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Burn mice

Tianwen Huang, Shing-Hong Lin, Nathalie M Malewicz, Yan Zhang, Ying Zhang, Martyn Goulding, Robert H LaMotte, Qiufu Ma
Animals and humans display two types of response to noxious stimuli. The first includes reflexive defensive responses that prevent or limit injury; a well-known example of these responses is the quick withdrawal of one's hand upon touching a hot object. When the first-line response fails to prevent tissue damage (for example, a finger is burnt), the resulting pain invokes a second-line coping response-such as licking the injured area to soothe suffering. However, the underlying neural circuits that drive these two strings of behaviour remain poorly understood...
December 10, 2018: Nature
Wen-Shyan Huang, Lin-Gwei Wei, Jhen-Kai Li, Keng-Yen Fu, Tai-Chun Huang, Pai-Shan Hsieh, Nien-Chi Huang, Lien-Guo Dai, Fung-Wei Chang, Shih-Hurng Loh, Yuan-Hao Chen, Bing-Heng Yang, Chia-Yang Shiau, Gwo-Jang Wu, Niann-Tzyy Dai
The pigment melanin is produced by melanocytes, is primarily responsible for skin color, and protects it against ultraviolet rays that can cause the destruction of genetic material within the keratinocytes. To elucidate the mechanisms of many diseases associated with melanocytes, such as melanoma and albinism, or burns with uneven pigment distribution, the disease model needs to be established first. In this study, we aimed to construct the melanocyte model from patients in a short period.Sandai virus vector containing 4 stemness genes (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) was transfected into human adipose-derived stem cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Julia E Rood, Thomas N Burn, Vanessa Neal, Niansheng Chu, Edward M Behrens
Danger signals mediated through ST2, the interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor, amplify CD8+ T cell-mediated inflammation in the murine model of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (FHL2), and blockade of ST2 provides a potential therapeutic strategy in this disease. However, the long-term effects of disrupting IL-33/ST2 signaling on the CD8+ T cell compartment are unknown. Here, we examined the evolution of the T cell response in murine FHL type 2 in the absence of ST2 signaling and found that CD8+ T cells gradually undergo exhaustion, similar to a related nonfatal FHL model...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fatemeh Pashaei, Parvaneh Bevalian, Reza Akbari, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
Bacterial infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality after burn injuries. This issue has driven the need for promising antimicrobial drugs to eradication of bacterial pathogens. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the therapeutic value of melittin, as a natural Antimicrobial peptide (AMP), in eradication of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter spp. on a mouse model of third degree burn infection. Melittin killed all examined XDR isolates at 4 μg/mL up to 3 h...
December 1, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sara Javanmardi, Amaneh Ghojoghi, Baharak Divband, Javad Ashrafi
INTRODUCTION: Over the past few decades, the application of nanotechnology has gained progressive interest for the regeneration of injured and burned tissues. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticle (NP)/gelatin on burn wound healing in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty healthy male BALB/c mice with a full-thickness burn wound were randomized into 4 experimental groups of 15 animals each: (1) control group was treated with normal saline; (2) gelatin group was treated with gelatin-based ointment; (3) silver sulfadiazine group was treated with silver sulfadiazine 1% ointment; and (4) TiO₂ NP/gelatin group (TNG) received TiO₂ NP/gelatin...
December 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Sabrina Oishi, Danyon Harkins, Nyoman D Kurniawan, Maria Kasherman, Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Richard M Gronostajski, Thomas H J Burne, Michael Piper
BACKGROUND: Nuclear Factor One X (NFIX) haploinsufficiency in humans results in Malan syndrome, a disorder characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly and intellectual disability. Although clinical assessments have determined the underlying symptomology of Malan syndrome, the fundamental mechanisms contributing to the enlarged head circumference and intellectual disability in these patients remains undefined. METHODS: Here, we used Nfix heterozygous mice as a model to investigate these aspects of Malan syndrome...
November 29, 2018: EBioMedicine
Tomo Kita, Kunitoshi Uchida, Kenichi Kato, Yoshiro Suzuki, Makoto Tominaga, Jun Yamazaki
FK506 (tacrolimus) is an immunosuppressant widely used as an ointment in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. However, local application of FK506 can evoke burning sensations in atopic dermatitis patients, and its mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we found that FK506 activates transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels. In Ca2+ -imaging experiments, increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]i ) by FK506 were observed in HEK293T cells expressing hTRPA1 or hTRPM8. FK506-induced currents were observed in HEK293T cells expressing hTRPA1 or mTRPA1, but less or not at all in cells expressing hTRPV1 or hTRPM8 using a patch-clamp technique...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Ronghua Yang, Jingru Wang, Ziheng Zhou, Shaohai Qi, Shubin Ruan, Zepeng Lin, Qi Xin, Yan Lin, Xiaodong Chen, Julin Xie
Local transplantation of stem cells has therapeutic effects on skin damage but cannot provide satisfactory wound healing. Studies on the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of stem cells on skin wound healing will be needed. Hence, in the present study, we explored the role of Caveolin-1 in epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) in the modulation of wound healing. We first isolated EpiSCs from mouse skin tissues and established stable EpiSCs with overexpression of Caveolin-1 using a lentiviral construct. We then evaluated the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation ability using cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and assessed EpiSC pluripotency by examining Nanog mRNA levels in EpiSCs...
November 23, 2018: Developmental Biology
Jun Yeon Park, Myoung-Sook Shin, Gwi Seo Hwang, Noriko Yamabe, Jeong-Eun Yoo, Ki Sung Kang, Jin-Chul Kim, Jeong Gun Lee, Jungyeob Ham, Hye Lim Lee
Shiunko ointment is composed of five ingredients including Lithospermi Radix (LR), Angelicae Gigantis Radix, sesame seed oil, beeswax, and swine oil. It is externally applied as a treatment for a wide range of skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, hair loss, burns, topical wounds, and atopic dermatitis. Deoxyshikonin is the major angiogenic compound extracted from LR. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of LR extract and deoxyshikonin on impaired wound healing in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ronghua Yang, Jingru Wang, Ziheng Zhou, Shaohai Qi, Shubin Ruan, Zepeng Lin, Qi Xin, Yan Lin, Xiaodong Chen, Julin Xie
We aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on epidermal stem cells (ESCs) in regulating wound healing and the underlying molecular mechanism. We treated mouse ESCs isolated from skin tissues with curcumin, and then assessed the proliferation ability of cells induced by epidermal growth factor using cell counting kit-8 assay. The pluripotency of ESCs was evaluated as well through examination of Nanog expression in ESCs. Further, mice with skin burns were treated with ESCs with or without curcumin pretreatments...
November 20, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
E T Uluer, H S Vatansever, H Aydede, M K Ozbilgin
The skin plays an important role in defending the body against the environment. Treatments for burns and skin injuries that use autologous or allogenic skin grafts derived from adult or embryonic stem cells are promising. Embryonic stem cells are candidates for regenerative and reparative medicine. We investigated the utility of keratinocyte-like cells, which are differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells, for wound healing using a mouse surgical wound model. Mice were allocated to the following groups: experimental, in which dressing and differentiated cells were applied after the surgical wound was created; control, in which only the surgical wound was created; sham, in which only the dressing was applied after the surgical wound was created; and untreated animal controls with healthy skin...
November 21, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
John R Speakman
Excised fat tissue has a lower thermal conductivity than excised lean tissue. In theory then subcutaneous fat might serve as a barrier to heat loss and influence thermoregulatory abilities. In some aquatic mammals and animals from severely cold habitats subcutaneous adipose tissue has evolved into a continuous sheet that envelopes the organs and acts as a thermal insulation layer. This layer can comprise more than half of the cross-sectional area of the body. In most mammals however, the distribution of fat is less continuous...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jun Li, Jie Xu, Xinghua Qin, Hongyan Yang, Juntao Han, Yanhui Jia, Huayu Zhu, Liang Zhu, Jia Li, Wenjun Xie, Dahai Hu, Xing Zhang, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Acute hyperglycemia is regarded as a risk factor for critically ill patients; however, insufficient understanding of its nature and underlying mechanisms hinders widespread adoption of glycemic control in critical care units. METHODS: A single center, prospective cohort study recruiting 107 burn patients and 62 controls was conducted to characterize the early phase of acute hyperglycemia in burn patients. A total of 1643 blood samples were collected and analyzed over the entire postburn 200 h...
November 9, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Tyler J Murphy, Kevin S Murnane
Anesthesia-Induced Hypothermia (AIH) has been reported to be the cause of many postoperative adverse effects, including increased mortality, decreased immune responses, cardiac events, and a greater prevalence of postoperative surgical wound infections. AIH can in some cases be minimized with pre-warming fluids and gases and forced-air heating systems, but such techniques are not always effective and can result in patient burns or other adverse effects. Stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors has been reported to increase body temperature through a variety of mechanisms, and as such, may be a viable target for pharmacologically minimizing AIH...
November 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Isabella Cattani-Cavalieri, Samuel Santos Valenca, Manuella Lanzetti, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante Carvalho, Walter Araújo Zin, Andréa Monte-Alto-Costa, Luís Cristóvão Porto, Bruna Romana-Souza
Air pollution caused by fuel burning contributes to respiratory impairments that may lead to death. We aimed to investigate the effects of biodiesel (DB) burning in mouse lungs. DB particulate matter was collected from the exhaust pipes of a bus engine. Mice were treated with 250 μg or 1000 μg of DB particulate matter by intranasal instillation over 5 consecutive days. We demonstrated that DB particulate matter penetrated the lung in the 250-μg and 1000-μg groups. In addition, the DB particulate matter number in pulmonary parenchyma was 175-fold higher in the 250-μg group and 300-fold higher in the 1000-μg group compared to control mice...
November 9, 2018: Inflammation
Saeid Amini-Nik, Reinhard Dolp, Gertraud Eylert, Andrea-Kaye Datu, Alexandra Parousis, Camille Blakeley, Marc G Jeschke
BACKGROUND: Thermal injuries affect millions of adults and children worldwide and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The key determinant for the survival of burns is rapid wound healing. Large wounds exceed intrinsic wound-healing capacities, and the currently available coverage materials are insufficient due to lack of cellularity, availability or immunological rejection. METHODS: Using the surgically debrided tissue, we isolated viable cells from burned skin...
October 19, 2018: EBioMedicine
Jose L Viñas, Matthew Spence, Alex Gutsol, William Knoll, Dylan Burger, Joseph Zimpelmann, David S Allan, Kevin D Burns
Endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC)-derived exosomes protect mice against ischemic kidney injury, via transfer of microRNA-(miR)-486-5p. Mechanisms mediating exosome recruitment to tissues are unclear. We hypothesized that ECFC exosomes target ischemic kidneys, involving interaction between exosomal CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α. Ischemia-reperfusion was induced in mice by bilateral renal vascular clamp, with intravenous infusion of exosomes at reperfusion...
November 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Parent, Patrick Burns, André Desrochers, Martine Boulianne
Necrotic enteritis was studied in chickens using various in vivo infection models. Most of these use a combination of predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis and diet, with gavage or administration via the feed using Clostridium perfringens. In these models, the comparison of multiple C. perfringens strains for virulence studies requires a large number of hosts to obtain significant results. Mortality during the course of the study can be high depending on the experimental model, hence raising ethical concerns regarding animal welfare in research...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bidur Bhandary, Qinghang Meng, Jeanne James, Hanna Osinska, James Gulick, Iñigo Valiente-Alandi, Michelle A Sargent, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Burns C Blaxall, Jeffery D Molkentin, Jeffrey Robbins
Background Transforming growth factor beta ( TGF -β) is an important cytokine in mediating the cardiac fibrosis that often accompanies pathogenic cardiac remodeling. Cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a mutant αB-crystallin (Cry ABR 120G ), which causes human desmin-related cardiomyopathy, results in significant cardiac fibrosis. During onset of fibrosis, fibroblasts are activated to the so-called myofibroblast state and TGF -β binding mediates an essential signaling pathway underlying this process. Here, we test the hypothesis that fibroblast-based TGF -β signaling can result in significant cardiac fibrosis in a disease model of cardiac proteotoxicity that has an exclusive cardiomyocyte-based etiology...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Zachary M Augur, Catherine M Doyle, Mingyi Li, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried
Introduction: Temozolomide (TMZ) is part of the standard of care for treating glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive primary brain tumor. New approaches are needed to enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce toxicity. GBM tumor cells are dependent on glucose and glutamine while relying heavily on aerobic fermentation for energy metabolism. Restricted availability of glucose and glutamine may therefore reduce disease progression. Calorically restricted ketogenic diets (KD-R), which reduce glucose and elevate ketone bodies, offer a promising alternative in targeting energy metabolism because cancer cells cannot effectively burn ketones due to defects in the number, structure, and function of mitochondria...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
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