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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094477/adenylyl-cyclase-6-is-involved-in-the-hyposecretory-status-of-experimental-colitis
#1
Isabel Romero-Calvo, Borja Ocón, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, Cristina Hernández-Chirlaque, Hugo R de Jonge, Marcel J Bijvelds, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
One of the cardinal symptoms of intestinal inflammation is diarrhea. Acute intestinal inflammation is associated with inhibition of ion absorption and increased secretion, along with fluid leakage due to epithelial injury and changes in permeability. However, in the chronic situation, a downregulation of both absorptive and secretory transport has been reported. We investigated how experimental colitis reduces cAMP levels in intestinal epithelial cells through modulation of adenylyl cyclases (AC). Primary colonic epithelial cells obtained from rats with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colitis and non-colitic controls were analyzed for AC expression by RT-qPCR and Western blot, following a preliminary microarray analysis...
August 9, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089249/treatment-with-trichilia-catigua-ethyl-acetate-fraction-improves-healing-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-tnbs-induced-colitis-in-rats
#2
Fernando Augusto Vicentini, Maiara Morselli Coelho Barbosa, Maísa Carla Fortunato, Ciomar Aparecida Bersani Amado, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Renata Longhini, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali
Beverages containing Trichilia catigua are commonly employed in folk medicine. T. catigua bark extracts possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and bactericidal properties. These properties suggest T. catigua bark extracts as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced model of colitis in rats we evaluated the effect of an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of T. catigua (200 mg/kg) administered by daily oral gavage or intrarectally at different time points after TNBS challenge...
August 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085904/promising-therapeutic-effect-of-gold-nanoparticles-against-dinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-induced-colitis-in-rats
#3
Rehab M Hussein, Hanan Saleh
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two different doses of naked gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the experimental colitis in rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: Colitis was induced in rats by single intracolonic instillation of dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (250 μl DNBS-25 mg/rat). Four days later the rats were intravenously injected with a single dose of AuNPs 40 and 400 μg/kg of size 16-25 nm. RESULTS: In comparison with dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid-colitis group, the exposure to AuNPs for 72 h ameliorated the liver and kidney functions, increased the regenerative capacity of damaged colon tissues, suppressed the inflammatory cytokine response and diminished the colonic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activities...
August 7, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30081226/longitudinal-pet-ct-evaluation-of-tnbs-induced-inflammatory-bowel-disease-rat-model
#4
Iria Seoane-Viaño, Noemí Gómez-Lado, Héctor Lázare-Iglesias, Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta, Jesús Silva-Rodríguez, Asteria Luzardo-Álvarez, Michel Herranz, Francisco Otero-Espinar, José Ramón Antúnez-López, María Jesús Lamas, Pablo Aguiar, Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro, Álvaro Ruibal
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which two main types are Crohńs disease and ulcerative colitis. It has multifactorial etiologies, being essential the use of animal models and disease activity measures to develop new therapies. With this aim, the use of animal models in combination with non-invasive molecular imaging can play an important role in the development of new treatments. In this study, IBD was induced in rats using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) and longitudinal [18 F]FDG PET/CT scans were conducted to assess disease progression post-TNBS administration...
August 3, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065559/moxibustion-treatment-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-and-immune-function-in-a-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis-rat-model
#5
Qin Qi, Ya-Nan Liu, Xiao-Ming Jin, Lin-Shuang Zhang, Cun Wang, Chun-Hui Bao, Hui-Rong Liu, Huan-Gan Wu, Xiao-Mei Wang
AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of moxibustion in rats with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A rat colitis model was established by administering 4% dextran sulphate sodium solution. Seventy male rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Healthy controls (HC), ulcerative colitis model group (UC), UC with 7 d of moxibustion (UC-7), UC with 14 d of moxibustion (UC-14), UC with mesalazine gavage (UC-W), HC with 7 d of moxibustion (HC-7), HC with 14 d of moxibustion (HC-14)...
July 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059029/murine-distal-colostomy-a-novel-model-of-diversion-colitis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#6
Annabel Kleinwort, Paula Döring, Christine Hackbarth, Maciej Patrzyk, Claus-Dieter Heidecke, Tobias Schulze
Diversion colitis (DC) is a frequent clinical condition occurring in patients with bowel segments excluded from the fecal stream as a result of a diverting enterostomy. The etiology of this disease remains ill-defined but appears to differ from that of classical inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Research aimed to decipher the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the development of this disease has been severely hampered by the lack of an appropriate murine model...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054522/endoscopic-transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-sheets-in-experimental-colitis-in-rats
#7
Sehyung Pak, Sung Wook Hwang, In Kyong Shim, Sang Mun Bae, Yeon- Mi Ryu, Han-Byul Kim, Eun-Ju Do, Hye-Nam Son, Eun-Ji Choi, Sun-Ha Park, Sang-Yeob Kim, Sang Hyoung Park, Byong Duk Ye, Suk-Kyun Yang, Nobuo Kanai, Masanori Maeda, Teruo Okano, Dong-Hoon Yang, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung
Owing to the recent progress in regenerative medicine technology, clinical trials that harnessed the regeneration and immune modulation potentiality of stem cells for treating IBD have shown promising results. We investigated the feasibility and utility of intraluminal endoscopic transplantation of rat MSC sheets in murine models of experimental colitis for targeted delivery of stem cells to lesions. We isolated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) from EGFP-transgenic rats and fabricated the cells in sheet forms using temperature-responsive culture dishes...
July 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046345/tou-nong-san-attenuates-inflammation-in-tnbs-ibd-model-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA-b-signaling-pathway
#8
Zhipeng Hu, Maoyi Yang, Qiaobo Ye, Kaihua Qin, Mingquan Wu, Rui Gu, Yingguang Zhou
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which predominantly comprises Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is increasing worldwide. However, the treatment of IBD still faces great challenges. The involved NF- κ B is the main signaling pathway in human IBD and thus is a prime target. There is abundant evidence that Tou Nong San (TNS), which is a traditional Chinese medicinal decoction used for treating sores and carbuncles, has a positive effect on the inflammation. This study investigated the effects of oral administration of TNS on colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) and the underlying mechanism(s)...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042683/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-via-regulation-of-the-metabolic-profiling-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA-b-tlr4-and-il-6-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathways
#9
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Wei Zhang, Shu Jiang, Jian-Ming Guo, Dan-Dan Wei
Studies have indicated that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides (CP) could prominently ameliorate colitis rats, but its possible mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the underlying mechanism of CP was explored by the metabolic profiling analysis and correlated signaling pathways. TNBS/ethanol induced colitis was used to investigate the intervention efficacy following oral administration of CP. The levels of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-1β, and the activities of SOD, MPO, and MDA were determined...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031817/colitis-induced-alterations-in-response-properties-of-visceral-nociceptive-neurons-in-the-rat-caudal-medulla-oblongata-and-their-modulation-by-5-ht3-receptor-blockade
#10
Olga A Lyubashina, Ivan B Sivachenko, Irina I Busygina, Sergey S Panteleev
There is considerable clinical and experimental evidence that intestinal inflammation is associated with altered visceral nociceptive processing in the spinal cord and brain, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms, especially acting at the supraspinal level, remain unclear. Considering that the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) are the first sites for supraspinal processing of visceral pain signals, in the present study we evaluated the experimental colitis-induced changes in response properties of CVLM and NTS medullary neurons to noxious colorectal distension (CRD) in urethane-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats...
July 19, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014710/lactobacillus-acidophilus-and-clostridium-butyricum-ameliorate-colitis-in-murine-by-strengthening-the-gut-barrier-function-and-decreasing-inflammatory-factors
#11
Y Wang, Y Gu, K Fang, K Mao, J Dou, H Fan, C Zhou, H Wang
Ulcerative colitis is a type of chronic inflammation present in the intestines for which the aetiology is not yet clear. The current therapies for ulcerative colitis cannot be considered to be long-term management strategies due to their significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to identify an alternative therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis. The present study focused on the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus CGMCC 7282 and Clostridium butyricum CGMCC 7281...
July 17, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007036/calprotectin-protects-against-experimental-colonic-inflammation-in-mice
#12
Carlos J Aranda, Borja Ocón, María Arredondo-Amador, María Dolores Suárez, Antonio Zarzuelo, Walter J Chazin, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Calprotectin (CP) is a heterodimer composed of S100A8 and S100A9 that is highly abundant in neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Calprotectin fecal levels are used routinely to monitor inflammatory bowel disease activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We aimed to assess the role of calprotectin in intestinal inflammation. The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis in mice was used. CP was administered at 50 or 100 μg·day-1 by the intrarectal or intraperitoneal route (50 μg·day-1 only)...
July 14, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002711/pretreatment-with-obestatin-inhibits-the-development-of-acetic-acid-induced-colitis-in-rats
#13
Aleksandra Matuszyk, Piotr Ceranowicz, Zygmunt Warzecha, Jakub Cieszkowski, Krystyna Gałązka, Joanna Bonior, Jolanta Jaworek, Peter Christopher Konturek, Krzysztof Gil, Artur Dembiński
Introduction: Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide derived from proghrelin, a common prohormone for ghrelin and obestatin. Previous studies have shown that obestatin exhibits some protective and therapeutic effects in the pancreas and stomach. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pretreatment with obestatin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Material and methods: Studies were performed on Wistar rats. Before induction of colitis, rats were treated intraperitoneally with saline or obestatin, administered twice at a dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose...
June 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998951/-preclinical-and-clinical-properties-of-bezlotoxumab-zinplava-%C3%A2-25-mg-ml-concentrate-for-solution-for-infusion-novel-therapeutic-agent-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#14
Kiyoshi Kinoshita
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), an enterobacteria, flourishes and produces potent toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), after the disruption of the normal colonic microbiota by antibiotic therapy. C. difficile infection (CDI) may induce life-threatening complications such as fulminant colitis through damage of the intestinal wall by the toxins, therefore the prevention of CDI recurrence is the most important in CDI treatment. Bezlotoxumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the activity of TcdB directly...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985049/intestinal-homeostasis-is-restored-in-mice-following-a-period-of-intestinal-growth-induced-by-orally-administered-emu-oil
#15
Suzanne Mashtoub, Ker Y Cheah, Kerry A Lymn, Gordon S Howarth
Previously, we reported that orally administered Emu Oil (EO) increases mucosal thickness in the small intestine and colon in rodent models of chemotherapy-induced mucositis and colitis. However, it remains unclear whether mucosal thickening (crypt and villus lengthening) represents a process of normal or aberrant growth. We sought to determine if villus height (VH) and crypt depth (CD) measurements returned to normal in EO-treated rats following withdrawal of EO therapy. Dark agouti rats ( n = 8/group) were gavaged daily for 10 days with water, olive oil (OO), or EO (0...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974377/effect-of-homocysteine-on-the-differentiation-of-cd4-t-cells-into-th17-cells
#16
Xin Gao, Jin Li, Min Chen
BACKGROUND: The hyperhomocysteinaemia (Hhcy) is a common phenomenon observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our previous study showed that Hhcy aggravated intestinal inflammation in an animal model of colitis. Increased levels of IL-17 and RORγt were also observed in this animal model of colitis with Hhcy. However, the direct effect of homocysteine on the differentiation of Th17 cells has never been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effect of Hhcy on the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th17 cells...
July 4, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967595/establishment-of-an-endogenous-clostridium-difficile-rat-infection-model-and-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-clostridium-butyricum-miyairi-588-probiotic-strain
#17
Kentaro Oka, Takako Osaki, Tomoko Hanawa, Satoshi Kurata, Emi Sugiyama, Motomichi Takahashi, Mamoru Tanaka, Haruhiko Taguchi, Shigeru Kamiya
Clostridium difficile is well known as an agent responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The hamster model utilizing an oral route for infection of C. difficile has been considered to be the standard model for analysis of C. difficile infection (CDI) but this model exhibits differences to human CDI, most notably as most hamsters die without exhibiting diarrhea. Therefore, we attempted to develop a new non-lethal and diarrheal rat CDI model caused by endogenous C. difficile using metronidazole (MNZ) and egg white...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958056/fresh-fruit-juice-of-opuntia-dillenii-haw-attenuates-acetic-acid-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-rats
#18
S Babitha, K Bindu, Taj Nageena, V P Veerapur
The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of fresh fruit juice of Opuntia dillenii Haw. (FJOD) on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Fresh FJOD (2.5 and 5 ml/kg) and sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg) were given orally for seven consecutive days prior to colitis induction on the eighth day by intrarectal acetic acid (4% v/v) administration. Macroscopic, clinical activity scoring, biochemical, and histopathological examinations of colon were used to assess colonic damage. FJOD and sulfasalazine treatment significantly attenuated the macroscopic damage, clinical activity score, and wet weight of the colon when compared to disease control and further showed significantly reduced levels of myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, and serum lactate dehydrogenase and enhanced colonic levels of reduced glutathione...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926707/experimental-in-vivo-models-of-bacterial-shiga-toxin-associated-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Yu-Jin Jeong, Sung-Kyun Park, Sung-Jin Yoon, Young Jun Park, Moo-Seung Lee
Shiga toxins (Stxs) are the main virulence factors expressed by the pathogenic Stx-producing bacteria, namely, Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain Escherichia coli strains. These bacteria cause widespread outbreaks of bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis) that in severe cases can progress to life-threatening systemic complications, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)characterized by the acute onset of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and kidney dysfunction.Shiga toxicosis has a distinct pathogenesis and animal models of Stxs-associated HUS have allowed us to investigate this...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921812/protective-effects-of-salvianolic-acid-a-against-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-acute-colitis-in-rats
#20
Kai Wang, Qinqin Yang, Quanxin Ma, Bei Wang, Zhengrui Wan, Minli Chen, Liming Wu
Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is an active phenolic acid derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen). To explore whether SAA has a therapeutic effect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an acute colitis model was induced in rats by administering 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) for one week. SAA in doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg/day was given by tail vein injection during DSS administration. Both dosages of SAA ameliorated the colitis symptoms, with decreases observed in the disease activity index. A high dosage of SAA (8 mg/kg/day) promoted a longer colon length and an improved colonic tissue structure, compared with the DSS-treated rats not receiving SAA...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
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