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Appetite Inflammation

Oana A Tatucu-Babet, Emma J Ridley
Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). In this issue, See and colleagues provide new, preliminary evidence of the prevalence of malnutrition in a small group of HBOT outpatients treated in an Australian hospital, reporting that approximately one-third of patients receiving HBOT were at risk of malnutrition...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Sung-Joon Lee, Inge Depoortere, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory and taste receptors are expressed primarily in the nasal olfactory epithelium and gustatory taste bud cells, where they transmit real-time sensory signals to the brain. However, they are also expressed in multiple extra-nasal and extra-oral tissues, being implicated in diverse biological processes including sperm chemotaxis, muscle regeneration, bronchoconstriction and bronchodilatation, inflammation, appetite regulation and energy metabolism. Elucidation of the physiological roles of these ectopic receptors is revealing potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications in conditions including wounds, hair loss, asthma, obesity and cancers...
November 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Ilia Beberashvili, Olga Baskin, Ada Azar, Anna Katkov, Leonid Feldman, Oleg Gorelik, Kobi Stav, Shai Efrati
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The potential side effects of common phosphate binders are gastrointestinal in practice. We hypothesized that regular use of phosphate binders may be associated with decreased appetite, dietary intake and consequently, poor nutritional status. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was cross-sectional study of 78 patients (mean age 67.5±13.0, 34.6% women) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment. Participants were divided into three equal groups - sevelamer (n=25), lanthanum (n=24) and the control group (n=29)...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Scott B Ickes, Muttaquina Hossain, Gaelen Ritter, Monica Lazarus, Katie Reynolds, Baitun Nahar, Tahmeed Ahmed, Judd Walson, Donna M Denno
Child undernutrition has multifactorial causes, ranging from food insecurity to etiologies refractory to conventional nutritional approaches, such as infections, environmental enteric dysfunction, and other conditions that lead to systemic inflammation. Poor appetite may be an important symptom of these causes and may be a useful marker of an undernourished child's ability to recover. We conducted a systematic review to characterize the methods and tools to measure appetite among children <5 y old in low- and middle-income countries...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Marta Seghieri, Alexander S Christensen, Andreas Andersen, Anna Solini, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
Along the obesity pandemic, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), often regarded as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, increases worldwide representing now the prevalent liver disease in western countries. No pharmacotherapy is approved for the treatment of NAFLD and, currently, the cornerstone treatment is lifestyle modifications focusing on bodyweight loss, notoriously difficult to obtain and even more difficult to maintain. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches are highly demanded...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Tal Pecht, Steffen Jung, Assaf Rudich
The involvement of macrophages in the pathogenesis of obesity has been recognized since 2003. Early studies mostly focused on the role of macrophages in adipose tissue (AT) and in obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation. Lately, AT macrophages were shown to undergo intrinsic metabolic changes that affect their immune function (i.e., immunometabolism), corresponding to their unique properties along the range of pro- versus anti-inflammatory activity. In parallel, recent studies in mice revealed critical neuronal-macrophage interactions, both in the CNS and in peripheral tissues, including in white and brown AT...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Jason W Boland, Victoria Allgar, Elaine G Boland, Stein Kaasa, Marianne J Hjermstad, Miriam J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Performance status, a predictor of cancer survival, and ability to maintain independent living deteriorate in advanced disease. Understanding predictors of performance status trajectory could help identify those at risk of functional deterioration, target support for independent living and reduce service costs. The relationship between symptoms, analgesics and performance status is poorly delineated. AIM: The aim of this study is to determine whether demographics, analgesics, disease characteristics, quality-of-life domains and C-reactive protein predict the trajectory of Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) in patients with advanced cancer...
November 8, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Chuo Fang, Hang Xu, Shaodong Guo, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott, Yuxiang Sun
Intracellular changes in immune cells lead to metabolic dysfunction, which is termed immunometabolism. Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of aging; this phenomenon is described as inflamm-aging. Immunometabolism and inflamm-aging are closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, and cancers, which consequently reduce life span and health span of the elderly. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that regulates appetite and food intake. Ghrelin's functions are mediated through its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sophie C Payne, John B Furness, Martin J Stebbing
The gastrointestinal tract has extensive, surgically accessible nerve connections with the central nervous system. This provides the opportunity to exploit rapidly advancing methods of nerve stimulation to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Bioelectric neuromodulation technology has considerably advanced in the past decade, but sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence currently remains the only neuromodulation protocol in general use for a gastrointestinal disorder. Treatment of other conditions, such as IBD, obesity, nausea and gastroparesis, has had variable success...
November 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yong-Jun Dai, Guang-Zhen Jiang, Xiang-Yang Yuan, Wen-Bin Liu
The aim of this article was to investigate the mechanism of appetite suppression induced by high-fat diets (HFD) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (average initial weight 40·0 (sem 0·35) g) were fed diets with two fat levels (6 and 11 %) with four replicates. HFD feeding for 30 d could significantly increase the weight gain rate, but feeding for 60 d cannot. Food intake of M. amblycephala began to decline significantly in fish fed the HFD for 48 d. HFD feeding for 60 d significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y and elevated the expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), actions both in favour of suppression of appetite...
December 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Rocco Barazzoni
Ghrelin is a gastric hormone circulating in acylated (AG) and unacylated (UnAG) forms. This narrative review aims at presenting current emerging knowledge on the impact of ghrelin forms on energy balance and metabolism. AG represents ~ 10% of total plasma ghrelin, has an appetite-stimulating effect and is the only form for which a receptor has been identified. Moreover, other metabolic AG-induced effects have been reported, including the modulation of glucose homeostasis with stimulation of liver gluconeogenesis, the increase of fat mass and the improvement of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function...
October 24, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Stephanie Kim, Emma McIlwraith, Jennifer Chalmers, Denise Belsham
<br>Background and Objectives: Elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) induce a state of neuroinflammation in the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that microglia sense palmitate, a prevalent circulating SFA, and act as mediators of this inflammatory process by communicating with neurons particularly those involved in appetite regulation. In this study, we examined the inflammatory response to palmitate in immortalized microglial cell lines, BV-2 and IMG, and the subsequent effects on inflammatory gene expression in a model of NPY/AgRP neurons, mHypoE-46...
October 23, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Domingos Sousa, Ana Verónica Varela, Margarida Viana Coelho, Catarina Jorge
A previously healthy 74-year-old woman was admitted with vespertine fever, tremors, shivers and loss of appetite within the previous month. Blood tests revealed an elevated C reactive protein serum level. Serologies for infection were negative. Blood cultures grew no organisms. Colonoscopy revealed normal findings. CT showed typical findings of mesenteric panniculitis with infiltration of mesenteric fat that was circumscribed by hyperattenuating capsule and contained enlarged homogenous lymph nodes. The histopathological analysis from mesenterium revealed non-specific signs of chronic inflammation...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Napatsorn Saiyasit, Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Neurotensin is an endogenous tridecapeptide that can be found in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Under normal physiological conditions, neurotensin is involved in the regulation of pain, body temperature, physical activity, appetite as well as learning and memory. In addition, it plays an important role in fat metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations of neurotensin levels were associated with several neuropathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, mood disorders, and obesity associated eating disorders...
September 8, 2018: Neuropeptides
Marta Ordoñez, Natalia Presa, Asier Dominguez-Herrera, Miguel Trueba, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz
We showed previously that ceramide kinase (CerK) expression increases during adipogenesis pointing to a relevant role of intracellular C1P in this process. In the present work we demonstrate that administration of exogenous C1P inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes into mature adipocytes through a mechanism involving activation of extracellularly regulated kinases (ERK) 1-2. Exogenous C1P reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets and the content of triacylglycerol in these cells, and potently inhibited the expression of the early and late adipogenic markers C/EBPβ and PPARγ, respectively...
September 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Mattia Di Nunzio, Gianfranco Picone, Federica Pasini, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Andrea Gianotti, Alessandra Bordoni, Francesco Capozzi
Over the past years, researchers and food manufacturers have become increasingly interested in olive polyphenols due to the recognition of their biological properties and probable role in the prevention of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Olive pomace, one of the main by-products of olive oil production, is a potential low-cost, phenol-rich ingredient for the formulation of functional food. In this study, the aqueous extract of olive pomace was characterized and used to supplement human intestinal cell in culture (Caco-2)...
November 2018: Food Research International
Tomoki Ito, Akiko Konishi, Yukie Tsubokura, Yoshiko Azuma, Masaaki Hotta, Hideaki Yoshimura, Takahisa Nakanishi, Shinya Fujita, Aya Nakaya, Atsushi Satake, Kazuyoshi Ishii, Shosaku Nomura
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulating derivative of thalidomide, which shows anti-tumor activity against myeloma cells with immunomodulation including augmentation of T-cell and natural killer cell function. Continuous treatment with this agent shows better survival benefit in patients with multiple myeloma and combined lenalidomide with dexamethasone (LEN-DEX) is a standard treatment regimen. However, fatigue is a frequent symptom resulting from lenalidomide administration. This side-effect therefore reduces quality of life for elderly patients and, furthermore, is a reason for treatment discontinuation...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Soumyabrata Munshi, J Amiel Rosenkranz
Peripheral inflammation often causes changes in mood and emergence of depressive behavior, and is characterized by a group of physical manifestations including lethargy, malaise, listlessness, decreased appetite, anhedonia, and fever. These behavioral changes are induced at the molecular level by pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key brain region involved in mood and may mediate some of the behavioral effects of inflammation. However, it is unknown whether peripheral inflammatory state affects the activity of BLA neurons...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Moiz Topiwala, Nachiket Dubale, Mahender K Medisetty, Sunil Gaikwad, Divya Patel, Sanjay Pujari
We present the first case report of cytomegalovirus (CMV) cholangiopathy as possible immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual, within two months of starting effective HAART. The patient presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, and jaundice. The patient was diagnosed on ERCP as AIDS cholangiopathy, and biopsy of the ampulla showed acute inflammation with CMV inclusion bodies. The patient underwent sphincterotomy with CBD stenting and HAART continued without use of ganciclovir or valganciclovir...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Yuan Li, Yan Li, Xueyan Wang, Hongyue Xu, Chao Wang, Yanan An, Wenjing Luan, Xuefei Wang, Shulin Li, Fangxue Ma, Lihui Ni, Mingyuan Liu, Xudong Tang, Lu Yu
Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the mechanism is unclear. Evidences also showed that prolactin played an important role in body weight regulation, hyperprolactinemia can promote appetite and accelerate fat deposition. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of cordycepin. In vivo, obese rats model was induced by high fat diet for 5 weeks, the serum and liver lipids coupled with serum prolactin were reduced by treatment of cordycepin (P<0...
August 20, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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