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Behaviour safety

Denham L Phipps, Christian E L Jones, Dianne Parker, Darren M Ashcroft
BACKGROUND: While efforts have been made to bring about quality and safety improvement in healthcare, it remains by no means certain that an improvement project will succeed. This suggests a need to better understand the process and conditions of improvement. The current study addresses this question by examining English community pharmacies attempting to undertake improvement activities. METHOD: The study used a longitudinal qualitative design, involving a sample of ten community pharmacies...
October 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Yvonne F Awenat, Sarah Peters, Patricia A Gooding, Daniel Pratt, Emma Shaw-Núñez, Kamelia Harris, Gillian Haddock
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a global problem and suicidal behavior is common in acute psychiatric wards. Inpatient suicides regularly occur with 10.4/100,000 such deaths recorded in the UK in 2016. Inpatient suicides are potentially the most avoidable of all suicides as inpatients have 24-h staff contact. Current inpatient treatment prioritizes maintenance of physical safety by observation, medication and general supportive measures, however efficacious and effective specific treatments are lacking...
October 16, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Mohsen Hatami, Dongmei Wang, Aili Qu, Zeng Xiangsen, Qiugen Wang, Behzad Baradaran Kazemian
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a novel 3D dynamic model of a pelvic side-impactor system. The biomechanical responses of a pelvic flexible model (having .mnf file suffix) under the lateral impact load for predicting the bone fracture mechanism are investigated as well. The 3D solid model of the side-impactor system was imported into MSC/ADAMS software for analyzing the dynamic model, and the pelvic flexible model was extracted from the CT images of a Chinese female volunteer. The flexible model of the pelvis system was developed considering a wide range of mechanical properties in the bone complex and soft tissue to achieve a realistic biomechanical response during a lateral impact...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Jason Hugh Thompson, Jasper S Wijnands, Suzanne Mavoa, Katherine Scully, Mark R Stevenson
The safety in numbers (SiN) effect for cyclists is widely observed but remains poorly understood. Although most studies investigating the SiN phenomenon have focused on behavioural adaptation to 'numbers' of cyclists in the road network, previous work in simulated environments has suggested SiN may instead be driven by increases in local cyclist spatial density, which prevents drivers from attempting to move through groups of oncoming cyclists. This study therefore set out to validate the results of prior simulation studies in a real-world environment...
October 12, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Stefan Flügel, Knut Veisten, Luis I Rizzi, Juan de Dios Ortúzar, Rune Elvik
INTRODUCTION: The economic value of safety represents an important guide to transport policy, and more studies on individuals' valuation of road safety are called for. This paper presents a stated preference study of the value of preventing fatal and serious injuries involving bus passengers and car drivers in road accidents. OBJECTIVES: Former valuation studies based on travel behaviour and route choice have involved primarily car drivers. Our study also included bus passengers, thus providing a comparison of two types of transport mode users...
October 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Stephanie P Schwartz, Kathryn C Adair, Jonathan Bae, Kyle J Rehder, Tait D Shanafelt, Jochen Profit, J Bryan Sexton
BACKGROUND: Healthcare is approaching a tipping point as burnout and dissatisfaction with work-life integration (WLI) in healthcare workers continue to increase. A scale evaluating common behaviours as actionable examples of WLI was introduced to measure work-life balance. OBJECTIVES: (1) Explore differences in WLI behaviours by role, specialty and other respondent demographics in a large healthcare system. (2) Evaluate the psychometric properties of the work-life climate scale, and the extent to which it acts like a climate, or group-level norm when used at the work setting level...
October 11, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Louisa J Ells, Karen Rees, Tamara Brown, Emma Mead, Lena Al-Khudairy, Liane Azevedo, Grant J McGeechan, Louise Baur, Emma Loveman, Heather Clements, Pura Rayco-Solon, Nathalie Farpour-Lambert, Alessandro Demaio
Children and adolescents with overweight and obesity are a global health concern. This is an integrative overview of six Cochrane systematic reviews, providing an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence examining interventions for the treatment of children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. The data extraction and quality assessments for each review were conducted by one author and checked by a second. The six high quality reviews provide evidence on the effectiveness of behaviour changing interventions conducted in children <6 years (7 trials), 6-11 years (70 trials), adolescents 12-17 years (44 trials) and interventions that target only parents of children aged 5-11 years (20 trials); in addition to interventions examining surgery (1 trial) and drugs (21 trials)...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Sarah F Baillon, Usha Narayana, Jay S Luxenberg, Andrew V Clifton
BACKGROUND: Agitation has been reported in up to 90% of people with dementia. Agitation in people with dementia worsens carer burden, increases the risk of injury, and adds to the need for institutionalisation. Valproate preparations have been used in an attempt to control agitation in dementia, but their safety and efficacy have been questioned. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and adverse effects of valproate preparations used to treat agitation in people with dementia, including the impact on carers...
October 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Noha Nafee, Shaimaa Makled, Nabila Boraie
With the non-selective vasodilating action, short half-life and first-pass metabolism of sildenafil (SC), local application in the lung for pulmonary arterial hypertension is of high demand. Although several nanosystems have been lately investigated, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) give promises of potential safety, biodegradability and controlled drug release. In the current study, NLCs comprising either precirol, stearic acid or beeswax as solid lipid in presence of oleic acid as liquid lipid and PVA or poloxamer as emulsifier were prepared...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Barnaby R Scholefield, Faye S Silverstein, Russell Telford, Richard Holubkov, Beth S Slomine, Kathleen L Meert, James R Christensen, Vinay M Nadkarni, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler
BACKGROUND: Separate trials to evaluate therapeutic hypothermia after paediatric cardiac arrest for out-of-hospital and in-hospital settings reported no statistically significant differences in survival with favourable neurobehavioral outcome or safety compared to therapeutic normothermia. However, larger sample sizes might detect smaller clinical effects. Our aim was to pool data from identically conducted trials to approximately double the sample size of the individual trials yielding greater statistical power to compare outcomes...
October 3, 2018: Resuscitation
K Suzanne Scherf, Jason W Griffin, Brian Judy, Elisabeth M Whyte, Charles F Geier, Daniel Elbich, Joshua M Smyth
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by impairments in social communication. Core symptoms are deficits in social looking behaviours, including limited visual attention to faces and sensitivity to eye gaze cues. We designed an intervention game using serious game mechanics for adolescents with ASD. It is designed to train individuals with ASD to discover that the eyes, and shifts in gaze specifically, provide information about the external world. We predict that the game will increase understanding of gaze cues and attention to faces...
October 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Katie E Gunnell, Patricia E Longmuir, Joel D Barnes, Kevin Belanger, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) is a 25-indicator assessment tool comprising four domains of physical literacy: (1) Physical Competence, (2) Daily Behaviour, (3) Motivation and Confidence, and (4) Knowledge and Understanding. The purpose of this study was to re-examine the factor structure of CAPL scores and the relative weight of each domain for an overall physical literacy factor. Our goal was to maximize content representation, and reduce construct irrelevant variance and participant burden, to inform the development of CAPL-2 (a revised, shorter, and theoretically stronger version of CAPL)...
October 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Patricia E Longmuir, Sarah J Woodruff, Charles Boyer, Meghann Lloyd, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Physical literacy is defined as the motivation, confidence, physical competence, and knowledge and understanding to engage in physical activity for life. Physical literacy knowledge and understanding encompasses movement (how to move), performance (evaluation of movement), and health and fitness (value of exercise, need for relaxation and sleep, etc.). This paper describes the development and evaluation of a standardized assessment of physical literacy knowledge and understanding for Canadian children in grades 4, 5, and 6...
October 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Laura J Leslie, Yezen Sheena, Duncan Et Shepherd, Amir Ismail, Stephen N Kukureka, Vik Vijh
Breast augmentation using implants is the most common aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgical procedure. Complications such as implant rupture maybe related to surgical technique and damage to the implant. Autologous fat transfer (lipofilling) using metallic cannulae has become a standard adjunctive, yet there is little evidence on lipofilling safety in the presence of implants. The aims of this study are to verify the effects of different cannulae and to quantify the forces applied by surgeons during lipofilling...
October 4, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Frank Moriarty, Shegufta Razzaque, Ronald McDowell, Tom Fahey
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacovigilance may detect safety issues after marketing of medications, and this can result in regulatory action such as direct healthcare professional communications (DHPC). DHPC can be effective in changing prescribing behaviour, however the extent to which prescribers vary in their response to DHPC is unknown. This study aims to explore changes in prescribing and prescribing variation among general practitioner (GP) practices following a DHPC on the safety of mirabegron, a medication to treat overactive bladder (OAB)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Adam L Crane, Kevin R Bairos-Novak, Laurel H Sacco, Maud C O Ferrari
Social learning is an important mechanism for acquiring knowledge about environmental risk. However, little work has explored the learning of safety and how such learning outcomes are shaped by the social environment. Here, we exposed minnows, Pimephales promelas , to a high-risk environment to induce behavioural responses associated with fear (e.g. neophobia). We then used the presence of calm conspecific models (low-risk individuals) to weaken these responses. When observers (individuals from the high-risk environment) and models were paired consistently in a one-on-one setting, the observers showed no recovery (i...
October 3, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Derek Stewart, Binny Thomas, Katie MacLure, Kerry Wilbur, Kyle Wilby, Abdulrouf Pallivalapila, Andrea Dijkstra, Cristin Ryan, Wessam El Kassem, Ahmed Awaisu, James S McLay, Rajvir Singh, Moza Al Hail
BACKGROUND: There is a need for theory informed interventions to optimise medication reporting. This study aimed to quantify and explain behavioural determinants relating to error reporting of healthcare professionals in Qatar as a basis of developing interventions to optimise the effectiveness and efficiency of error reporting. METHODS: A sequential explanatory mixed methods design comprising a cross-sectional survey followed by focus groups in Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth Peterson, Rosalina Richards, Bronwen McNoe, Anthony I Reeder
ISSUES ADDRESSED: Cutaneous melanomas and keratinocyte carcinomas (non-melanoma skin cancer) are highly prevalent in New Zealand (NZ), making skin cancer a priority area for cancer control. Spring is an important time for encouraging sun-safety, due to ultraviolet radiation (UV) levels becoming hazardous. The news media has potential to play an important role in reminding people and emphasising the importance of sun-safety. This study aimed to describe how the traditional NZ media portrayed sun-safety and skin cancer in spring news stories...
October 1, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Maria Esposito, Francesca Prignano, Franco Rongioletti, Katharina Hansel, Leonardo Bianchi, Leonardo Pescitelli, Linda Lazzeri, Federica Ricceri, Cristina Mugheddu, Mauro Bavetta, Arianna Zangrilli, Luca Bianchi, Vittorio Bini, Luca Stingeni
INTRODUCTION: During treatment with biologic agents for psoriasis in a number of patients a failure may occur and discontinuation with transitioning to an other drug or an optimization strategy, consisting in a dose-adjustment or a co-medication with a traditional systemic agent, reprent two possible alternatives. OBJECTIVE: The SAFARI study objective was a retrospective observation of adalimumab efficacy and safety profile after switching from other anti-TNFα agents related to clinician behaviour after the failure of the first-line agent...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Derek Stewart, Binny Thomas, Katie MacLure, Abdulrouf Pallivalapila, Wessam El Kassem, Ahmed Awaisu, James S McLay, Kerry Wilbur, Kyle Wilby, Cristin Ryan, Andrea Dijkstra, Rajvir Singh, Moza Al Hail
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of robust, rigorous mixed methods studies of patient safety culture generally and notably those which incorporate behavioural theories of change. The study aimed to quantify and explain key aspects of patient safety culture which were of most concern to healthcare professionals in Qatar. METHODS: A sequential explanatory mixed methods design of a cross-sectional survey followed by focus groups in Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar. All doctors, nurses and pharmacists were invited to complete the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS)...
2018: PloS One
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