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Burn mice

Christopher R Clark, Makayla Maile, Patrick Blaney, Stefano R Hellweg, Anna Strauss, Wilaiwan Durose, Sambhawa Priya, Juri Habicht, Michael B Burns, Ran Blekhman, Juan E Abrahante, Timothy K Starr
New therapeutic targets for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) are critically needed. Our laboratory recently performed an insertional mutagenesis screen in mice to identify novel CRC driver genes and, thus, potential drug targets. Here, we define Transmembrane 9 Superfamily 2 (TM9SF2) as a novel CRC oncogene. TM9SF2 is an understudied protein, belonging to a well conserved protein family characterized by their nine putative transmembrane domains. Based on our transposon screen we found that TM9SF2 is a candidate progression driver in digestive tract tumors...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roohi Vinaik, Mile Stanojcic, Marc G Jeschke
Burns result in generalized catabolism, lipolysis, and hyperinflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome, a mediator of hyperinflammation, is upregulated in burn patients' adipose tissue within 7 days post-burn. However, its role during the acute phase is unknown. Here, wild-type (WT) and NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3-/- ) mice were exposed to 25% TBSA scald burn. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated greater liver macrophage infiltration in NLRP3-/- yet decreased protein expression of NLRP3 components, ER stress, and apoptosis...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Y Takayama, Makoto Tominaga
Primary sensory neurons detect potentially dangerous environmental situations via many "sensor" proteins located on the plasma membrane. Although receptor-type cation channels are thought to be the major sensors in sensory neurons, anion channels are also important players in the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we showed that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) interacts with anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also called TMEM16A) in primary sensory neurons and that this interaction enhanced TRPV1-mediated pain sensation...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Entesar Hussein Ali, Sinan Saad Adnan
The presence of Necrotic tissue is one of the major problems that effect healing of burn wounds. This study was designed to fined the effectiveness of collagenase versus Mebo ointment on removal of necrotic tissue of burns .Twenty mice randomly assigned and divided into four groups. For group 1 burn wounds were treated with Collagenase ointment only, group 2 burn wounds were treated with Mebo ointment, group 3 burn wounds were treated with white Vaseline alone, group 4 burn wounds were considered as control and left without treatment...
October 10, 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
Ming-Hsiang Chang, Yu-Ping Hsiao, Chia-Yen Hsu, Ping-Shan Lai
Wound infection extends the duration of wound healing and also causes systemic infections such as sepsis, and, in severe cases, may lead to death. Early prevention of wound infection and its appropriate treatment are important. A photoreactive modified gelatin (GE-BTHE) was synthesized by gelatin and a conjugate formed from the 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and the 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Herein, we investigated the photocurable polymer solution (GE-BTHE mixture) containing GE-BTHE, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), chitosan, and methylene blue (MB), with antimicrobial functions and photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for wound dressing...
October 5, 2018: Nanomaterials
Nadine Beckmann, Amanda M Pugh, Charles C Caldwell
Burn patients have a high risk of sepsis-related mortality even after surviving the initial injury. Immunosuppression increases the risk of sepsis after burn injury, as does the disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, which allows the translocation of bacteria and bacterial products into the circulation. The integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier is largely maintained by the intestinal microbiota. Burn injury has been reported to result in significant changes in the intestinal microbiome composition...
2018: PloS One
Lisa Wrba, J Josephine Ohmann, Philipp Eisele, Shinjini Chakraborty, Sonja Braumüller, Christian K Braun, Bettina Klohs, Anke Schultze, Heike von Baum, Annette Palmer, Markus Huber-Lang, Rebecca Halbgebauer
Dysfunction of the gut-blood barrier plays an important role in many diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhagic shock (HS) or burn injury. However, little is known about gut barrier dysfunction after hemodynamically instable polytrauma (PT). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of PT and HS on remote intestinal damage and barrier dysfunction, especially regarding the role of Zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) as an important tight junction protein.Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either PT (thorax trauma, closed head injury, soft tissue injury and distal femoral fracture), 60 min of pressure-controlled HS (30 ± 5 mmHg), or PT+HS, or sham procedures...
October 4, 2018: Shock
Jian Sun, Wei Huang, Shuo-Fei Yang, Xiao-Pei Zhang, Qing Yu, Zhi-Qing Zhang, Jin Yao, Ke-Ran Li, Qin Jiang, Cong Cao
VEGF binding to VEGFR2 leads to VEGFR2 endocytosis and downstream signaling activation to promote angiogenesis. Methods: Using genetic strategies, we tested the requirement of α subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gαi1/3) in the process. Results: Gαi1/3 are located in the VEGFR2 endocytosis complex (VEGFR2-Ephrin-B2-Dab2-PAR-3), where they are required for VEGFR2 endocytosis and downstream signaling transduction. Gαi1/3 knockdown, knockout or dominant negative mutation inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2 endocytosis, and downstream Akt-mTOR and Erk-MAPK activation...
2018: Theranostics
Anna B Sheremet, Naylia A Zigangirova, Egor S Zayakin, Sergei I Luyksaar, Lydia N Kapotina, Ludmila N Nesterenko, Natalie V Kobets, Alexander L Gintsburg
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cause of high mortality in burn, immunocompromised, and surgery patients. High incidence of antibiotic resistance in this pathogen makes the existent therapy inefficient. Type three secretion system (T3SS) is a leading virulence system of P. aeruginosa that actively suppresses host resistance and enhances the severity of infection. Innovative therapeutic strategies aiming at inhibition of type three secretion system of P. aeruginosa are highly attractive, as they may reduce the severity of clinical manifestations and improve antibacterial immune responses...
2018: BioMed Research International
Erika Hoppela, Tove J Grönroos, Anne M Saarikko, Tomi V Tervala, Susanna Kauhanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Katri Kivinen, Pauliina Hartiala
Background: Fat grafting is commonly used when treating soft-tissue defects. However, much of the basic biology behind fat transfer is still uncovered. Adipocytes can be divided into energy storing white and energy burning brown adipose cells. It is now well known, that also adult humans have metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) within white adipose tissue (WAT). Previously our group showed that transfer of metabolically inactive WAT into a new environment increased the metabolic activity of the fat grafts to resemble the activity in the recipient site and that different WAT depots have variation in the metabolic activity...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Oressia Zalucki, Lachlan Harris, Tracey J Harvey, Danyon Harkins, Jocelyn Widagdo, Sabrina Oishi, Elise Matuzelski, Xuan Ling Hilary Yong, Hannes Schmidt, Victor Anggono, Thomas H J Burne, Richard M Gronostajski, Michael Piper
Understanding the migration of newborn neurons within the brain presents a major challenge in contemporary biology. Neuronal migration is widespread within the developing brain but is also important within the adult brain. For instance, stem cells within the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus of the adult rodent brain produce neuroblasts that migrate to the olfactory bulb and granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, respectively, where they regulate key brain functions including innate olfactory responses, learning, and memory...
October 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Keisuke Nishiwaki, Shimpo Aoki, Manabu Kinoshita, Tomoharu Kiyosawa, Yoshitaka Suematsu, Shinji Takeoka, Toshinori Fujie
Stem cell transplantation is expected to be an effective early-phase treatment for deep burn injuries and intractable ulcers. Localizing and proliferating stem cells on the lesion utilizing engineered scaffolds is important for this treatment. In this study, we demonstrated in situ transplantation of adipose-tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) organized on free-standing porous polymer ultrathin films (referred to as "porous nanosheets") to a skin defect model in diabetic mice. Porous nanosheets were prepared by a combination of micro-gravure coating with macrophase separation of poly(d,l-lactic acid) and polystyrene under a roll-to-roll process and solvent etching process with cyclohexane...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Claire J Foldi, Darryl W Eyles, John J McGrath, Thomas H J Burne
Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes in offspring, including autism and schizophrenia. In the current study we investigated the behaviour of young (3 month-old; Control), middle aged (12-15 month-old; APA1) and old (24 month-old; APA2) C57BL/6J sires and their adult offspring. Male and female mice were tested at 10 weeks of age on a behavioural test battery including the elevated plus-maze, hole board, light/dark emergence, forced swim test, novelty-suppressed feeding, and for prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response...
September 27, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Rachel M Genova, Kacie J Meyer, Michael G Anderson, Matthew M Harper, Andrew A Pieper
Neprilysin (NEP), an ectoenzyme that modulates inflammation by degrading neuropeptides, was recently identified in the human corneal epithelium. The cornea expresses many NEP substrates, but the function of NEP in homeostatic maintenance and wound healing of the cornea is unknown. We therefore investigated the role of this enzyme under naive and injured conditions using NEP-deficient (NEP-/- ) and wild type (WT) control mice. In vivo ocular surface imaging and histological analysis of corneal tissue showed no differences in limbal vasculature or corneal anatomy between naive NEP-/- and WT mice...
September 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francisco Lucas A Batista, Luiza M G Lima, Izamar A Abrante, José Ismael F de Araújo, Francisca Leidivania A Batista, Izabel A Abrante, Erlândia A Magalhães, Daniele R de Lima, Maria da Conceição L Lima, Brenda Silva do Prado, Luiz F W G Moura, Maria Izabel F Guedes, Maria Kueirislene A Ferreira, Jane Eire Silva Alencar de Menezes, Sacha Aubrey A R Santos, Francisco Rogênio S Mendes, Renato A Moreira, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Adriana R Campos, Francisco Ernani A Magalhães
Neem fruit (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) are popularly used to treat infections, diarrhea, fever, bronchitis, skin diseases, infected burns and hypertension. Although the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of A. indica has already been investigated in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice, the current research is the first to report the evaluation of the capacity of A. indica fruit ethanolic extract (EtFrNeem) in acute pain attenuation using the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an alternative model to the use in rodents...
September 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Anita Verma, Drusilla L Burns
Development of recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccines has been hindered by a lack of stability of the vaccines associated with spontaneous deamidation of asparagine (Asn) residues of the rPA antigen during storage. In this study, we explored the role that two deamidation-prone Asn residues located directly adjacent to the receptor binding site of PA, Asn713 and Asn719 , play in the stability of rPA-based anthrax vaccines. We modified these residues to glutamine (Gln) and generated rPA(N713Q/N719Q), since Gln would not be expected to deamidate on a time scale relevant to vaccine storage...
September 15, 2018: Vaccine
Peter Bannerman, Travis Burns, Jie Xu, Laird Miers, David Pleasure
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167573.].
2018: PloS One
Britani N Blackstone, Jennifer M Hahn, Kevin L McFarland, Danielle M DeBruler, Dorothy M Supp, Heather M Powell
Engineered skin (ES) offers many advantages over split-thickness skin autografts for the treatment of burn wounds. However, ES, both in vitro and after grafting, is often significantly weaker, less elastic and more compliant than normal human skin. Biomechanical properties of ES can be tuned in vitro using electrospun co-axial (CoA) scaffolds. To explore the potential for coaxial scaffold-based ES use in vivo, two CoA scaffolds were fabricated with bioactive gelatin shells and biodegradable synthetic cores of polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL), and compared with gelatin monofilament scaffolds...
September 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Brenda J Curtis, Jill A Shults, Devin M Boe, Luis Ramirez, Elizabeth J Kovacs
Cutaneous burn injury is one of the most devastating injuries one can obtain with tissue damage extending beyond the skin wound to distal organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and lungs. Multiple organ failure is a leading cause of death after burn injury resulting in excessive systemic and localized inflammation directly contributing to end organ damage. We postulated that the gut-liver-lung inflammatory axis underscores multiple organ failure in the context of burn injury and is hyper-activated when ethanol intoxication precedes burn...
September 11, 2018: Alcohol
Bhagwat V Alapure, Yan Lu, Mingyu He, Chih-Chang Chu, Hongying Peng, Filipe Muhale, Yue-Liang Brewerton, Bruce A Bunnell, Song Hong
Severe burns are some of the most challenging problems in clinics and still lack ideal modalities. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) incorporated with biomaterial coverage of burn wounds may offer a viable solution. In this report, we seeded MSCs to a biodegradable hybrid hydrogel, namely ACgel, that was synthesized from unsaturated arginine-based poly(ester amide) (UArg-PEA) and chitosan derivative. MSC adhered to ACgels. ACgels maintained a high viability of MSCs in culture for 6 days. MSC seeded to ACgels presented well in third-degree burn wounds of mice at 8 days post-burn (dpb) after the necrotic full-thickness skin of burn wounds was debrided and filled and covered by MSC-carrying ACgels...
September 14, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
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