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Liquid Liquid extraction

Hadi Tabani, Saeed Nojavan, Michal Alexovič, Ján Sabo
Monitoring of target analytes (e.g., pharmaceuticals, endogenous compounds) present in biological samples usually requires a preliminary step toward analyte isolation from surrounding matrix and enrichment for trace analysis. Evident developments have been recently made to introduce novel "green" analytical approaches (which keep the requirements of Green Analytical Chemistry - GAC) being effective, economical, eco-friendly, and amenable to hyphenated analytical instrumentations. Modern membrane-based extraction techniques provide the smart options against classical sample preparations e...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Alice Ameline, Camille Richeval, Jean-Michel Gaulier, Jean-Sébastien Raul, Pascal Kintz
Designer benzodiazepines emerged as recreational drugs and are available via the Internet without control and are found in the form of falsified (fake) medicines. For some of them, limited information concerning their effects, their toxicity and their detection in bio fluids are available in the literature. For others, nothing has been published, as in the case for flunitrazolam (FNTZ). In order to gain preliminary data on its elimination parameters in urine and to investigate its metabolism, one of the authors ingested one pink tablet bought on the Internet, after confirming the absence of other compounds and agreement with the labeled dosage (0...
August 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Svetlana E Soboleva, Evgeniya E Burkova, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Dmitrii V Bulgakov, Natalia I Menzorova, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
It was proposed that most biological processes are performed by different protein complexes. In contrast to individual proteins and enzymes, their complexes usually have other biological functions, and their formation may be important system process for the expansion of diversity and biological functions of different molecules. Identification and characterization of embryonic components including proteins and their multiprotein complexes seem to be very important for an understanding of embryo function. We have isolated and analyzed for the first time a very stable multiprotein complex (SPC; approximately 1100 kDa) from the soluble fraction of extracts of the sea urchin embryos...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Marianne A Mahrouse
Therapeutic drug monitoring of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) has a great impact in blood pressure control in patient with heart failure, hepatic and renal impairment. To provide an efficient tool for drug assessment in plasma, UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of benazepril hydrochloride (BNZ), fosinopril sodium (FOS), captopril (CAP) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in human plasma samples. Solid phase extraction was applied for sample preparation using OASIS® hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced reversed phase sorbents cartridges...
August 14, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Sarah C W S E Franco de Oliveira, Alexandre D Zucoloto, Carolina D R de Oliveira, Edna M M Hernandez, Ligia V G Fruchtengarten, Tiago F de Oliveira, Mauricio Yonamine
This work describes a simple approach to overcome challenges in emergency toxicological analysis, using liquid-liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD). A rapid procedure has been developed, for the extraction and detection of 19 analytes from the following drug classes: analgesics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and drugs of abuse. These substances are relevant in the context of emergency toxicology in Brazil. The method has been validated according to international guidelines by establishing parameters such as lower limit of quantification, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision...
August 14, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Bernabé L Rivas, Bruno F Urbano, Julio Sánchez
The polymeric materials have presented a great development in adsorption processes for the treatment of polluted waters. The aim of the current review is to present the recent developments in this field of study by examining research of systems like functional water-soluble polymers and water-soluble polymer-metal complexes coupled to ultrafiltration membranes for decontamination processes in liquid-liquid phase. Noticing that a water-soluble polymer can be turned into insoluble compounds by setting a crosslinking point, connecting the polymer chains leading to polymer resins suitable for solid-liquid extraction processes...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Aiyuan Ma, Xuemei Zheng, Song Li, Yihong Wang, Shan Zhu
Metallurgical slag and dust (MSD) from lead and zinc smelting, steel dust and galvanized steel scrap are important secondary sources of zinc and other valuable metals. This paper describes the production feasibility and rationality of a cleaner zinc recovery process using MSD and a hydrometallurgical method. It was found that the addition of CH3 COONH4 to a NH3 -H2 O system promotes zinc extraction, and 83.76% of zinc could be dissolved and recovered from the MSD under the following conditions: total ammonia concentration of 5 mol l-1 , stirring speed of 300 r...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Chunying Li, Jingjing Zhang, Chunjian Zhao, Lei Yang, Wenyan Zhao, Hongwei Jiang, Xueting Ren, Weiran Su, Yuzheng Li, Jiajing Guan
Volatile essential oils (EOs), non-volatile rutin (RU), quercetin (QU), kaempferol (KA) and isorhamnetin (IS) were effectively extracted and isolated from seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves by ionic liquid-based ultrasound/microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation extraction (ILUMASDE). After optimization by response surface methodology, EOs, RU, QU, KA and IS were separated under the following optimum conditions: an ionic liquid of 1.0 M 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazole bromine salt ([C4mim]), liquid/solid ratio of 12 ml g-1 , extraction time of 34 min, microwave power of 540 W and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
H Z Hazrina, M S Noorashikin, S Y Beh, S H Loh, N N M Zain
Cloud point extraction (CPE) is a separation and preconcentration of non-ionic surfactant from one liquid phase to another. In this study, Sylgard 309 and three different types of additives for CPE, namely CPE-Sylgard, CPE-Sylgard-BMIMBr and CPE-Sylgard-GLDA, are investigated to extract methylphenol from water samples. The methylphenols are well separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile : water; 60 : 40 (v/v) and detection at 260 nm...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Tian-Tian Zhang, Chao-Yang Zheng, Ting Hu, Jian-Guo Jiang, Jing-Wen Zhao, Wei Zhu
Ilex latifolia Thunb is a kind of herbal tea and widely consumed as a functional tea beverage in Asian countries. In this study, polyphenols were extracted from I. latifolia and the major compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), then the effect on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage foam cell formation was investigated. Results showed that the polyphenols could significantly inhibit ox-LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation and suppress lipid droplet accumulation and cholesterol uptake in RAW 264...
February 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Zunlai Sheng, Jiahong Zhao, Ishfaq Muhammad, Ying Zhang
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), using aqueous ethanol as the solvent, was firstly applied to extract phenolic compounds from Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits (T. chebula fruits). In this study, ethanol concentration (%), ultrasonic intensity (W/cm2), particle diameter (mm), extraction temperature (°C), ultrasonic time (min), liquid-solid ratio (mL/g) and extraction cycle were investigated by single-factor experiment and then optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The optimized result for UAE was 68% ethanol concentration, ultrasonic intensity of 3...
2018: PloS One
Kalliopi I Pappa, Polyxeni Christou, Amarildo Xholi, George Mermelekas, Georgia Kontostathi, Vasiliki Lygirou, Manousos Makridakis, Jerome Zoidakis, Nicholas P Anagnou
The available therapeutic approaches for cervical cancer can seriously affect the fertility potential of patient; thus, there is a pressing requirement for less toxic and targeted therapies. The membrane proteome is a potential source of therapeutic targets; however, despite the significance of membrane proteins in cancer, proteomic analysis has been a challenging task due to their unique biochemical properties. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient membrane protein enrichment protocol, and to the best of our knowledge, to compare for the first time the expression pattern of membrane proteins of one normal cell line, HCK1T, and three cervical cancer cell lines, C33A, a human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative cell line, and two HPV-positive cell lines, SiHa (HPV16+) and HeLa (HPV18+)...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Cathy Muste, Kevin G Owens
Current literature shows a gap for methods which can identify yeast sub-species (strains or serovars) in samples where there are no viable cells remaining. Presented here is a technique for the analysis of yeast supernatant, including solid phase extraction, data-dependent acquisition liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and two chemometric methods to identify and classify yeast strains. Five strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were successfully identified in various stages of growth. In addition, peptide/protein identification was performed, without the need for additional data acquisition...
August 13, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Paris Ning, Ronald Soong, Wolfgang Bermel, Daniel Lane, Myrna J Simpson, André J Simpson
Many natural and environmental samples contain combinations of liquids, gels, and solids, yet quantification in the intact state and across multiple phases is highly challenging. Comprehensive multiphase nuclear magnetic resonance (CMP-NMR) combines all the capabilities of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS), with the addition of full solids power handling, permitting all phases (i.e., mixtures of liquids, gels, and solids) to be studied and differentiated in intact samples without pre-treatment or extraction...
August 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Junhou Hui, Yin Gu, Yuanshou Zhu, Yanjing Chen, Shu-Juan Guo, Sheng-Ce Tao, Yan Zhang, Peng Liu
A pipette-actuated capillary array comb (PAAC) system operated on a smartphone-based hand-held device has been successfully developed for the multiplex detection of bacteria in a "sample-to-answer" manner. The PAAC consists of eight open capillaries inserted into a cylindrical plastic base with a piece of chitosan-modified glass filter paper embedded in each capillary. During the sample preparation, a PAAC was mounted into a 1 mL pipette tip with an enlarged opening and was operated with a 1 mL pipette for liquid handling...
August 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Koel Saha, Poulami Dwibedi, Ankita Ghosh, Jaya Sikder, Sudip Chakraborty, Stefano Curcio
The primary focus of this work was to recover lignin and investigate the structural changes in sugarcane bagasse after pretreatment with ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]oAc). 90% lignin recovery was achieved while bagasse was treated with [EMIM]oAc at 140 °C, 120 min reaction time and 1:20 bagasse to the ionic liquid ratio (w/w). The impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on bagasse was confirmed by qualitative analysis of untreated and pretreated bagasse. Scanning electron microscopy analysis exhibited the porous and irregular structure of bagasse after pretreatment...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Willy Yee, Ruzanna Abdul-Kadir, Leng May Lee, Benson Koh, Ying Shi Lee, Heng Yee Chan
In this work, a simple and inexpensive physical lysis method using a cordless drill fitted with a plastic pellet pestle and 150 mg of sterile sea sand was established for the extraction of DNA from six strains of freshwater microalgae. This lysis method was also tested for RNA extraction from two microalgal strains. Lysis duration between 15 and 120 s using the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer significantly increased the yield of DNA from four microalgalstrains ( Monoraphidium griffithii NS16, Scenedesmus sp...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Dulce Morales, Guillermo Ramirez, Armando Herrera-Arellano, Jaime Tortoriello, Miguel Zavala, Alejandro Zamilpa
Current antiobesity and antidiabetic tools have been insufficient to curb these diseases and frequently cause side effects; therefore, new pancreatic lipase and α -glucosidase inhibitors could be excellent aids for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and characterize the chemical compounds with the highest degree of inhibitory activity of these enzymes, contained in a Ludwigia octovalvis hydroalcoholic extract. Chemical purification was performed by liquid-liquid separation and column chromatography...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jee Young Kim, Thien T P Dao, Kwangho Song, Sait Byul Park, Hyeri Jang, Min Kyoung Park, Soo Ueng Gan, Yeong Shik Kim
Annona muricata L., known as graviola, is an evergreen plant of the tropical regions and is a rich source of natural products. Graviola has various biological activities, and it is best known for its anticancer activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of crude graviola extract in vitro on breast cancer cells; in particular, we aimed to identify an agent against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We used the TNBC MDA-MB-231 cell line as the experimental model and the ER(+) non-TNBC MCF-7 breast cancer cell line as the control...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Mina Salehi, Ahmad Moieni, Naser Safaie
The microbial fermentation is considered as the potential source for large-scale production of paclitaxel. Since co-cultivation/mixed fermentation strategy has been reported as a yield enhancement strategy for paclitaxel production, investigation of fungal endophyte response to plant culture medium, plant cell extract (CE) and medium filtrate (MF) of plant cell suspension culture in terms of growth and paclitaxel production is interesting. In this study, 35 endophytic fungi were isolated from Taxus baccata and Corylus avellana grown in Iran...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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