/GP2 interface epitopes...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Chie Kudo-Saito, Akiko Ishida, Yuji Shouya, Koji Teramoto, Tomoyuki Igarashi, Ryoko Kon, Kenji Saito, Chihiro Awada, Yamato Ogiwara, Masayoshi Toyoura
Immune dysfunction is a strong factor in the resistance of cancer to treatment. Blocking immune checkpoint pathways is a promising approach to improve anti-tumor immunity, but the clinical efficacies are still limited. We previously identified follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) as a determinant of immune dysfunction mediated by mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and immunoregulatory cells. Here, we demonstrate that blocking FSTL1 but not immune checkpoint pathways significantly suppresses cancer progression and metastasis in several mouse tumor models with increased MSCs...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Miling Wang, Xianzun Tao, Mathieu D Jacob, Clayton A Bennett, J J David Ho, Mark L Gonzalgo, Timothy E Audas, Stephen Lee
Amyloid bodies (A-bodies) are inducible membrane-less nuclear compartments composed of heterogeneous proteins that adopt an amyloid-like state. A-bodies are seeded by noncoding RNA derived from stimuli-specific loci of the rDNA intergenic spacer (rIGSRNA). This raises the question of how rIGSRNA recruits a large population of diverse proteins to confer A-body identity. Here, we show that long low-complexity dinucleotide repeats operate as the architectural determinants of rIGSRNA. On stimulus, clusters of rIGSRNA with simple cytosine/uracil (CU) or adenosine/guanine (AG) repeats spanning hundreds of nucleotides accumulate in the nucleolar area...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Dana A Burow, Sophie Martin, Jade F Quail, Najwa Alhusaini, Jeff Coller, Michael D Cleary
Tissue-specific mRNA stability is important for cell fate and physiology, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We found that zygotic mRNA stability in Drosophila correlates with codon content: optimal codons are enriched in stable transcripts associated with metabolic functions like translation, while non-optimal codons are enriched in unstable transcripts, including those associated with neural development. Bioinformatic analyses and reporter assays revealed that similar codons stabilize or destabilize mRNAs in the nervous system and other tissues, but the link between codon content and stability is attenuated in the nervous system...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
A R Tellegen, I Rudnik-Jansen, M Beukers, A Miranda-Bedate, F C Bach, W de Jong, N Woike, G Mihov, J Thies, B P Meij, L B Creemers, M A Tryfonidou
Low back pain, related to degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD), affects millions of people worldwide. Clinical studies using oral cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have shown beneficial effects, although side-effects were reported. Therefore, intradiscal delivery of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be an alternative treatment strategy to halt degeneration and address IVD-related pain. In the present study, the controlled release and biologic potency of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, from polyesteramide microspheres was investigated in vitro...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Michelle N Chamoun, Matthew J Sullivan, Glen C Ulett
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cause the majority of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Quantitation of bacteriuria (the number of bacteria in urine) is important for diagnostic approaches and in diverse research applications. Most UPEC strains express hemolysin, the expression of which has been correlated with the severity of UTI in murine models of infection. In this study, we sought to develop and optimise a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assay for enumeration of hemolysin-positive UPEC in urine...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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