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Behaviour safety

Laura A Agee, Marie-H Monfils
In the social transmission of food preference paradigm, naive observer rats acquire safety information about novel food sources in the environment through social interaction with a demonstrator rat that has recently eaten said food. Research into the behavioural mechanisms governing this form of learning has found that observers show increased reliance on socially acquired information when the state of the environment makes personal examination of their surroundings risky. We aimed to (1) determine whether reliance on social information would decrease if previous reliance on social learning was unsuccessful, and (2) whether reliance on the specific demonstrator that had transmitted poor information would similarly decrease...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Laura-Jayne A Ellis, Anastasios G Papadiamantis, Stefan Weigel, Eugenia Valsami-Jones
The reliable quantification of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex matrices such as food, cosmetics and biological and environmental compartments can be challenging due to interactions with matrix components and analytical equipment (vials and tubing). The resulting losses along the analytical process (sampling, extraction, clean-up, separation and detection) hamper the quantification of the target NMs in these matrices as well as the compatibility of results and meaningful interpretations in safety assessments...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Anne Templeton, John Drury, Andrew Philippides
Research in crowd psychology has demonstrated key differences between the behaviour of physical crowds where members are in the same place at the same time, and the collective behaviour of psychological crowds where the entire crowd perceive themselves to be part of the same group through a shared social identity. As yet, no research has investigated the behavioural effects that a shared social identity has on crowd movement at a pedestrian level. To investigate the direction and extent to which social identity influences the movement of crowds, 280 trajectories were tracked as participants walked in one of two conditions: (1) a psychological crowd primed to share a social identity; (2) a naturally occurring physical crowd...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Andrea Farnham, Sarah Ziegler, Ulf Blanke, Emily Stone, Christoph Hatz, Milo A Puhan
Background: Despite the continuing growth of international tourism, very little research has been done on the link between individual risk attitudes and health behaviours during travel. Our study uses a validated risk-taking questionnaire (DOSPERT) and data from a smartphone application to study the association between pre-travel risk attitudes and the occurrence of behaviours during travel. Methods: A prospective cohort of travellers to Thailand used a smartphone application to answer a daily questionnaire about health behaviours and events...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Lorena Rieke, Robin Schubert, Tamara Matheis, Lisa M Muratori, Jan Motlik, Sarah Schramke, Michaela Fels, Nicole Kemper, Verena Schuldenzucker, Ralf Reilmann
BACKGROUND: Large animal models, such as the transgenic (tg) Huntington disease (HD) minipig, have been proposed to improve translational reliability and assessment of safety, efficacy and tolerability in preclinical studies. Minipigs are characterised by high genetic homology and comparable brain structures to humans. In addition, behavioural assessments successfully applied in humans could be explored in minipigs to establish similar endpoints in preclinical and clinical studies. Recently, analysis of voice and speech production was established to characterise HD patients...
2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Ioannis Angelakis, Venessa Lewis, Jennifer L Austin, Maria Panagioti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Engaging in safety behaviors in the absence of actual threat is a key feature of many psychological disorders, including OCD and depression. Failure to discriminate between threatening and safe environments may make these behaviors resistant to change. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the conditions under which avoidance and safety behaviors are developed and maintained. METHODS: In experiment 1, sixty-seven participants who were initially screened for low obsessive-compulsive behavior were invited to play a computerized game to gain points and avoid their potential loss...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Sarah Stotz, Jung Sun Lee, Jori Hall
OBJECTIVE: To understand low-income adults' expectations and experiences using an innovative smartphone and theory-based eLearning nutrition education programme, entitled Food eTalk. DESIGN: Longitudinal mixed-methods single case study including a series of focus group and individual interviews, demographic and Internet habits surveys, and user-tracking data. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, analysed using the constant comparative method and digitalized using Atlas...
August 13, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Terri R Fried, Colleen A Redding, Steven Martino, Andrea Paiva, Lynne Iannone, Maria Zenoni, Laura A Blakley, Joseph S Rossi, John O'Leary
INTRODUCTION: Advance care planning (ACP) is a key component of high-quality end-of-life care but is underused. Interventions based on models of behaviour change may fill an important gap in available programmes to increase ACP engagement. Such interventions are designed for broad outreach and flexibility in delivery. The purpose of the Sharing and Talking about My Preferences study is to examine the efficacy of three behaviour change approaches to increasing ACP engagement through two related randomised controlled trials being conducted in different settings (Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centre and community)...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Jessica M Yingst, Courtney Lester, Susan Veldheer, Sophia I Allen, Ping Du, Jonathan Foulds
INTRODUCTION: 'Stealth vaping' is the practice of vaping discreetly in places where electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is prohibited. While anecdotal evidence suggests that stealth vaping is common, there have been no formal studies of the behaviour. The purpose of this study is to examine stealth vaping behaviour among experienced e-cigarette users. METHODS: Data were collected from the follow-up survey of a large longitudinal cohort study of adult experienced e-cigarette users conducted in January 2017...
August 10, 2018: Tobacco Control
Yasmeen Gul, Zahid Sultan, Gul Ahmed Jokhio
It has been reported in the literature that the perception of crime at the neighbourhood level inversely affects the walking behaviour of individuals. On the other hand, the gated neighbourhoods are considered safe from crime, however, there is a lack of research on the association of the perception of crime and walking in gated neighbourhoods. Therefore, the objectives of the study reported in this paper were to investigate the association between the perception of crime and walking in gated and non-gated neighbourhoods...
August 2018: Heliyon
Emma S Walker, Ruth A Roberts
From animal research through adverse events in clinical trials to health scares around food contamination, toxicology has frequently been a focus of scientific and societal concern. As these concerns shift with each new drug, new technology or public health scare, how can toxicology stay current, relevant and ethical? Two of the biggest ethical challenges in pharmaceutical toxicology are the use of animals in testing and the high safety-related attrition rates in new drug development. Both of these require progress in the discipline that will only be driven by research funding...
July 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Janke Kleynhans, Anne Frederica Grobler, Thomas Ebenhan, Mike Sathekge, Jan Rijn Zeevaart
INTRODUCTION: Drug delivery systems are entities designed to alter the biological behaviour of the pharmaceutical active ingredients that they carry in order to afford more beneficial biodistribution and safety profiles. Many problems currently faced by the field of nuclear medicine (e.g. developing new theranostic agents, utilizing multimodal imaging platforms and providing targeted delivery) can be facilitated by applying drug delivery systems to radiopharmaceuticals that have been proven successful in other medical fields...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Paul Aveyard, Nicola Lindson, Sarah Tearne, Rachel Adams, Khaled Ahmed, Rhona Alekna, Miriam Banting, Mike Healy, Shahnaz Khan, Gurmail Rai, Carmen Wood, Emma C Anderson, Alia Ataya-Williams, Angela Attwood, Kayleigh Easey, Megan Fluharty, Therese Freuler, Megan Hurse, Jasmine Khouja, Lindsey Lacey, Marcus Munafò, Deborah Lycett, Andy McEwen, Tim Coleman, Anne Dickinson, Sarah Lewis, Sophie Orton, Johanna Perdue, Clare Randall, Rebecca Anderson, Natalie Bisal, Peter Hajek, Celine Homsey, Hayden J McRobbie, Katherine Myers-Smith, Anna Phillips, Dunja Przulj, Jinshuo Li, Doug Coyle, Katherine Coyle, Subhash Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Nicotine preloading means using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit date while smoking normally. The aim is to reduce the drive to smoke, thereby reducing cravings for smoking after quit day, which are the main cause of early relapse. A prior systematic review showed inconclusive and heterogeneous evidence that preloading was effective and little evidence of the mechanism of action, with no cost-effectiveness data. OBJECTIVES: To assess (1) the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of nicotine preloading in a routine NHS setting relative to usual care, (2) the mechanisms of the action of preloading and (3) the cost-effectiveness of preloading...
August 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Javadreza Vahedi, Afshin Shariat Mohaymany, Zahra Tabibi, Milad Mehdizadeh
The current study aims to investigate the aberrant driving behaviour and risk involvement of Iranian taxi drivers. The sample comprised 405 Iranian taxi drivers, who were recruited with a cross-sectional design, using a self-completion questionnaire survey during October and November 2016. We contribute to the literature by understanding how and to what extent the socioeconomic, demographic, driving, and aberrant driving behaviours influence risk involvement (accident involvement and traffic tickets). The validated 27-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) was applied to measure aberrant driving behaviour...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Aniekan Imo Peter, Edwin Cs Naidu, Edidiong Akang, Oluwatosin O Ogedengbe, Ugochukwu Offor, Sanjeev Rambharose, Rahul Kalhapure, Anil Chuturgoon, Thirumala Govender, Onyemaechi O Azu
Tenofovir nanoparticles are novel therapeutic intervention in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection reaching the virus in their sanctuary sites. However, there has been no systemic toxicity testing of this formulation despite global concerns on the safety of nano drugs. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the toxicity of Tenofovir nanoparticle (NTDF) on the liver and kidney using an animal model. Fifteen adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats maintained at the animal house of the biomedical resources unit of the University of KwaZulu-Natal were weighed and divided into three groups...
July 2018: Toxicological Research
Luke Johnson, Natasha Malik, Irene Gafson, Naomi Gostelow, Jayne Kavanagh, Ann Griffin, Faye Gishen
BACKGROUND: Doctors and medical students have a professional responsibility to raise concerns. Failure to raise concerns may compromise patient safety. It is widely known that medical students frequently encounter unprofessional behaviours in the workplace, but little is known about the barriers to raising concerns amongst medical students. This paper explores these issues and discusses some innovations in the medical undergraduate curriculum, offering a good practice model for other medical and healthcare curricula...
July 28, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Manraj Bhamra, Anto P Rajkumar, Dominic H Ffytche, Chris Kalafatis
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia associated with poor prognosis and high carers' burden. Neuropsychiatric symptoms worsen this prognosis and are a high source of distress for service users and their carers. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to support the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of these symptoms. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are the first-line pharmacological option, but challenging risky behaviours may persist despite their use...
July 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Luís M Félix, Ana Luzio, Maria Themudo, Luís Antunes, Manuela Matos, Ana M Coimbra, Ana M Valentim
MS-222 has been widely used as an anaesthetic in fish, thus, raising the need to infer about its toxicological safety during development. In this study, MS-222 toxicity in zebrafish embryos was evaluated after a 20-min exposure at different stages of development. Embryos exposed during the 256-cell stage displayed an increase in mortality, associated with defective early developmental pathways. Following exposure during the 50% epiboly stage, an increase in mortality and abnormal cartilage development, as well as changes in noggin expression were observed...
July 24, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Nor Shaida Husna Zulkrnin, Nurul Nadiah Rozhan, Nur Amanina Zulkfili, Nik Raihan Nik Yusoff, Mohd Sukhairi Mat Rasat, Nor Hakimin Abdullah, Muhammad Iqbal Ahmad, Rajiv Ravi, Intan H Ishak, Mohamad Faiz Mohd Amin
Dengue is vector-borne diseases with 390 million infections per year extending over 120 countries of the world. Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector for dengue viral infections for humans. Current focus on application of natural product against mosquito vectors has been the main priority for research due to its eco-safety. The extensive use of chemical insecticides has led to severe health problems, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to human and nontarget species, and development of insecticide resistance on mosquitoes...
2018: Journal of Parasitology Research
Noémie Resseguier, Natacha Rosso-Delsemme, Any Beltran Anzola, Karine Baumstarck, Vanessa Milien, Laurent Ardillon, Sophie Bayart, Claire Berger, Marie-Anne Bertrand, Christine Biron-Andreani, Annie Borel-Derlon, Sabine Castet, Pierre Chamouni, Ségolène Claeyssens Donadel, Emmanuelle De Raucourt, Dominique Desprez, Céline Falaise, Birgit Frotscher, Valérie Gay, Jenny Goudemand, Yves Gruel, Benoît Guillet, Annie Harroche, Abel Hassoun, Yoann Huguenin, Thierry Lambert, Aurélien Lebreton, Anne Lienhart, Michèle Martin, Sandrine Meunier, Fabrice Monpoux, Guillaume Mourey, Claude Negrier, Philippe Nguyen, Placide Nyombe, Caroline Oudot, Brigitte Pan-Petesch, Benoît Polack, Anne Rafowicz, Antoine Rauch, Delphine Rivaud, Pascale Schneider, Alexandra Spiegel, Cecile Stoven, Brigitte Tardy, Marc Trossaërt, Jean-Baptiste Valentin, Stéphane Vanderbecken, Fabienne Volot, Annelise Voyer-Ebrard, Bénédicte Wibaut, Tanguy Leroy, Thomas Sannie, Hervé Chambost, Pascal Auquier
INTRODUCTION: Severe haemophilia is a rare disease characterised by spontaneous bleeding from early childhood, which may lead to various complications, especially in joints. It is nowadays possible to avoid these complications thanks to substitutive therapies for which the issue of adherence is major. The transition from adolescence to adulthood in young people with severe haemophilia is a critical period as it is associated with a high risk of lack of adherence to healthcare, which might have serious consequences on daily activities and on quality of life...
July 25, 2018: BMJ Open
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