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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083103/long-term-stress-and-concomitant-marijuana-smoke-exposure-affect-physiology-behavior-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#1
Kitti Rusznák, Kata Csekő, Zsófia Varga, Dávid Csabai, Ágnes Bóna, Mátyás Mayer, Zsolt Kozma, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Boldizsár Czéh
Marijuana is a widely used recreational drug with increasing legalization worldwide for medical purposes. Most experimental studies use either synthetic or plant-derived cannabinoids to investigate the effect of cannabinoids on anxiety and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to mimic real life situations where young people smoke cannabis regularly to relax from everyday stress. Therefore, we exposed young adult male NMRI mice to daily stress and concomitant marijuana smoke for 2 months and investigated the consequences on physiology, behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081965/analysis-of-hippocampal-dependent-learning-and-memory-behaviour-in-mice-lacking-nfix-from-adult-neural-stem-cells
#2
Oressia Zalucki, Danyon Harkins, Lachlan Harris, Thomas H J Burne, Richard M Gronostajski, Michael Piper
OBJECTIVE: The active place avoidance task (APA) is a behavioural task used to assess learning and memory in rodents. This task relies on the hippocampus, a region of the cerebral cortex capable of generating new neurons from neural stem cells. In this study, to gain further insight into the behavioural phenotype of mice deficient in the transcription factor Nfix, a gene expressed by adult neural stem cells, we examined learning and memory parameters from the APA task that were not published in our original investigation...
August 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081003/tweak-fn14-signals-mediate-burn-wound-repair
#3
Jing Liu, Yale Liu, Lingling Peng, Juxue Li, Kunyi Wu, Linlin Xia, Jiawen Wu, Sijia Wang, Xuening Wang, Qilu Liu, Weihui Zeng, Yumin Xia
Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) acts by engaging with fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) to regulate inflammatory responses, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling, which are central in the repair processes of wounds. This study aims to explore the potential role of the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in the healing of cutaneous burn wounds. Third-degree burns were introduced in the wild-type and Fn14-deficient BALB/c mice, followed by evaluation of wound areas and histological changes. The downstream cytokines including growth factors were also examined in lesional skin...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075242/evaluation-of-the-immune-responses-following-co-administration-of-pilq-and-type-b-flagellin-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-the-burn-mouse-model
#4
Sima Bakht Azad, Iraj Nikokar, Sobhan Faezi, Soheila Rasooly, Mehdi Mahdavi
Considering the increased antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the evaluation of immune response against the antigens of this bacterium seems necessary. In this study, the protective efficacy and immunological properties of P. aeruginosa recombinant PilQ (r-PilQ) and type b-flagellin (FLB) proteins was evaluated in the burn mouse model of infection. The inbred BALB/c mice were immunized with r-PilQ and FLB antigens. To investigate the type of induced immune response, sera were analyzed by ELISA for total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a isotypes...
July 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067987/failed-progenitor-specification-underlies-the-cardiopharyngeal-phenotypes-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#5
Burcu Guner-Ataman, Juan Manuel González-Rosa, Harsh N Shah, Vincent L Butty, Spencer Jeffrey, Maryline Abrial, Laurie A Boyer, C Geoffrey Burns, Caroline E Burns
Microdeletions involving TBX1 result in variable congenital malformations known collectively as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Tbx1-deficient mice and zebrafish recapitulate several disease phenotypes, including pharyngeal arch artery (PAA), head muscle (HM), and cardiac outflow tract (OFT) deficiencies. In zebrafish, these structures arise from nkx2.5+ progenitors in pharyngeal arches 2-6. Because pharyngeal arch morphogenesis is compromised in Tbx1-deficient animals, the malformations were considered secondary...
July 31, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036031/erythrocyte-derived-theranostic-nanoplatforms-for-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-and-photodestruction-of-tumors
#6
Joshua M Burns, Raviraj Vankayala, Jenny T Mac, Bahman Anvari
Nanoparticles activated by near-infrared (NIR) excitation provide a capability for optical imaging and photodestruction of tumors. We have engineered optical nanoconstructs derived from erythrocytes, which are doped with the FDA-approved NIR dye, indocyanine green (ICG). We refer to these constructs as NIR erythrocyte-mimicking transducers (NETs). Herein, we investigate the phototheranostic capabilities of NETs for fluorescence imaging and photodestruction of SKBR3 breast cancer cells and subcutaneous xenograft tumors in mice...
August 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026607/accumulation-of-myeloid-lineage-cells-is-mapping-out-liver-fibrosis-post-injury-a-targetable-lesion-using-ketanserin
#7
Saeid Amini-Nik, Ali-Reza Sadri, Li Diao, Cassandra Belo, Marc G Jeschke
Liver fibrosis is problematic after persistent injury. However, little is known about its response to an acute insult. Accumulation of myeloid lineage cells contributes into the promotion and resolution of inflammation and fibrosis. Using Cre-transgenic mice that specifically mark myeloid lineage cells with EYFP and burn as a model of acute systemic injury, we investigated the role of myeloid lineage cells in the liver after acute injury. Our data show that thermal injury in mice (30% total body surface area) induces fibrosis predominantly around portal venules whereas myeloid cells are enriched throughout the liver...
July 19, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021355/lncrna-h19-functions-as-an-aquaporin-1-competitive-endogenous-rna-to-regulate-microrna-874-expression-in-lps-sepsis
#8
Yu Fang, Jingfei Hu, Zhenhua Wang, Huili Zong, Lu Zhang, Ruifang Zhang, Limin Sun
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is a whole-body inflammation disease after severe trauma, burn injury, infection and major surgeries, accompanied by multiple organs failure. We sought to investigate the potential mechanism of Aquaporin 1 (AQP1), miRNA-874, and lncRNA H19 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sepsis and the anti-inflammatory responses related to sepsis myocardial dysfunction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum from peripheral blood samples of sepsis patients and in vivo mice model were collected for AQP1, H19, and miR-874 expression...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977207/topical-tweak-accelerates-healing-of-experimental-burn-wounds-in-mice
#9
Jing Liu, Lingling Peng, Yale Liu, Kunyi Wu, Sijia Wang, Xuening Wang, Qilu Liu, Yumin Xia, Weihui Zeng
The interaction of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor inducible 14 (Fn14) participates in inflammatory responses, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling, which are central in the repair processes of wounds. Fn14 is expressed in main skin cells including dermal fibroblasts. This study was designed to explore the therapeutic effect of TWEAK on experimental burn wounds and the relevant mechanism underlying such function. Third-degree burns were introduced in two BALB/c mouse strains...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958959/lycium-europaeum-linn-as-a-source-of-polysaccharide-with-in-vitro-antioxidant-activities-and-in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-and-hepato-nephroprotective-potentials
#10
Ilhem Rjeibi, Anouar Feriani, Anouar Ben Saad, Sana Ncib, Jazia Sdayria, Najla Hfaiedh, Mohamed Salah Allagui
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lycium europaeum Linn. is widely used to treat the burning of the skin and well-known as a medicinal plant having various biological activities. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the present study is to characterize the polysaccharide from L. europaeum L. leaves (LEP) and to explore its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepato-nephroprotective properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The structural and functional characteristics of LEP were investigated using X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and FT-IR Spectroscopy...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956587/therapeutic-potential-of-pak1-inhibition-for-pain-associated-with-cutaneous-burn-injury
#11
Yiqun Guo, Curtis Benson, Myriam Hill, Stefanie Henry, Philip Effraim, Stephen G Waxman, Sulayman Dib-Hajj, Andrew M Tan
Painful burn injuries are among the most debilitating form of trauma, globally ranking in the top 15 leading causes of chronic disease burden. Despite its prevalence, however, chronic pain after burn injury is under-studied. We previously demonstrated the contribution of the Rac1-signaling pathway in several models of neuropathic pain, including burn injury. However, Rac1 belongs to a class of GTPases with low therapeutic utility due to their complex intracellular dynamics. To further understand the mechanistic underpinnings of burn-induced neuropathic pain, we performed a longitudinal study to address the hypothesis that inhibition of the downstream effector of Rac1, Pak1, will improve pain outcome following a second-degree burn injury...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954581/the-posttraumatic-activation-of-cd4-t-regulatory-cells-is-modulated-by-tnfr2-and-tlr4-dependent-pathways-but-not-by-il-10
#12
Matthias Bock, Christian B Bergmann, Sonja Jung, Miriam Kalbitz, Borna Relja, Stefan Huber-Wagner, Peter Biberthaler, Martijn van Griensven, Marc Hanschen
Platelets modulate the immune system following injury by interacting with CD4+ T regulatory cells (CD4+ Tregs). The underlying mechanisms remain unsolved. We hypothesize paracrine interactions via Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-, Toll like receptor-4 (TLR4)-, and Interleukin-10 (IL-10). In the murine burn injury model, CD4+ Treg activation pathways were selectively addressed using TNFR2-, TLR4- and IL-10-deficient mice. The CD4+ Treg signalling molecule PKC-θ was analyzed using phospho-flow cytometry to detect rapid cell activation...
June 22, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933052/breathing-with-neuromuscular-disease-does-compensatory-plasticity-in-the-motor-drive-to-breathe-offer-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-muscular-dystrophy
#13
REVIEW
Ken D O'Halloran, David P Burns
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal neuromuscular disease associated with respiratory-related morbidity and mortality. Herein, we review recent work by our group exploring deficits and compensation in the respiratory control network governing respiratory homeostasis in a pre-clinical model of DMD, the mdx mouse. Deficits at multiple sites of the network provide considerable challenges to respiratory control. However, our work has also revealed evidence of compensatory neuroplasticity in the motor drive to breathe enhancing diaphragm muscle activity during increased chemical drive...
June 19, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903005/the-study-of-formulated-zoush-ointment-against-wound-infection-and-gene-expression-of-virulence-factors-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Maryam Meskini, Davoud Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of MDR and XDR strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and increased resistance to infection in burn patients recommend the issue of infection control. In this research, we study ZOUSH herbal ointment for gene silencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: The herbal ZOUSH ointment was formulated by alcoholic extracts of plants Satureja khuzestaniea, Zataria multiflora, Mentha Mozaffariani Jamzad, honey, and polyurethane. The MIC and disk diffusion tests were examined by single, binary, tertiary and five compounds...
June 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900062/systemic-depletion-of-lymphocytes-following-focal-radiation-to-the-brain-in-a-murine-model
#15
Anna F Piotrowski, Thomas R Nirschl, Esteban Velarde, Lee Blosser, Sudipto Ganguly, Kathleen H Burns, Leo Luznik, John Wong, Charles G Drake, Stuart A Grossman
Severe radiation-related lymphopenia is common and associated with decreased survival in patients with several solid tumors. As the mechanisms underlying systemic lymphopenia are poorly understood, we developed an animal model to study the effects of brain radiation on lymphocytes and cytokines. C57 BL/6 and BALB/c mice received focal brain irradiation (4 Gy x 10 fractions or 2 Gy x 30 fractions). Weekly total lymphocyte counts (TLC), lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in blood and lymph nodes were measured...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867077/the-mucosal-surfaces-of-both-eyes-are-immunologically-linked-by-a-neurogenic-inflammatory-reflex-involving-trpv1-and-substance-p
#16
Mauricio Guzmán, Maximiliano S Miglio, Nadia R Zgajnar, Ana Colado, María B Almejún, Irene A Keitelman, Florencia Sabbione, Federico Fuentes, Analía S Trevani, Mirta N Giordano, Jeremías G Galletti
Immunological interdependence between the two eyes has been reported for the cornea and the retina but not for the ocular mucosal surface. Intriguingly, patients frequently report ocular surface-related symptoms in the other eye after unilateral ocular surgery. Here we show how unilateral eye injuries in mice affect the mucosal immune response of the opposite ocular surface. We report that, despite the lack of lymphatic cross-drainage, a neurogenic inflammatory reflex in the contralateral conjunctiva is sufficient to increase, first, epithelial nuclear factor kappa B signaling, then, dendritic cell maturation, and finally, expansion of effector, instead of regulatory, T cells in the draining lymph node, leading to disrupted ocular mucosal tolerance...
June 4, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864436/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-promotes-wound-healing-of-mice-pressure-ulcers-affecting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nos2-and-nrf2-expression
#17
Bruna Romana-Souza, Jeanine Salles Dos Santos, Andréa Monte-Alto-Costa
AIMS: In pressure ulcers, the synthesis of reactive oxygen species induced by ischemia and reperfusion leads to chronic inflammation and tissue damage, which impair the closure of these lesions. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), found in propolis, promotes cutaneous wound healing of acute lesions and severe burns. However, the effects of CAPE on wound healing of pressure ulcers have not been investigated. This study investigated the effects of CAPE administration in a murine model of pressure ulcers...
August 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846360/effects-of-multi-day-ethanol-intoxication-on-post-burn-inflammation-lung-function-and-alveolar-macrophage-phenotype
#18
Brenda J Curtis, Devin M Boe, Jill A Shults, Luis Ramirez, Elizabeth J Kovacs
Burn patients who consumed alcohol prior to injury have worse clinical outcomes, including longer hospital stays, increased ventilator days, and more respiratory infections. Most alcohol consumers are binge drinkers and not chronic alcoholics and binge drinking patterns fluctuate over the week, with consecutive days of drinking over the weekend followed by relative abstinence during the week. We utilized a murine model simulating this drinking pattern in the context of burn injury. Mice were given ethanol for 3 days, rested for 4 days, given ethanol for 3 more days, followed by a sham or 15% total body surface area full-thickness burn...
May 24, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801148/tetramethylpyrazine-in-a-murine-alkali-burn-model-blocks-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nrf-1-cxcr4-signaling-induced-corneal-neovascularization
#19
Mingjun Tang, Ying Yang, Jingzhi Yu, Jin Qiu, Pei Chen, Yihui Wu, Qiyun Wang, Zhuojun Xu, Jian Ge, Keming Yu, Jing Zhuang
Purpose: Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is the active ingredient extracted from the Chinese herb Chuanxiong. The purpose of our study was to identify the mechanism of therapeutic TMP suppression of pathologic chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) transcription. Methods: C57BL/6J mice with alkali-burned corneas were treated with either TMP eye drops (1.5 mg/mL) or PBS. Corneal neovascularization (CNV) was measured and a clinical assessment was made by slit lamp microscopy. Expression of CXCR4 and the transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), forkhead box C1, and yin yang 1 were tracked by real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining of murine corneas...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795796/cd8-t-cell-memory-increases-immunopathology-in-the-perforin-deficient-model-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-secondary-to-tnf-%C3%AE
#20
Matthew D Taylor, Thomas N Burn, E John Wherry, Edward M Behrens
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2 (FHL2) is a cytokine storm syndrome characterized by immune hyperactivation with viral infection due to a CD8 T cell cytotoxic killing defect secondary to a perforin deficiency. As most studies of FHL2 mice have used pathogen naïve animals, the effects of immune memory on FHL2 are understudied. We utilized an immunization model of the perforin-deficient mouse to study the effects of immune memory on FHL2. Prior CD8 T cell specific antigen exposure leads to enhanced HLH disease with increased morbidity and decreased time to mortality...
February 2018: ImmunoHorizons
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