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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231025/rabit-ii-implementation-of-a-high-throughput-micronucleus-biodosimetry-assay-on-commercial-biotech-robotic-systems
#1
Mikhail Repin, Sergey Pampou, Charles Karan, David J Brenner, Guy Garty
We demonstrate the use of high-throughput biodosimetry platforms based on commercial high-throughput/high-content screening robotic systems. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, using only 20 μl whole blood from a fingerstick, was implemented on a PerkinElmer cell::explorer and General Electric IN Cell Analyzer 2000. On average 500 binucleated cells per sample were detected by our FluorQuantMN software. A calibration curve was generated in the radiation dose range up to 5.0 Gy using the data from 8 donors and 48,083 binucleated cells in total...
February 23, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224649/sex-chromosomal-abnormalities-associated-with-equine-infertility-validation-of-a-simple-molecular-screening-tool-in-the-purebred-spanish-horse
#2
G Anaya, A Molina, M Valera, M Moreno-Millán, P Azor, P Peral-García, S Demyda-Peyrás
Chromosomal abnormalities in the sex chromosome pair (ECAX and ECAY) are widely associated with reproductive problems in horses. However, a large proportion of these abnormalities remains undiagnosed due to the lack of an affordable diagnostic tool that allows for avoiding karyotyping tests. Hereby, we developed an STR (single-tandem-repeat)-based molecular method to determine the presence of the main sex chromosomal abnormalities in horses in a fast, cheap and reliable way. The frequency of five ECAX-linked (LEX026, LEX003, TKY38, TKY270 and UCDEQ502) and two ECAY-linked (EcaYH12 and SRY) markers was characterized in 261 Purebred Spanish Horses to determine the efficiency of the methodology developed to be used as a chromosomal diagnostic tool...
February 22, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224622/slc2a3-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-duplication-influence-cognitive-processing-and-population-specific-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Sören Merker, Andreas Reif, Georg C Ziegler, Heike Weber, Ute Mayer, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Annette Conzelmann, Stefan Johansson, Clemens Müller-Reible, Indrajit Nanda, Thomas Haaf, Reinhard Ullmann, Marcel Romanos, Andreas J Fallgatter, Paul Pauli, Tatyana Strekalova, Charline Jansch, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Jan Haavik, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Klaus-Peter Lesch
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223122/individual-and-combined-effects-of-aflatoxin-b1-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-on-hepg2-and-raw-264-7-cell-lines
#4
Hongyuan Zhou, Saji George, Crystal Hay, Joel Lee, He Qian, Xiulan Sun
To understand the combinatorial toxicity of mycotoxins, we measured the effects of individual, binary and tertiary combinations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZEN) on the cell viability and cellular perturbations of HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cells. The nature of mycotoxins interactions was assessed using mathematical modeling (Chou-Talalay). Mechanisms of cytotoxicity were studied using high content screening (HCS) that probed cytotoxicity responses, such as changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) flux, and cell membrane damage...
February 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222612/in-vitro-ex-vivo-correlations-between-a-cell-laden-hydrogel-and-mucosal-tissue-for-screening-composite-delivery-systems
#5
Anna K Blakney, Adam B Little, Yonghou Jiang, Kim A Woodrow
Composite delivery systems where drugs are electrospun in different layers and vary the drug stacking-order are posited to affect bioavailability. We evaluated how the formulation characteristics of both burst- and sustained-release electrospun fibers containing three physicochemically diverse drugs: dapivirine (DPV), maraviroc (MVC) and tenofovir (TFV) affect in vitro and ex vivo release. We developed a poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel release platform for the rapid, inexpensive in vitro evaluation of burst- and sustained-release topical or dermal drug delivery systems with varying microarchitecture...
November 2016: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222171/metabolite-profiling-of-the-carnivorous-pitcher-plants-darlingtonia-and-sarracenia
#6
Hannu Hotti, Peddinti Gopalacharyulu, Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Heiko Rischer
Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220620/prevalence-of-ampc-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-harbouring-enterobacteriaceae-in-faecal-flora-of-a-healthy-domestic-canine-population
#7
D A Mathys, D F Mollenkopf, C A Bremer, J B Daniels, T E Wittum
In order to estimate the prevalence of AmpC- and ESBL β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the faecal flora of a healthy domestic canine population, faecal samples were obtained from healthy dogs receiving routine parasitology screening at the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, between January 2013 and April 2013. Samples were screened for the presence of AmpC and ESBL β-lactamase phenotypes, and the clinically important genotypes, blaCMY and blaCTX-M , were confirmed via conventional PCR...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212611/impact-of-novel-snps-identified-in-cynara-cardunculus-genes-on-functionality-of-proteins-regulating-phenylpropanoid-pathway-and-their-association-with-biological-activities
#8
Ana Margarida Ferro, Patrícia Ramos, Olinda Guerreiro, Eliana Jerónimo, Inês Pires, Carmen Capel, Juan Capel, Rafael Lozano, Maria F Duarte, M Margarida Oliveira, Sónia Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Cynara cardunculus L. offers a natural source of phenolic compounds with the predominant molecule being chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid is gaining interest due to its involvement in various biological properties such as, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic activities. RESULTS: In this work we screened a Cynara cardunculus collection for new allelic variants in key genes involved in the chlorogenic acid biosynthesis pathway...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203335/is-the-bayley-scales-of-infant-and-toddler-developmental-screening-test-valid-and-reliable-for-persian-speaking-children
#9
Farin Soleimani, Nadia Azari, Roshanak Vameghi, Firoozeh Sajedi, Soheila Shahshahani, Hossein Karimi, Adis Kraskian, Amin Shahrokhi, Robab Teymouri, Masoud Gharib
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have substantially improved the survival of at-risk infants over the past two decades. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler developmental Screening test in Persian-speaking children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional prospective study of 403 children aged 1 - 42-months. The Bayley scales screening instrument, which consists of five domains (cognitive, receptive, and expressive communication and fine and gross motor items), was used to measure infants' and toddlers' development...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196906/a-high-throughput-image-based-screen-to-identify-kinases-involved-in-brown-adipocyte-development
#10
Aliki Perdikari, Elisabeth Kulenkampff, Carla Rudigier, Heike Neubauer, Gerd Luippold, Norbert Redemann, Christian Wolfrum
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for thermogenesis that is not associated with shivering through the process of converting chemical energy into heat through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the mitochondria. Thus, expanding or activating BAT could be a potential tool against obesity. To analyze the effect of kinase signaling on brown adipocyte formation, a process that describes the acquisition of the ability to dissipate energy as heat, we performed lentiviral-mediated short hairpin knockdown or used pharmacological inhibitors in a high-content and high-throughput in vitro image-based screen...
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195353/screening-of-cadmium-and-copper-phytoremediation-ability-of-tagetes-erecta-using-biochemical-parameters-and-sem-edx-analysis
#11
Sunayana Goswami, Suchismita Das
Tagetes erecta could thrive well in phytotoxic levels of Cd (50-300 mg kg(-1) ) and Cu (150-400 mg kg(-1) ) for 21 days. It accumulated high metal contents in its above ground tissues (3675 mg Cd kg(-1) DW and 3948 mg Cu kg(-1) DW), showed greater root to shoot translocation and high extraction coefficient; all of which pointed towards its potential as a hyperaccumulator. Both Cd and Cu stress reduced the plant biomass, foliar area, and number. Besides, there were significant declines in pigment contents as well as boosts in lipid peroxidation levels...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193227/evaluation-of-scaling-up-of-hpv-self-collection-offered-by-community-health-workers-at-home-visits-to-increase-screening-among-socially-vulnerable-under-screened-women-in-jujuy-province-argentina
#12
Silvina Arrossi, Melisa Paolino, Laura Thouyaret, Rosa Laudi, Alicia Campanera
BACKGROUND: Self-collection has been proposed as a strategy to increase cervical screening coverage among hard-to-reach women. However, evaluations of the implementation of this strategy on a large scale are scarce. This paper describes the process and measurement of the scaling-up of self-collection offered by community health workers during home visits as a strategy to reach under-screened women aged 30+ with public health coverage, defined as the target women. METHODS: We used an adaptation of the Health System Framework to analyze key drivers of scaling-up...
February 13, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191758/preclinical-analysis-of-fetal-human-mesencephalic-neural-progenitor-cell-lines-characterization-and-safety-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Jisook Moon, Sigrid C Schwarz, Hyun-Seob Lee, Jun Mo Kang, Young-Eun Lee, Bona Kim, Mi-Young Sung, Günter Höglinger, Florian Wegner, Jin Su Kim, Hyung-Min Chung, Sung Woon Chang, Kwang Yul Cha, Kwang-Soo Kim, Johannes Schwarz
We have developed a good manufacturing practice for long-term cultivation of fetal human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells. The generation of human dopaminergic neurons may serve as a tool of either restorative cell therapies or cellular models, particularly as a reference for phenotyping region-specific human neural stem cell lines such as human embryonic stem cells and human inducible pluripotent stem cells. We cultivated 3 different midbrain neural progenitor lines at 10, 12, and 14 weeks of gestation for more than a year and characterized them in great detail, as well as in comparison with Lund mesencephalic cells...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185200/automated-high-content-screening-of-%C3%AE-h2ax-expression-in-hela-cells
#14
Nate Hopp, Jodi Hagen, Birte Aggeler, Alexander E Kalyuzhny
Due to their inherent nature, DNA strands can be easily broken by various environmental factors including chemical agents and ionizing radiation. Unrepaired DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) may result in genetic instability and have a strong negative impact on the integrity of the genome. It has been found that DSBs are always followed by phosphorylation of histone protein H2AX, a member of the H2A family, and immunocytochemical detection of phosphorylated H2AX (referred to as γ-H2AX) is one of the frequently used techniques for assessing DNA damage...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182563/a-high-throughput-small-molecule-screen-identifies-synergism-between-dna-methylation-and-aurora-kinase-pathways-for-x-reactivation
#15
Derek Lessing, Thomas O Dial, Chunyao Wei, Bernhard Payer, Lieselot L G Carrette, Barry Kesner, Attila Szanto, Ajit Jadhav, David J Maloney, Anton Simeonov, Jimmy Theriault, Thomas Hasaka, Antonio Bedalov, Marisa S Bartolomei, Jeannie T Lee
X-chromosome inactivation is a mechanism of dosage compensation in which one of the two X chromosomes in female mammals is transcriptionally silenced. Once established, silencing of the inactive X (Xi) is robust and difficult to reverse pharmacologically. However, the Xi is a reservoir of >1,000 functional genes that could be potentially tapped to treat X-linked disease. To identify compounds that could reactivate the Xi, here we screened ∼367,000 small molecules in an automated high-content screen using an Xi-linked GFP reporter in mouse fibroblasts...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179883/new-microrna-biomarkers-for-drug-induced-steatosis-and-their-potential-to-predict-the-contribution-of-drugs-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
Mireia López-Riera, Isabel Conde, Laia Tolosa, Ángela Zaragoza, José V Castell, María J Gómez-Lechón, Ramiro Jover
Background and Aims: Drug-induced steatosis is a major reason for drug failure in clinical trials and post-marketing withdrawal; and therefore, predictive biomarkers are essential. These could be particularly relevant in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), where most patients show features of the metabolic syndrome and are prescribed with combined chronic therapies, which can contribute to fatty liver. However, specific biomarkers to assess the contribution of drugs to NAFLD are lacking. We aimed to find microRNAs (miRNAs) responsive to steatotic drugs and to investigate if they could become circulating biomarkers for drug-induced steatosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179215/mixed-methods-analysis-of-factors-impacting-use-of-a-postoperative-mhealth-app
#17
Aaron R Scott, Elizabeth A Alore, Aanand D Naik, David H Berger, James W Suliburk
BACKGROUND: Limited communication and care coordination following discharge from hospitals may contribute to surgical complications. Smartphone apps offer a novel mechanism for communication and care coordination. However, factors which may affect patient app use in a postoperative, at-home setting are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to (1) gauge interest in smartphone app use among patients after colorectal surgery and (2) better understand factors affecting patient app use in a postoperative, at-home setting...
February 8, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178217/flavonoid-composition-and-antitumor-activity-of-bee-bread-collected-in-northeast-portugal
#18
Filipa Sobral, Ricardo C Calhelha, Lillian Barros, Montserrat Dueñas, Andreia Tomás, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Miguel Vilas-Boas, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Bee bread (BB) is a fermented mixture of plant pollen, honey, and bee saliva that worker bees use as food for larvae, and for young bees to produce royal jelly. In the present study, five BB samples, collected from Apis mellifera iberiensis hives located in different apiaries near Bragança, in the northeast region of Portugal, and one BB commercial sample were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) in terms of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoid glycoside derivatives...
February 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158981/hypertension-management-in-rural-primary-care-facilities-in-zambia-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Lily D Yan, Cindy Chirwa, Benjamin H Chi, Samuel Bosomprah, Ntazana Sindano, Moses Mwanza, Dennis Musatwe, Mary Mulenga, Roma Chilengi
BACKGROUND: Improved primary health care is needed in developing countries to effectively manage the growing burden of hypertension. Our objective was to evaluate hypertension management in Zambian rural primary care clinics using process and outcome indicators to assess the screening, monitoring, treatment and control of high blood pressure. METHODS: Better Health Outcomes through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) is a 5-year, randomized stepped-wedge trial of improved clinical service delivery underway in 46 rural Zambian clinics...
February 3, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158186/a-high-throughput-phenotypic-screen-identifies-clofazimine-as-a-potential-treatment-for-cryptosporidiosis
#20
Melissa S Love, Federico C Beasley, Rajiv S Jumani, Timothy M Wright, Arnab K Chatterjee, Christopher D Huston, Peter G Schultz, Case W McNamara
Cryptosporidiosis has emerged as a leading cause of non-viral diarrhea in children under five years of age in the developing world, yet the current standard of care to treat Cryptosporidium infections, nitazoxanide, demonstrates limited and immune-dependent efficacy. Given the lack of treatments with universal efficacy, drug discovery efforts against cryptosporidiosis are necessary to find therapeutics more efficacious than the standard of care. To date, cryptosporidiosis drug discovery efforts have been limited to a few targeted mechanisms in the parasite and whole cell phenotypic screens against small, focused collections of compounds...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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