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Daniel C Louie, Jamie Phillips, Lioudmila Tchvialeva, Sunil Kalia, Harvey Lui, Wei Wang, Tim K Lee
Determining the optical polarization properties of a skin lesion is a proposed method to differentiate melanoma from other skin lesions. We developed an in vivo Stokes polarimetry probe that fires a laser of known polarization at the skin and measures the Stokes parameters of the backscattered light in one shot. From these measured Stokes parameters, we can calculate the degree of polarization (DOP). Through testing on rough skin phantoms, a correlation between backscattered DOP and skin roughness was identified for both linear and circular input polarization, the latter of which was found to be more useful...
December 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Seung Min Jung, Youngkyun Kim, Juryun Kim, Hyerin Jung, Hyoju Yi, Yeri Alice Rim, Narae Park, Seung Ki Kwok, Sung Hwan Park, Ji Hyeon Ju
PURPOSE: Sodium chloride (NaCl) has been proposed as a driving factor in autoimmune diseases through the induction of pathogenic CD4+ T helper cells that produce interleukin-17 (Th17 cells). This study investigated the effects of NaCl on inflammatory arthritis in mice and humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice were fed a normal or high-salt diet ad libitum , and clinical and histologic features of arthritis were evaluated. The proportion of Th17 cells in the spleens of CIA mice fed a normal or high-salt diet was evaluated by flow cytometry, and the expression of IL-17 in joints and intestines was determined by immunohistochemical staining...
January 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Pi Liu, Luhong Zhu, Guohui Zou, Huajing Ke
PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the anti-pancreatic fibrosis effects of matrine in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid was administrated to rats to establish a pancreatic fibrosis model. Rats were divided into four groups: Control, Sham, Model, and Matrine (n=8). Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson staining, and Azan staining were performed to evaluate pancreatic fibrosis. Expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen I in pancreatic tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining...
January 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Bun Kim, Byung Chang Kim, Jeongseon Kim, Hyun Jin Oh, Kum Hei Ryu, Bum Joon Park, Dae Kyung Sohn, Chang Won Hong, Kyung Su Han
PURPOSE: Prior abdomino-pelvic (AP) surgery makes colonoscopy difficult and can affect bowel preparation quality. However, bowel preparation quality has been found to vary according to prior AP surgery type. We examined the relationship of prior AP surgery type with bowel preparation quality in a large-scale retrospective cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the health screening cohort of the National Cancer Center, 12881 participants who underwent screening or surveillance colonoscopy between June 2007 and December 2014 were included...
January 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Kee Soo Ha, Jae Young Choi, Se Yong Jung, Han Ki Park
PURPOSE: Details on the hemodynamic differences among Fontan operations remain unclear according to respiratory and cardiac cycles. This study was undertaken to investigate hemodynamic characteristics in different types of Fontan circulation by quantification of blood flow with the combined influence of cardiac and respiratory cycles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients [10 atriopulmonary connections (APC), 13 lateral tunnels (LT), and 12 extracardiac conduits (ECC)] were evaluated, and parameters were measured in the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava (IVC), hepatic vein (HV), baffles, conduits, and left and right pulmonary artery...
January 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Xin Cai Xu, Wen Bin Zhang, Chun Xing Li, Hua Gao, Qi Pei, Bo Wei Cao, Tie Han He
PURPOSE: Helicobacter pylori (HP) -infected gastric cancer (GC) is known to be a fatal malignant tumor, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its proliferation, invasion, and migration remain far from being completely understood. Our aim in this study was to explore miR-1915 expression and its molecular mechanisms in regulating proliferation, invasion, and migration of HP -infected GC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine miR-1915 and receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) expression in HP -infected GC tissues and gastritis tissues, as well as human gastric mucosal cell line GES-1 and human GC cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN45...
January 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Hai Li, Bo Hu, Zhe Guo, Xueqing Jiang, Xinyu Su, Xiaoyi Zhang
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate correlations between uridine glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) -161 single nucleotide polymorphism C to T (C>T) and the occurrence of cardiotoxicity in Chinese breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing epirubicin/cyclophosphamide-docetaxel (EC-D) adjuvant chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 427 BC patients who had underwent surgery were consecutively enrolled in this prospective cohort study. All patients were scheduled to receive EC-D adjuvant chemotherapy regimen, and they were divided into UGT2B7 -161 CC (n=141), UGT2B7 -161 CT (n=196), and UGT2B7 -161 TT (n=90) groups according to their genotypes...
January 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Caleigh M Gerow, Noreen Rapin, Maarten J Voordouw, Melanie Elliot, Vikram Misra, Sonu Subudhi
Many viruses that cause serious and often fatal disease in humans have spilled over from bats. Recent evidence suggests that stress may enhance virus shedding by bats increasing the possibility of transmission to other species. To understand the reasons for spillover it is therefore important to determine the molecular pathways that link stress to virus reactivation and shedding in bats. We recently isolated and characterized a gammaherpesvirus (Eptesicus fuscus herpesvirus, EfHV) autochthonous to North American big brown bats...
December 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Quoc C Tran, Merrilyn Banks, Thi N D Do, Danielle Gallegos, Mary Hannan-Jones
AIM: Low-dietary intake is a common problem and cause of malnutrition during hospitalisation. This study aims to determine the current dietary intake and food sources of hospitalised adults in Ho Chi Minh City. METHODS: Participants were adult patients from six general public hospitals in a multi-site survey undertaken in 2016. Dietary intakes for all foods consumed in the previous day were collected via interview using the 24 hours recall method. Nutritional status was assessed using Subjective Global Assessment or BMI...
December 16, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Yiting Xu, Xiaojing Ma, Xiaoping Pan, Xingxing He, Yufei Wang, Yuqian Bao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Serum adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is closely correlated to metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a typical feature of IR in the liver. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum A-FABP levels and NAFLD. METHODS: The study enrolled 728 subjects with normal glucose tolerance from communities. Serum A-FABP levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
December 16, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Yifan Meng, Gaoli Fang, Xiangdong Wang, Xiaohong Song, Kuiji Wang, Hongfei Lou, Wenyu She, Long Qin, Mei Lv, Tao Zhang, Tiejun Yuan, Yanli Tao, Xun Meng, Luo Zhang, Chengshuo Wang
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the recurrence risk of sinonasal inverted papillomas (SNIPs), based on a staging system developed according to the originating site of SNIP. METHODS: A total of 200 patients with SNIP were enrolled, and a staging system was developed based on the originating sites and corresponding recurrence rates of tumor in the patients. In the verification phase, 675 patients with SNIPs were enrolled as above, and the originating sites of the SNIPs were confirmed by an endoscopic sinus surgery...
December 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Nancy Lee, Rachel P Spearry, Carolyn E Rydyznski, A John MacLennan
Expression of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) receptor essential ligand binding subunit, CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), is induced in motor neurons and skeletal muscle following peripheral nerve lesion. We previously found muscle CNTFRα promotes motor neuron axon regeneration post-lesion. Both nerve lesion and CNTF administration activate motor neuron signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor implicated in axon growth, suggesting CNTF receptors may contribute to the lesion-induced STAT3 activation...
December 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kaylah Curtis, Christopher J Stewart, Meghan Robinson, David L Molfese, Savannah N Gosnell, Thomas R Kosten, Joseph F Petrosino, Richard De La Garza, Ramiro Salas
The gut microbiota has recently gained attention as a possible modulator of brain activity. A number of reports suggest that the microbiota may be associated with neuropsychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder, autism, and anxiety. The gut microbiota is thought to influence the brain via vagus nerve signaling, among other possible mechanisms. The insula processes and integrates these vagal signals. To determine if microbiota diversity and structure modulate brain activity, we collected fecal samples and examined insular function using resting state functional connectivity (RSFC)...
December 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Cécile Lorrain, Karen Cristine Gonçalves Dos Santos, Hugo Germain, Arnaud Hecker, Sébastien Duplessis
Rust fungi (Pucciniales) are the largest group of plant pathogens and represent one of the most devastating threats to agricultural crops worldwide. Despite the economic importance of these highly specialized pathogens, many aspects of their biology remain obscure largely because rust fungi are obligate biotrophs. The rise of genomics and advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have presented new options for identifying candidate effector genes involved in pathogenicity mechanisms of rust fungi. Transcriptome analysis and integrated bioinformatics tools have led to the identification of key genetic determinants of host susceptibility to infection by rusts...
December 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Nadezhda G Gumanova, Alexander D Deev, Alexander Y Kots, Svetlana A Shalnova
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key regulators of vascular function. Abnormal NO signaling is linked to various cardiovascular diseases. We studied associations between circulating levels of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrite and nitrate (NOx), and total and cardiovascular mortality in a prospective 8-year follow-up cohort study in 1869 patients aged over 55 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) regression models were adjusted for multiple risk-related variables...
December 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Alireza Akhbardeh, Hersh Sagreiya, Ahmed El Kaffas, Jürgen K Willmann, Daniel L Rubin
PURPOSE: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEUS) has expanded the diagnostic potential of ultrasound by enabling real-time imaging and quantification of tissue perfusion. Several perfusion models and curve fitting methods have been developed to quantify the temporal behavior of tracer signal and standardize perfusion quantification. While the least-squares approach has traditionally been applied for curve-fitting, it can be inadequate for noisy and complex data. Moreover, previous research suggests that certain perfusion models may be more relevant depending on the organ or tissue imaged...
December 16, 2018: Medical Physics
Jennifer L Walsh
Research is needed to determine targets for interventions to increase pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model has not been tested for PrEP use among men who have sex with men (MSM). Men and transgender women and men were surveyed at a community event in the Midwest in 2016 (N = 476, 60% White, Mage  = 35). New measures assessed PrEP knowledge, attitudes, stigma, descriptive and subjective norms, and intentions, and participants reported on PrEP use...
December 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Lina Liu, Fu Chen, Shunyi Qin, Jifei Ma, Liuan Li, Tianming Jin, Ruili Zhao
Sixty Kunming mice were randomly assigned into three groups. Mice in a control group were fed a basal diet, while mice in AFB1 group and AFB1-Se group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 250 μg/kg AFB1 or the basal diet supplemented with 250 μg/kg AFB1 and 0.2 mg/kg selenium as selenium-enriched yeast, respectively. On day 30 of the experiment, growth performance, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) contents in serum, and cytochrome P3a11 (Cyp3a11), IL-2, IFN-γ, and GSH-Px1 mRNA levels in liver were determined...
December 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Gorazd Žibret
Street dust (SD) acts as a sink and a source of atmospheric particulate matter, which is especially significant in urban environments. World studies of natural and anthropogenic impacts on the elemental composition of SD are generally limited to specific areas or case studies. The objectives of this study are to determine the impacts of different anthropogenic atmospheric dust emitters and natural factors on the chemical composition of SD, and to define sources of variance in elemental composition of SD, temporal variations and geochemical associations of elements on large number of samples, collected in different time periods, anthropogenic environments and geological settings...
December 15, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Isabella Veríssimo Nader Haddad, Bárbara de Sá-Haiad, Lygia Dolores Ribeiro de Santiago-Fernandes, Silvia Rodrigues Machado
Perfect flowers of Maytenus obtusifolia have partial sterility of pollen grains, resulting in collapsed and developed free microspores. However, the cellular events resulting in partial male sterility have not been determined. In pistillate flowers of this species, male sterility is related to the premature programmed cell death (PCD) in tapetum and sporogenic cells. The process occurs through autophagy via macroautophagy and massive autophagy and is associated with sporophytic cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)...
December 15, 2018: Protoplasma
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