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Plant gene family

Yusuke Kuwahara, Daisuke Nakajima, Sayaka Shinpo, Michimi Nakamura, Noriaki Kawano, Nobuo Kawahara, Mami Yamazaki, Kazuki Saito, Hideyuki Suzuki, Hideki Hirakawa
Gleditsia sinensis is widely used as a medicinal plant in Asia, especially in China. Triterpenes, alkaloids, and sterols were isolated from Gleditsia species. Among them, triterpenoid saponins are very important metabolites owing to their various pharmacological activities. However, the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis pathway has not been well characterized. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for 14.3 Gbps of clean reads sequenced from nine tissues of G. sinensis. The results showed that 81,511 unique transcripts (unitranscripts) (47,855 unigenes) were constructed, of which 31,717 unigenes were annotated with Gene Ontology and EC numbers by Blast2GO against the NCBI-nr protein database...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Marcel Suleiman, Carola Schröder, Barbara Klippel, Christian Schäfers, Anna Krüger, Garabed Antranikian
Already-characterized microbial cellulases have proven to be highly useful for industrial processes, since they can withstand harsh industrial conditions with characteristics such as high thermo- and acid stability. These properties provide promising features for the process of plant biomass degradation and biofuel generation. Nevertheless, the number of known extremely thermoactive archaeal cellulases is low. Hence, the discovery of archaeal cellulases with different characteristics is crucial for the development of efficient and sustainable biorefinery...
December 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sunok Moon, Lae-Hyeon Cho, Yu-Jin Kim, Yun-Shil Gho, Ho Young Jeong, Woo-Jong Hong, Chanhui Lee, Hyon Park, Nam-Soo Jwa, Sarmina Dangol, Yafei Chen, Hayeong Park, Hyun-Soo Cho, Gynheung An, Ki-Hong Jung
Root hairs are important for absorption of nutrients and water from the rhizosphere. The ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE-SIX LIKE (RSL) Class Ⅱ family of transcription factors is expressed preferentially in root hairs and has a conserved role in root hair development in land plants. We functionally characterized the seven members of the RSL Class II subfamily in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. In root hairs, six of these genes were preferentially expressed and four were strongly expressed. Phenotypic analysis of each mutant revealed that Os07g39940 plays a major role in root hair formation, based on observations of a short root hair phenotype in those mutants...
December 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
Xin He, Tianyi Wang, Wan Zhu, Yujing Wang, Longfu Zhu
The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) is a plant-specific transcription factor family that plays important roles in plant developmental processes in response to multiple stressors. We previously isolated a cotton HD-ZIP class I transcription factor gene, GhHB12 , which is regulated by the circadian clock and photoperiodism. Furthermore, it regulates cotton architecture, phase transition, and photoperiod sensitivity. Here we report that GhHB12 was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and Verticillium dahliae infection...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiyong Cheng, Xiaodan Liu, Weiwei Mao, Xurui Zhang, Shulin Chen, Kehui Zhan, Huihui Bi, Haixia Xu
In plants, the HAK (high-affinity K⁺)/KUP (K⁺ uptake)/KT (K⁺ transporter) family represents a large group of potassium transporters that play important roles in plant growth and environmental adaptation. Although HAK/KUP/KT genes have been extensively investigated in many plant species, they remain uncharacterized in wheat, especially those involved in the response to environmental stresses. In this study, 56 wheat HAK/KUP/KT (hereafter called TaHAK s) genes were identified by a genome-wide search using recently released wheat genomic data...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ning Yan, Yongmei Du, Hongbo Zhang, Zhongfeng Zhang, Xinmin Liu, John Shi, Yanhua Liu
Solanesol is a terpene alcohol composed of nine isoprene units that mainly accumulates in solanaceous plants, especially tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ). The present study aimed to investigate the regulation of solanesol accumulation in tobacco leaves induced by moderately high temperature (MHT). Exposure to MHT resulted in a significant increase in solanesol content, dry weight, and net photosynthetic rate in tobacco leaves. In MHT-exposed tobacco leaves, 492 and 1440 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, as revealed by RNA-sequencing...
December 7, 2018: Biomolecules
Katerina S Lay, Hideki Takahashi
The root system architecture (RSA) of plants is highly dependent on the surrounding nutrient environment. The uptake of essential nutrients triggers various signaling cascades and fluctuations in plant hormones to elicit physical changes in RSA. These pathways may involve signaling components known as small signaling peptides (SSPs), which have been implicated in a variety of plant developmental processes. This review discusses known nutrient-responsive SSPs with a focus on several subclasses that have been shown to play roles in root development...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Oluwabusayo Sarah Adeyemo, Peter T Hyde, Tim L Setter
Cassava is a starch-storing root crop that is an important source of dietary energy in tropical regions of the world. Genetic improvement of cassava by breeding is hindered by late flowering and sparse flower production in lines that are needed as parents. To advance understanding of regulatory mechanisms in cassava, this work sought to identify and characterize homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene. Ten members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein gene family, to which FT belongs, were obtained from the cassava genome database...
December 12, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Jennifer Lachowiec, G Alex Mason, Karla Schultz, Christine Queitsch
Organismal development is remarkably robust, tolerating stochastic errors to produce consistent, so-called canalized adult phenotypes. The mechanistic underpinnings of developmental robustness are poorly understood, but recent studies implicate certain features of genetic networks such as functional redundancy, connectivity, and feedback. Here, we examine the BZR / BEH gene family, whose function contributes to embryonic stem development in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana , to test current assumptions on functional redundancy and trait robustness...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jun Zi Zhu, Hong Jian Zhu, Bi Da Gao, Qian Zhou, Jie Zhong
Sclerotium rolfsii , which causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops, is a devastating plant pathogen worldwide. Mycoviruses that induce hypovirulence in phytopathogenic fungi are potential biological control resources against fungal plant diseases. However, in S. rolfsii , mycoviruses are rarely reported. In a previous study, we found a hypovirulent strain carrying a diverse pattern of dsRNAs. Here, we utilized the RNA_Seq technique to detect viral sequences. Deep sequencing, RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing validation analyses revealed that this strain harbors various new viral species that show affinity to the distinctly established and proposed families Benyviridae, Endornaviridae , Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae , and Fusagraviridae...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elio Fantini, Maria Sulli, Lei Zhang, Giuseppe Aprea, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Gaetano Perrotta, Giovanni Giuliano, Paolo Facella
Cryptochromes are flavin-containing blue/UV-A light photoreceptors that regulate various plant light-induced physiological processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), cryptochromes mediate de-etiolation, photoperiodic control of flowering, entrainment of the circadian clock, cotyledon opening and expansion, anthocyanin accumulation and root growth. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; Solanaceae), cryptochromes are encoded by a multi-gene family, comprising CRY1a, CRY1b, CRY2 and CRY3. We have previously reported the phenotypes of tomato cry1a mutants and CRY2 overexpressing plants...
December 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Anthony P Neumann, Garret Suen
Members of the genus Fibrobacter are cellulose-degrading bacteria and common constituents of the gastrointestinal microbiota of herbivores. Although considerable phylogenetic diversity is observed among members of this group, few functional differences explaining the distinct ecological distributions of specific phylotypes have been described. In this study, we sequenced and performed a comparative analysis of whole genomes from 38 novel Fibrobacter strains against the type strains for the two formally described Fibrobacter species F...
December 12, 2018: MSphere
Daoqian Yu, Ghulam Qanmber, Lili Lu, Lingling Wang, Jie Li, Zhaoen Yang, Zhao Liu, Yi Li, Quanjia Chen, Venugopal Mendu, Fuguang Li, Zuoren Yang
BACKGROUND: Auxin-induced genes regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. The Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) gene family, one of three major early auxin-responsive families, is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and its members function as regulators in modulating hormonal homeostasis, and stress adaptations. Specific Auxin-amido synthetase activity of GH3 subfamily II genes is reported to reversibly inactivate or fully degrade excess auxin through the formation of amino acid conjugates...
December 12, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Fuchu Hu, Zhe Chen, Jietang Zhao, Xianghe Wang, Wenbing Su, Yonghua Qin, Guibing Hu
Litchi (Litchi chinesis Sonn.) is the most economically significant member of Sapindaceae family, especially in sub-tropical regions. However, its tall tree body often brings many inconveniences to production management. In order to modify the tree size or growth for productivity optimization and simplifying management, it is urgent to reveal the dwarf mechanism of litchi for dwarfing rootstocks or cultivar breeding. However, to date, the mechanisms on litchi dwarfism is still poor known. In the present study, transcriptome profiling were performed on L...
2018: PloS One
Anuj Kumar, Ritu Batra, Vijay Gahlaut, Tinku Gautam, Sanjay Kumar, Mansi Sharma, Sandhya Tyagi, Krishna Pal Singh, Harindra Singh Balyan, Renu Pandey, Pushpendra Kumar Gupta
RWP-RKs represent a small family of transcription factors (TFs) that are unique to plants and function particularly under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These RWP-RKs have been classified in two sub-families, NLPs (NIN-like proteins) and RKDs (RWP-RK domain proteins). NLPs regulate tissue-specific expression of genes involved in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and RKDs regulate expression of genes involved in gametogenesis/embryogenesis. During the present study, using in silico approach, 37 wheat RWP-RK genes were identified, which included 18 TaNLPs (2865 to 7340 bp with 4/5 exons), distributed on 15 chromosomes from 5 homoeologous groups (with two genes each on 4B,4D and 5A) and 19 TaRKDs (1064 to 5768 bp with 1 to 6 exons) distributed on 12 chromosomes from 4 homoeologous groups (except groups 1, 4 and 5); 2-3 splice variants were also available in 9 of the 37 genes...
2018: PloS One
Eri Adams, Takae Miyazaki, Ryoung Shin
Cesium has no known beneficial effects on plants and while plants have the ability to absorb it through the root system, plant growth is retarded at high concentrations. Recently, we have shown that potassium influx through a potassium channel complex AKT1-KC1 is inhibited by cesium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the resultant reduction in potassium accumulation in the plant is the primary cause of retarded growth. By contrast, a major potassium transporter, HAK5 whose function is crucial under potassium deficiency, was found to be either not affected or complementary under cesium stress in the low affinity potassium range...
December 12, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sabrina C Brunetti, Michelle K M Arseneault, Patrick J Gulick
BACKGROUND: Members of the Early Salt Induced 3 (Esi3/RCI2/PMP3) gene family in plants have been shown to be induced in response to both biotic and abiotic stresses and to enhance stress tolerance in both transgenic plants and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Esi3 was first identified as a salt stress induced gene in the salt tolerant wild wheat grass, Lophopyrum elongatum, and subsequently homologous genes in many other species were found to be members of the gene family. These include Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa where they are referred to as Rare Cold Inducible 2 (RCI2), and Zea mays where they are referred to as Plasma Membrane Protein 3 (PMP3)...
December 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Debora Arce, Flavio Spetale, Flavia Krsticevic, Paolo Cacchiarelli, Javier De Las Rivas, Sergio Ponce, Guillermo Pratta, Elizabeth Tapia
BACKGROUND: In living organisms, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are triggered in response to stress situations. This family of proteins is large in plants and, in the case of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), 33 genes have been identified, most of them related to heat stress response and to the ripening process. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies have revealed complex patterns of expression for these genes. In this work, we investigate the coregulation of these genes by performing a computational analysis of their promoter architecture to find regulatory motifs known as heat shock elements (HSEs)...
December 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Lyudmila Ignatova, Elena Zhurikova, Boris Ivanov
The carrier of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was detected in gel among low molecular mass proteins from pea, spinach and Arabidopsis, after nondenaturing electrophoresis in PAAG of the dodecyl-β-d-maltoside treated PSII membranes (the fragments of thylakoid membrane containing PSII complexes). The elimination of Mn-stabilizing protein PsbO by treatment of PSII membranes with salts, did not lead to a decrease in CA activity observed in the gel although it reduced the amount of this protein down to 25% compared to the original sample...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Panfeng Zhao, Qiuye You, Mingguang Lei
In vascular (Arabidopsis thaliana) and nonvascular (Physcomitrella patens) plants, PHOSPHATE 1 (PHO1) homologs play important roles in the acquisition and transfer of phosphate. The tomato genome contains six genes (SlPHO1;1-SlPHO1;6) homologous to AtPHO1. The six proteins have typical characteristics of the plant PHO1 family, such as the three SPX sub domains in the N-terminal portion and one EXS domain in the C-terminal portion. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SlPHO1 family is subdivided into three clusters...
December 8, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
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