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Annisa Shui Lam Mak, Kwok Yin Leung
Craniofacial abnormalities are common. It is important to examine the fetal face and skull Epub ahead of print during prenatal ultrasound examinations because abnormalities of these structures may indicate the presence of other, more subtle anomalies, syndromes, chromosomal abnormalities, or even rarer conditions, such as infections or metabolic disorders. The prenatal diagnosis of craniofacial abnormalities remains difficult, especially in the first trimester. A systematic approach to the fetal skull and face can increase the detection rate...
July 3, 2018: Ultrasonography
Ragip Pala, Fahrettin Beyaz, Mehmet Tuzcu, Besir Er, Nurhan Sahin, Vedat Cinar, Kazim Sahin
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of dietary CoQ10 on serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, and HSP expression in the liver and slow-twitch muscles (soleus and gastronemius deep portion) of exercise-trained rats. METHODS: A total of 42 Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups: 1) Control, 2) Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), 3) Chronic Exercise (CE), 4) CE + CoQ10, 5) Acute Exercise (AE), and 6) AE + CoQ10. The rats were subjected to the running test 5 days a week for 6 weeks after which CoQ10 was administered via the diet...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Cho In-Ho, Kang Byung-Woo, Park Yun-Jae, Lee Han-Joo, Park Sok, Lee Namju
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether ginseng berry extract improves blood circulation by regulating vasodilator expression in exposed to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-exposed endothelial cells and muscle cells. METHODS: Nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP levels in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and A7r5 cells exposed to ginseng berry extract were investigated. Based on the in vitro results, healthy participants were treated with ginseng berry extract for 4 weeks and then a non-invasive vascular screening device was used to confirm the improvement of blood circulation...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Revital Kariv, Dan Turner, Joseph Rosenblum, Vered Morad, Nir Zigman, Mira Friedman, Gili Focht, Oren Leder, Malka Avitzour, Iris Goren
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are becoming a significant cause for chronic long term complex morbidity, particularly among adolescents and young adults. IBD patients require multidisciplinary management and considerable health resources. Recent advances and developments in the diagnostics and therapeutic options require identification and tight monitoring of these patients at both hospital and community level for better management and care. AIMS: To establish at Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) a dedicated registry for inflammatory bowel disease patients for long term monitoring in order to optimize care, better use of health resources and to promote high quality research...
October 2018: Harefuah
Goran Micevic, Durga Thakral, Meaghan McGeary, Marcus Bosenberg
The aim of this study is to determine the significance of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 or CD274) methylation in relation to PD-L1 expression and survival in melanoma. Despite the clinical importance of therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint in melanoma, factors regulating PD-L1 expression, including epigenetic mechanisms, are not completely understood. In this study, we examined PD-L1 promoter methylation in relation to PD-L1 expression and overall survival in melanoma patients. Our results suggest that DNA methylation regulates PD-L1 expression in melanoma, and we identify the key methylated CpG loci in the PD-L1 promoter, establish PD-L1 methylation as an independent survival prognostic factor, provide proof-of-concept for altering PD-L1 expression by hypomethylating agents, and uncover that PD-L1 methylation is associated with an interferon-signaling transcriptional phenotype...
October 21, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
E Brooke Lerner, Jonathan R Studnek, Nicole Fumo, Anjishnu Banerjee, Igli Arapi, Lorin R Browne, Daniel G Ostermayer, Stacy Reynolds, Manish I Shah
BACKGROUND: Although all emergency departments (ED) should be ready to treat children, some may have illnesses or injuries that require higher-level pediatric resources that are not available at all hospitals. There are no national guidelines for EMS providers about when to directly transport children to hospitals with higher-level pediatric resources, with the exception of severe trauma. Variability exists in EMS protocols about when children warrant transport to hospitals with higher-level pediatric care...
October 21, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
J W Varni, A M Delamater, K K Hood, J K Raymond, N T Chang, K A Driscoll, J C Wong, J P Yi-Frazier, E K Grishman, M A Faith, S D Corathers, J C Kichler, J L Miller, E M Doskey, V P Aguirre, R W Heffer, D P Wilson
AIM: To test the measurement properties of the revised and updated Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.2 Diabetes Module originally developed in Type 1 diabetes in youth with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The PedsQL 3.2 Diabetes Module and PedsQL Generic Core Scales were administered in a field test study to 100 young people aged 9-25 years with Type 2 diabetes. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the factor structure of the items. RESULTS: The 15-item Diabetes Symptoms Summary Score and 12-item Type 2-specific Diabetes Management Summary Score were empirically derived through factor analysis...
October 21, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Yukiko Matsuo, Tsutomu Yoshida, Kazuya Yamashita, Yukitoshi Satoh
BACKGROUND: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a useful cytopathological method, and LBC lung adenocarcinoma specimens may be used for genetic analysis in the near future. In the current study, the authors determined whether LBC specimens can be used for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from 3 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines that were fixed in LBC preservation solution using 2 protocols (one for cultured cells and one for tissues) of a DNA extraction kit...
October 21, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
Norio Hanafusa, Ken Tsuchiya, Kosaku Nitta
The concentration of sodium in dialysis fluid, a major determinant of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure, plays a major role in the sodium balance in end-stage renal disease patients. A low dialysate sodium concentration (DNa) reduces interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and blood pressure and might help ameliorate endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. However, low DNa can also increase the incidence of hypotensive episodes and muscle cramps. Sodium profiling, as typically prescribed in which the DNa is ramped up from above 140 mEq/L to nonphysiological levels, might reduce hypotension in patients with hemodynamic instability but at the cost of the consequences of hypernatremia...
October 21, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Anroop Nair, Mohamed Aly Morsy, Shery Jacob
Preclinical Research & Development Appropriate translation and determination of the maximum recommended starting dose in human is a vital task in new drug development and research. Allometric scaling is the most frequently used approach for dose extrapolation based on normalization of dose-to-body surface area. Misinterpretation of allometric dose conversion and safety factor application can lead to major problems in calculating maximum recommended safe starting dose in first-in-human clinical trials. Therefore, dose translation always necessitates careful consideration of body surface area, pharmacological, physiological and anatomical factors, pharmacokinetic parameters, metabolic function, receptor, and life span...
October 21, 2018: Drug Development Research
Chris Bailey, Lisa C Richardson, Claudia Allemani, Audrey Bonaventure, Rhea Harewood, Angela R Moore, Sherri L Stewart, Hannah K Weir, Michel P Coleman
BACKGROUND: The lifetime risk of developing leukemia in the United States is 1.5%. There are challenges in the estimation of population-based survival using registry data because treatments and prognosis vary greatly by subtype. The objective of the current study was to determine leukemia survival estimates in the United States from 1995 to 2009 according to subtype, sex, geographical area, and race. METHODS: Five-year net survival was estimated using data for 370,994 patients from 43 registries in 37 states and in 6 metropolitan areas, covering approximately 81% of the adult (15-99 years) US population...
October 21, 2018: Cancer
Christina Raae Hansen, Stephen Byrne, Denis O'Mahony, Patricia M Kearney, Laura J Sahm
PURPOSE: Older people are at risk of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) due to polypharmacy arising from multi-morbidity. Despite available explicit criteria to reduce PIP, it is highly prevalent. Whilst community pharmacists have the required knowledge to help reduce PIP, they are not currently engaged with the problem. This study explores the views of community pharmacists on their potential involvement in reducing PIP and determines the challenges to its implementation. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Ireland...
October 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Mojtaba Amiri, Ali Mohammad Haji Shabani, Shayessteh Dadfarnia, Sodeh Sadjadi
In the present study, for the first time, the magnetic graphene oxide was simultaneously functionalized and reduced with the aim of imidazole-based L-histidine amino acid (rGO/Fe3 O4 -histidine). The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The synthesized rGO/Fe3 O4 -histidine nanosheets were implied for solid phase extraction of ultra-trace amounts of Zn2+ , Cu2+ , and Mn2+ from biological samples prior to ICP-OES determination...
October 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Anna M Mazor, Alina M Mateo, Lyudmila Demora, Elin R Sigurdson, Elizabeth Handorf, John M Daly, Allison A Aggon, Penny R Anderson, Stephanie E Weiss, Richard J Bleicher
PURPOSE: Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is standard for T1-T2 tumors, but early trials excluded breast cancers > 5 cm. This study was performed to assess patterns and outcomes of BCT for T3 tumors. METHODS: We reviewed the National Cancer Database (NCDB) for noninflammatory breast cancers > 5 cm, between 2004 and 2011 who underwent BCT or mastectomy (Mtx) with nodal evaluation. Patients with skin or chest wall involvement were excluded. Patients having clinical T3 tumors were analyzed to determine outcomes based upon presentation, with those having pathologic T3 tumors, subsequently assessed, irrespective of presentation...
October 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Tong Wu, Laith R Sultan, Jiawei Tian, Theodore W Cary, Chandra M Sehgal
PURPOSE: Early diagnosis of triple-negative (TN) breast cancer is important due to its aggressive biological characteristics, poor clinical outcomes, and limited options for therapy. The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of machine learning with quantitative ultrasound image features for the diagnosis of TN breast cancer. METHODS: Ultrasonic and clinical data of 140 surgically confirmed breast cancer cases were analyzed retrospectively for the diagnosis of TN and non-TN (NTN) subtypes...
October 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Pankaj Kumar Singh, Om Silakari
To determine the kinase inhibitory potential of natural products that could be utilized in lung cancer therapy in the near future, a pharmacophore-based activity profiling protocol using parallel pharmacophore-based virtual screening of ZINC-a natural product database-was employed. The work presented here is based on the previously explored fact that pharmacophore-based parallel screening is a reliable in silico protocol to predict the possible biological activities of any compound, or any compound library, by screening it with a number of pharmacophore models...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Lifang He, Zhijun Bao, Kui Zhang, Danting Yang, Bingbing Sheng, Rui Huang, Ting Zhao, Xiaochen Liang, Xingjie Yang, Annan Yang, Cheng Zhang, Ping Cui, Juan Antonio Zapien, Haibo Zhou
A ratiometric probe is described for the fluorometric determination of Cu(II) ions based on their quenching effect on the luminescence of dually-emitting quantum dots (QDs). ZnS QDs were doped with Mn(II) and subsequently modified with mercaptopropionic acid to give the QD probe which consists of a  sole fluorophore but has two emission peaks (at 430 and 590 nm under 310 nm excitation, respectively). On addition of Cu(II) ions, the 590 nm band is quenched while the 430 nm band exhibits a little change...
October 20, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Giacomina Brunetti, Gabriele D'Amato, Mariangela Chiarito, Apollonia Tullo, Graziana Colaianni, Silvia Colucci, Maria Grano, Maria Felicia Faienza
BACKGROUND: Bone remodeling is a lifelong process due to the balanced activity of osteoclasts (OCs), the bone-reabsorbing cells, and osteoblasts (OBs), and the bone-forming cells. This equilibrium is regulated by numerous cytokines, but it has been largely demonstrated that the RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin and Wnt/β-catenin pathways play a key role in the control of osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, respectively. The pro-osteoblastogenic activity of the Wnt/β-catenin can be inhibited by sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1)...
October 20, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Melissa A Little, Robert C Klesges, Zoran Bursac, Jennifer P Halbert, Jon Ebbert, Gerald W Talcott, Benny Weksler
PURPOSE: To determine the characteristics associated with cancer survivors which indicate continued cigarette smoking at or around the time of cancer diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 631 survivors were recruited in four cancer centers in Memphis, TN, between March 2015 and June 2016. To increase the probability of accurate reporting, surveys were conducted anonymously. A total of 112 respondents reported they were current smokers and 202 reported they were former smokers (n = 314), who comprised the sample...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Ignazio G Vetrano, Luca Maria Sconfienza, Domenico Albano, Vito Chianca, Vittoria Nazzi
Macrodystrophia lipomatosa, a hamartomatous enlargement of soft tissues leading to gigantism of a part or a whole extremity, generally affects the territory of distribution of a single nerve. In some cases, this condition may cause an entrapment neuropathy. We report the clinical, radiological, and surgical findings of a patient with isolated non-syndromic macrodactyly and giant median nerve presenting recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this case, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) supported the presence of fibrohamartomatous infiltration, determining an enlargement of the median nerve and consequently an increased susceptibility to compression damage...
October 20, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
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