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Behaviour safety

Kate McKeage, Katherine A Lyseng-Williamson
EGb 761® (Tanakan® ) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that has demonstrated protective properties against neuronal and vascular damage. Overall, in randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials and meta-analyses in adults with mild-to-moderate dementia, EGb 761® displayed positive effects, with changes from baseline in outcomes related to cognition, behaviour and global change that are generally better than those shown with placebo. EGb 761® is generally well tolerated, with no safety issues being identified during its many years of widespread use...
2018: Drugs & Therapy Perspectives: for Rational Drug Selection and Use
Disi Bai, Qingzhao Li, Jianhui Wang, Junjian Zhao, Xuenan Deng, Lu Yuan, Ping Wu
Recently, interest in the potential applications of tin disulphide nanoflowers (SnS2 NFs) in the treatment of waste water and their antibacterial properties has increased. However, their effects on neurotoxicity, brain cognition and behavioural injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms of these effects have remained unknown. In the present study, we compared the neurotoxicity of SnS2 NFs (50 nm) administered intragastrically at different doses (5, 10, and 50 mg kg-1 ) in mice for 60 days. The results showed that the neurotoxicity of SnS2 NFs in mice is dose-dependent...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Fiona Catherine Measham
BACKGROUND: In a year when UK drug-related deaths and festival drug-related deaths reached their highest on record, a pilot festival drug safety testing service was introduced with the aim of reducing drug-related harm. This paper describes the operational and behavioural outcomes of this pilot and explores the relationship between drug use, supply and policing within festival grounds. METHODS: Chemists in a temporary laboratory analysed 247 substances submitted by the public to a free, confidential testing service across four days at a UK festival in July 2016...
November 28, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Bernadette M Ward, Belinda O'Sullivan, Penny Buykx
BACKGROUND: The entertainment precincts of cities, while contributing to local economies, need to be carefully managed to mitigate harms. Individual behaviours and government regulation have typically been the foci of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. Little is known about how changes to the built environment might influence alcohol-related harms in these settings. The aim of this study was to explore how a public shelter and a volunteer-funded and staffed mobile van in a regional city influenced perceptions of safety and reduction in alcohol-related harm...
December 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Marguerite C Sendall, Laura K McCosker, Alison Brodie, Melissa Hill, Phil Crane
BACKGROUND: Workplace health interventions incorporating qualitative and quantitative components (mixed methods) within a Participatory Action Research approach can increase understanding of contextual issues ensuring realistic interventions which influence health behaviour. Mixed methods research teams, however, face a variety of challenges at the methodological and expertise levels when designing actions and interventions. Addressing these challenges can improve the team's functionality and lead to higher quality health outcomes...
December 12, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Yu V Voskanyan
The article deals with the analysis of retrospective and prospective studies dedicated to examining patient safety regarding epidemiology, frequency and severity of adverse events associated with rendering medical care. Electronic retrieval was carried out over the period from 1990 to 2017 using the following databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane Collaboration, EMBASE, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science. The carried out meta-analysis made it possible to determine that cases of doing harm (adverse events) while rendering medical care are registered in 10...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Wouter van Haperen, Malik Sarmad Riaz, Stijn Daniels, Nicolas Saunier, Tom Brijs, Geert Wets
Behavioural observation studies in road safety research collect naturalistic data of road users that are not informed (beforehand) of their participation in a research project. It enables the observation of behavioural and situational processes that contribute to unsafe traffic events, while possible behavioural adaptations due to the road users' recognition of being observed are minimized. The literature in this field is vast and diverse, with studies dating back to the 1930s. The aim of this paper is to summarize the research efforts in the domain of road user behavioural observation research to examine trends and developments of this type of research, using a scoping review...
December 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Katarzyna Polak-Kraśna, Sandra Robak-Nawrocka, Sylwia Szotek, Marcin Czyż, Daniel Gheek, Celina Pezowicz
BACKGROUND: Damage to the spinal cord is one of the most debilitating pathologies with considerable health, economic and social impact. Improved prevention, treatment and rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) requires the complex biomechanics of the spinal cord with all its structural elements and the injury mechanism to be understood. This comprehensive understanding will also allow development of models and tools enabling better diagnosis, surgical treatment with increased safety and efficacy and possible development of regenerative therapies...
November 20, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Long Lei, Xiaozhi Qi, Shibo Li, Yuanyuan Yang, Ying Hu, Bing Li, Shijia Zhao, Yanfang Zhang
Self-expanding Nitinol stents are increasingly used to treat femoropopliteal artery (FPA) occlusions, but the risk of stent fatigue failure exists due to complex artery deformation during daily activities. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been widely applied to study the stent fatigue behaviours, but physiological deformation and atherosclerotic plaque were not considered simultaneously in previous studies. In this work, to show the necessity and feasibility of considering both factors in evaluation of the stent fatigue behaviours, a comprehensive FEA framework considering both factors is established, and an easy loading method for the complex boundary condition is proposed...
November 29, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Nicola Warren, Vanessa Grote, Cullen O'Gorman, Dan Siskind
BACKGROUND: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis most commonly presents with psychiatric symptoms such as behavioural disturbance, catatonia and psychosis. Although the primary treatment is with immunomodulatory therapy, psychiatric symptoms often require adjuvant management. Side effects and treatment resistance limits the use of psychotropics, but the role of ECT has been minimally reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To review the safety and effectiveness of ECT for treatment of psychiatric symptoms in anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis...
December 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Sula Windgassen, Rona Moss-Morris, Kimberley Goldsmith, Trudie Chalder
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by abdominal pain and altered bowel movements. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in reducing symptom severity in IBS and enhancing quality of life/functioning. The present study sought to identify how CBT achieves change in these outcomes. METHOD: Secondary analysis was conducted on 149 patients with irritable bowel syndrome who had been randomised to cognitive behavioural therapy plus an antispasmodic medication or antispasmodic alone...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Helen Lloyd, Ben Fosh, Ben Whalley, Richard Byng, James Close
Background: Measuring patient experiences of healthcare is increasingly emphasized as a mechanism to measure, benchmark and drive quality improvement, clinical effectiveness and patient safety at both national and local NHS level. Person-centred coordinated care (P3C) is the conjunction of two constructs; person-centred care and care coordination. It is a complex intervention requiring support for changes to organizational structure and the behaviour of professionals and patients. P3C can be defined as: 'care and support that is guided by and organized effectively around the needs and preferences of individuals'...
December 1, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Raghav Bhargava, Katie L Daughters, D Aled Rees
Patients with hypopituitarism display impaired quality of life and excess morbidity and mortality, despite apparently optimal pituitary hormone replacement. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide synthesised in the anterior hypothalamus which plays an important role in controlling social and emotional behaviour, body weight and metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that a deficiency of oxytocin may be evident in patients with hypopituitarism and craniopharyngioma, and that this may be associated with deficits in cognitive empathy...
December 2, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Anika Frühauf, Pia Anewanter, Julia Hagenauer, Natalie Marterer, Martin Kopp
OBJECTIVES: To compare professional freeride skiers (an experienced high-risk cohort) with recreational freeride skiers (a less experienced high risk cohort) and slope skiers (a low-risk sport cohort) in regard to their motives and their reported accident involvement. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: In an online survey, skiers completed the German Sensation Seeking, Emotion Regulation and Agency Scale and the German Accident and Close Calls in Sport Inventory...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Andreea Farcas, Madalina Huruba, Cristina Mogoșan
Risk minimization measures (RMMs) represent an essential tool for preventing the occurrence of safety related outcomes. RMMs effectiveness evaluation is essential to prove their success and protection of public health. The aim of this qualitative review was to assess the design, process and outcome indicators used for attesting successful implementation of RMMs. We searched the EU Post-Authorization Studies Register until June 30, 2018, for studies having the scope defined as 'effectiveness evaluation'. Study titles and objectives were screened to select the ones evaluating the effectiveness of RMMs...
November 29, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Paul M Salmon, Gemma J M Read, Vanessa Beanland, Jason Thompson, Ashleigh J Filtness, Adam Hulme, Rod McClure, Ian Johnston
The so-called 'fatal five' behaviours (drink and drug driving, distraction and inattention, speeding, fatigue, and failure to wear a seat belt) are known to be the major behavioural contributory factors to road trauma. However, little is known about the factors that lead to drivers engaging in each behaviour. This article presents the findings from a study which collected and analysed data on the factors that lead to drivers engaging in each behaviour. The study involved a survey of drivers' perceptions of the causes of each behaviour and a subject matter expert workshop to gain the views of road safety experts...
January 2019: Applied Ergonomics
Janet C Long, Deborah Debono, Rachel Williams, Elizabeth Salisbury, Sharron O'Neill, Elizabeth Eykman, Jordan Butler, Robert Rawson, Kim-Chi Phan-Thien, Stephen R Thompson, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Melvin Chin, Natalie Taylor
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing surgery for bowel cancer now have a routine screening test to assess their genetic predisposition to this and other cancers (Lynch syndrome). A result indicating a high risk should trigger referral to a genetic clinic for diagnostic testing, information, and management. Appropriate management of Lynch syndrome lowers morbidity and mortality from cancer for patients and their family, but referral rates are low. The aim of this project was to increase referral rates for patients at high risk of Lynch syndrome at two Australian hospitals, using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) Implementation approach...
November 28, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Azadeh Nilghaz, Xiaonan Lu
This work demonstrates a sensitive and rapid method for the detection of antibiotic residues in food samples by employing the filtration behaviour of paper combined with aggregation and precipitation of chemical reagents. Using this concept, we successfully determined the presence of oxytetracycline and norfloxacin residues in pork using metal complexation on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The base substrate (top layer of the device) was fabricated by printing letter channels of the words "oxytetracycline" and "norfloxacin" before functionalization with copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate in 0...
January 10, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Wenche Farstad
Ethical breeding involves the use of healthy animals true to their species in behaviour and physical appearance, and when applicable, showing a sustainable performance. The concerns for the species/breed are essential parts of the breeding goals, including preservation of genetic resources within the species/breed, and the health and welfare of the individual animal. Ethical and welfare considerations were often not prioritized in developing new breeds of production or companion animals. As a result, animal breeding practices are increasingly becoming part of the debate on animal welfare...
November 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Kennedy Muni, Olive Kobusingye, Charles Mock, James P Hughes, Philip M Hurvitz, Brandon Guthrie
BACKGROUND: SafeBoda is a motorcycle taxi company that provides road safety training and helmets to its drivers in Kampala, Uganda. We sought to determine whether SafeBoda drivers are more likely to engage in safe riding behaviours than regular drivers (motorcycle taxi drivers not part of SafeBoda ). METHODS : We measured riding behaviours in SafeBoda and regular drivers through: (1) computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI), where 400 drivers were asked about their riding behaviours (eg, helmet and mobile phone use) and (2) roadside observation, where riding behaviours were observed in 3000 boda-boda drivers and their passengers along major roads in Kampala...
November 24, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
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