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Appetite Inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094481/threats-to-belonging-immune-function-and-eating-behavior-an-examination-of-sex-and-gender-differences
#1
REVIEW
Lisa M Jaremka, Olga Lebed, Naoyuki Sunami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first goal of this review is to discuss the evidence linking belonging threats to immune function and food intake. The second goal is to evaluate whether the links among belonging threats, immune function, and eating behavior differ based on gender. RECENT FINDINGS: Threats to belonging are linked to elevated herpesvirus antibody titers, dysregulated appetite-relevant hormones, and increased food consumption. Furthermore, these relationships are largely consistent for both men and women...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065811/an-elderly-patient-s-complete-response-to-steroid-therapy-for-collagenous-gastritis
#2
Huei-Wen Lim, Benny Yiu Wong, David Elkowitz, Keith Sultan
An 85-year-old woman presented with 9.1 kg (20 lb) weight loss over 5 months and an acute onset crampy abdominal pain. Examination revealed a diffusely tender abdomen, with gastric wall thickening noted on CT scan. Upper endoscopy showed diffuse severe erythema and friability. Histologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed collagenous gastritis characterized by active chronic inflammation with sub-epithelial collagen deposition and erosion. The patient was started on steroid therapy with rapid clinical improvement and tapered off over 2...
August 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054708/fatigue-at-baseline-is-associated-with-geriatric-impairments-and-represents-an-adverse-prognostic-factor-in-older-patients-with-a-hematological-malignancy
#3
F Hofer, K A Koinig, L Nagl, B Borjan, R Stauder
Prospective data on fatigue in elderly persons with a hematological malignancy are rare. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue and its association with clinical outcome and geriatric impairments in older individuals newly diagnosed with blood cancer. The EORTC QLQ-C30 and a multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA) were performed in parallel in 149 consecutive patients aged > 67 years (median 77.8 years) at Innsbruck Medical University between January 2009 and April 2016. Fatigue as defined by EORTC QLQ-C30 was the most prevalent symptom (84%) and was significantly associated with self-reported role and physical functioning, global health status and insomnia, dyspnea, and loss of appetite (p < 0...
July 28, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045965/novel-divergent-polar-bear-associated-mastadenovirus-recovered-from-a-deceased-juvenile-polar-bear
#4
Anisha Dayaram, Kyriakos Tsangaras, Selvaraj Pavulraj, Walid Azab, Nicole Groenke, Gudrun Wibbelt, Florian Sicks, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
Polar bears in captivity can be exposed to opportunistic pathogens not present in their natural environments. A 4-month-old polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) living in an isolated enclosure with his mother in the Tierpark Berlin, Berlin, Germany, was suffering from severe abdominal pain, mild diarrhea, and loss of appetite and died in early 2017. Histopathology revealed severe hepatic degeneration and necrosis without evidence of inflammation or inclusion bodies, although a viral infection had been suspected on the basis of the clinical signs...
July 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038516/fever-of-unknown-origin-following-parathyroidectomy-prior-to-onset-of-typical-polymyalgia-rheumatica-symptoms-a-case-report
#5
Akinori Kanzaki, Kiyoshi Matsui, Tadahiko Sukenaga, Koushi Mase, Aya Nishioka, Tomoharu Tamori, Seiko Kataoka, Hiroyuki Konya, Shin Mizutani, Akira Takeda, Masato Koseki, Tetsuo Nishiura, Hidenori Koyama, Hajime Sano
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a disease commonly seen in elderly individuals, however, the etiology has not been reported. Typical clinical features include bilateral shoulder pain and morning stiffness, while serologic autoantibody test findings are negative. Approximately 40%-50% of affected patients present with low-grade fever, fatigue, and appetite loss, which we often experience in the field of general medicine, and thus, the condition should not be given low priority. However, knowledge regarding such constitutional manifestations is also limited...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037606/asprosin-possible-target-in-connection-with-ghrelin-and-cytokine-network-expression-in-the-post-burn-treatment
#6
Mustafa Metin Donma, Orkide Donma
Burn injury is a severe form of trauma associated with pain, metabolic abnormalities, susceptibility to infections, muscle loss, mental and emotional distress. Conventional therapies as well as some recent approaches for the treatment of burned patients are currently in use. Nutritional therapy is also suggested as a supplementary option in major burns. Within this context, hormones involved in the regulation of appetite will have a paramount importance. The aim is to evaluate the interactions among ghrelin, some inflammatory parameters and the burn injury...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034873/synopsis-of-arachidonic-acid-metabolism-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Violette Said Hanna, Ebtisam Abdel Aziz Hafez
Arachidonic acid (AA), a 20 carbon chain polyunsaturated fatty acid with 4 double bonds, is an integral constituent of biological cell membrane, conferring it with fluidity and flexibility. The four double bonds of AA predispose it to oxygenation that leads to a plethora of metabolites of considerable importance for the proper function of the immune system, promotion of allergies and inflammation, resolving of inflammation, mood, and appetite. The present review presents an illustrated synopsis of AA metabolism, corroborating the instrumental importance of AA derivatives for health and well-being...
May 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034774/a-cfa-induced-model-of-inflammatory-skin-disease-in-miniature-swine
#8
Nalú Navarro-Alvarez, Beatriz M M Gonçalves, Alec R Andrews, David H Sachs, Christene A Huang
Similarities between porcine and human skin make the pig an ideal model for preclinical studies of cutaneous inflammation and wound healing. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) has been used to induce inflammation and to study inflammatory pain in several animal models. Here, we evaluated the inflammation caused by CFA injected in different layers of skin and subcutaneous (SC) tissue in a large-animal model. The degree of inflammation was evaluated at early and late time points by visual inspection and histopathologic analysis...
2018: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974043/malnutrition-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
Franca M Iorember
Patients with chronic kidney disease are at substantial risk for malnutrition, characterized by protein energy wasting and micronutrient deficiency. Studies show a high prevalence rate of malnutrition in both children and adults with chronic kidney disease. Apart from abnormalities in growth hormone-insulin like growth factor axis, malnutrition also plays a role in the development of stunted growth, commonly observed in children with chronic kidney disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of malnutrition in chronic kidney disease are complex and involve an interplay of multiple pathophysiologic alterations including decreased appetite and nutrient intake, hormonal derangements, metabolic imbalances, inflammation, increased catabolism, and dialysis related abnormalities...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973876/therapeutic-effect-of-amomum-villosum-on-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-rats
#10
Zhu Chen, Wanye Ni, Caixia Yang, Ting Zhang, Shanhong Lu, Ronghua Zhao, Xiaojian Mao, Jie Yu
Introduction: Amomum villosum Lour., a herbaceous plant in the ginger family, has been proven to be effective in treating gastrointestinal diseases. It has been listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia as a legal source of Amomi Fructus. In our previous study, we demonstrated that treatment with extracts of A. villosum prevented the development and progression of intestinal mucositis. In the current study, we aimed to verify and explain the potential beneficial effects of A. villosum on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909635/identification-and-pharmacological-profile-of-an-indane-based-series-of-ghrelin-receptor-full-agonists
#11
Cristina Gardelli, Hiroki Wada, Asim Ray, Moya Caffrey, Antonio Llinas, Igor Shamovsky, Joakim Tholander, Joakim Larsson, Ulf Sivars, Leif Hultin, Ulf Andersson, Hitesh J Sanganee, Kristina Stenvall, Brith Leidvik, Karin Gedda, Lisa Jinton, Marie Rydén Landergren, Kostas Karabelas
Cachexia and muscle wasting are very common among patients suffering from cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other chronic diseases. Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion via the ghrelin receptor, which subsequently leads to increase of IGF-1 plasma levels. The activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis leads to an increase of muscle mass and functional capacity. Ghrelin further acts on inflammation, appetite, and adipogenesis and for this reason was considered an important target to address catabolic conditions...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899546/appetite-changes-reveal-depression-subgroups-with-distinct-endocrine-metabolic-and-immune-states
#12
W Kyle Simmons, Kaiping Burrows, Jason A Avery, Kara L Kerr, Ashlee Taylor, Jerzy Bodurka, William Potter, T Kent Teague, Wayne C Drevets
There exists little human neuroscience research to explain why some individuals lose their appetite when they become depressed, while others eat more. Answering this question may reveal much about the various pathophysiologies underlying depression. The present study combined neuroimaging, salivary cortisol, and blood markers of inflammation and metabolism collected prior to scanning. We compared the relationships between peripheral endocrine, metabolic, and immune signaling and brain activity to food cues between depressed participants experiencing increased (N = 23) or decreased (N = 31) appetite and weight in their current depressive episode and healthy control participants (N = 42)...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883514/enteral-versus-parenteral-nutrition-and-enteral-versus-a-combination-of-enteral-and-parenteral-nutrition-for-adults-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#13
REVIEW
Sharon R Lewis, Oliver J Schofield-Robinson, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: Critically ill people are at increased risk of malnutrition. Acute and chronic illness, trauma and inflammation induce stress-related catabolism, and drug-induced adverse effects may reduce appetite or increase nausea and vomiting. In addition, patient management in the intensive care unit (ICU) may also interrupt feeding routines. Methods to deliver nutritional requirements include provision of enteral nutrition (EN), or parenteral nutrition (PN), or a combination of both (EN and PN)...
June 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877321/leptin-cardiovascular-diseases-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
REVIEW
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
Leptin, an adipokine that is implicated in the control of food intake via appetite suppression, may also stimulate oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, arterial stiffness, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. These leptin-induced effects may predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In the present review we discuss the evidence linking leptin levels with the presence, severity and/or prognosis of both coronary artery disease and non-cardiac vascular diseases such as stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) as well as with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
July 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867791/the-marmoset-as-an-animal-model-of-influenza-infection-with-a-h1n1-pdm09-and-highly-pathogenic-a-h5n1-viruses-via-the-conventional-or-tracheal-spray-route
#15
Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Noriko Nakajima, Maki Kiso, Kenta Takahashi, Mutsumi Ito, Takashi Inoue, Machiko Horiuchi, Norio Okahara, Erika Sasaki, Hideki Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
To control infectious diseases in humans, it is important to understand the pathogenicity of the infecting organism(s). Although non-human primates, such as cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, have been used for influenza virus infection models, their size can limit their use in confined animal facilities. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of marmosets to influenza viruses to assess the possibility of using these animals as a non-human primate model for influenza research. We first used an influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus to compare two inoculation routes: the conventional route, via a combination of the intratracheal, intranasal, ocular, and oral routes; and the tracheal spray route...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848608/chemerin-a-multifaceted-adipokine-involved-in-metabolic-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Gisela Helfer, Qing-Feng Wu
Metabolic syndrome is a global public health problem and predisposes individuals to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated, accumulating evidence has uncovered a critical role of adipokines. Chemerin, encoded by the gene Rarres2 , is a newly discovered adipokine involved in inflammation, adipogenesis, angiogenesis and energy metabolism. In humans, local and circulating levels of chemerin are positively correlated with BMI and obesity-related biomarkers...
August 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773846/appetite-during-the-recovery-phase-of-critical-illness-a-cohort-study
#17
Judith L Merriweather, David M Griffith, Timothy S Walsh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Reduced appetite is a recognised physiological symptom in survivors of critical illness. While reduced appetite has been reported by patients after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge, quantification using visual analogue scales (VAS) has not been previously performed, and follow-up duration has been limited. We aimed to describe appetite scores in ICU survivors during the first 3 months after ICU discharge and explore association with systemic inflammation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Secondary analysis of data collected in a complex rehabilitation intervention trial (RECOVER)...
July 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717758/the-association-of-inflammation-with-food-intake-in-older-hospitalized-patients
#18
M Pourhassan, S Böttger, G Janssen, L Sieske, R Wirth
OBJECTIVES: An acute inflammatory process may play a role in inhibiting appetite and food intake particularly in acutely ill older individuals. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the effect of inflammation on food intake in humans. In this study, we sought to investigate the association of C-reactive protein (CRP), as an inflammatory marker, with food intake in acutely ill older hospitalized patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional study investigated older participants who were consecutively admitted to a geriatric acute care ward...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695257/comparative-omics-and-feeding-manipulations-in-chicken-indicate-a-shift-of-the-endocrine-role-of-visceral-fat-towards-reproduction
#19
Susanne Bornelöv, Eyal Seroussi, Sara Yosefi, Sharon Benjamini, Shoval Miyara, Mark Ruzal, Manfred Grabherr, Nima Rafati, Anna-Maja Molin, Ken Pendavis, Shane C Burgess, Leif Andersson, Miriam Friedman-Einat
BACKGROUND: The mammalian adipose tissue plays a central role in energy-balance control, whereas the avian visceral fat hardly expresses leptin, the key adipokine in mammals. Therefore, to assess the endocrine role of adipose tissue in birds, we compared the transcriptome and proteome between two metabolically different types of chickens, broilers and layers, bred towards efficient meat and egg production, respectively. RESULTS: Broilers and layer hens, grown up to sexual maturation under free-feeding conditions, differed 4...
April 26, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617641/mechanisms-of-action-and-therapeutic-application-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#20
REVIEW
Daniel J Drucker
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from gut enteroendocrine cells controls meal-related glycemic excursions through augmentation of insulin and inhibition of glucagon secretion. GLP-1 also inhibits gastric emptying and food intake, actions maximizing nutrient absorption while limiting weight gain. Here I review the circuits engaged by endogenous versus pharmacological GLP-1 action, highlighting key GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-positive cell types and pathways transducing metabolic and non-glycemic GLP-1 signals...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
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