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Appetite Inflammation

Domingos Sousa, Ana Verónica Varela, Margarida Viana Coelho, Catarina Jorge
A previously healthy 74-year-old woman was admitted with vespertine fever, tremors, shivers and loss of appetite within the previous month. Blood tests revealed an elevated C reactive protein serum level. Serologies for infection were negative. Blood cultures grew no organisms. Colonoscopy revealed normal findings. CT showed typical findings of mesenteric panniculitis with infiltration of mesenteric fat that was circumscribed by hyperattenuating capsule and contained enlarged homogenous lymph nodes. The histopathological analysis from mesenterium revealed non-specific signs of chronic inflammation...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Napatsorn Saiyasit, Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Neurotensin is an endogenous tridecapeptide that can be found in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Under normal physiological conditions, neurotensin is involved in the regulation of pain, body temperature, physical activity, appetite as well as learning and memory. In addition, it plays an important role in fat metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations of neurotensin levels were associated with several neuropathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, mood disorders, and obesity associated eating disorders...
September 8, 2018: Neuropeptides
Marta Ordoñez, Natalia Presa, Asier Dominguez-Herrera, Miguel Trueba, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz
We showed previously that ceramide kinase (CerK) expression increases during adipogenesis pointing to a relevant role of intracellular C1P in this process. In the present work we demonstrate that administration of exogenous C1P inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes into mature adipocytes through a mechanism involving activation of extracellularly regulated kinases (ERK) 1-2. Exogenous C1P reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets and the content of triacylglycerol in these cells, and potently inhibited the expression of the early and late adipogenic markers C/EBPβ and PPARγ, respectively...
September 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Mattia Di Nunzio, Gianfranco Picone, Federica Pasini, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Andrea Gianotti, Alessandra Bordoni, Francesco Capozzi
Over the past years, researchers and food manufacturers have become increasingly interested in olive polyphenols due to the recognition of their biological properties and probable role in the prevention of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Olive pomace, one of the main by-products of olive oil production, is a potential low-cost, phenol-rich ingredient for the formulation of functional food. In this study, the aqueous extract of olive pomace was characterized and used to supplement human intestinal cell in culture (Caco-2)...
November 2018: Food Research International
Tomoki Ito, Akiko Konishi, Yukie Tsubokura, Yoshiko Azuma, Masaaki Hotta, Hideaki Yoshimura, Takahisa Nakanishi, Shinya Fujita, Aya Nakaya, Atsushi Satake, Kazuyoshi Ishii, Shosaku Nomura
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulating derivative of thalidomide, which shows anti-tumor activity against myeloma cells with immunomodulation including augmentation of T-cell and natural killer cell function. Continuous treatment with this agent shows better survival benefit in patients with multiple myeloma and combined lenalidomide with dexamethasone (LEN-DEX) is a standard treatment regimen. However, fatigue is a frequent symptom resulting from lenalidomide administration. This side-effect therefore reduces quality of life for elderly patients and, furthermore, is a reason for treatment discontinuation...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Soumyabrata Munshi, J Amiel Rosenkranz
Peripheral inflammation often causes changes in mood and emergence of depressive behavior, and is characterized by a group of physical manifestations including lethargy, malaise, listlessness, decreased appetite, anhedonia, and fever. These behavioral changes are induced at the molecular level by pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key brain region involved in mood and may mediate some of the behavioral effects of inflammation. However, it is unknown whether peripheral inflammatory state affects the activity of BLA neurons...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Moiz Topiwala, Nachiket Dubale, Mahender K Medisetty, Sunil Gaikwad, Divya Patel, Sanjay Pujari
We present the first case report of cytomegalovirus (CMV) cholangiopathy as possible immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual, within two months of starting effective HAART. The patient presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, and jaundice. The patient was diagnosed on ERCP as AIDS cholangiopathy, and biopsy of the ampulla showed acute inflammation with CMV inclusion bodies. The patient underwent sphincterotomy with CBD stenting and HAART continued without use of ganciclovir or valganciclovir...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Yuan Li, Yan Li, Xueyan Wang, Hongyue Xu, Chao Wang, Yanan An, Wenjing Luan, Xuefei Wang, Shulin Li, Fangxue Ma, Lihui Ni, Mingyuan Liu, Xudong Tang, Lu Yu
Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the mechanism is unclear. Evidences also showed that prolactin played an important role in body weight regulation, hyperprolactinemia can promote appetite and accelerate fat deposition. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of cordycepin. In vivo, obese rats model was induced by high fat diet for 5 weeks, the serum and liver lipids coupled with serum prolactin were reduced by treatment of cordycepin (P<0...
August 20, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Lisa M Jaremka, Olga Lebed, Naoyuki Sunami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The first goal of this review is to discuss the evidence linking belonging threats to immune function and food intake. The second goal is to evaluate whether the links among belonging threats, immune function, and eating behavior differ based on gender. RECENT FINDINGS: Threats to belonging are linked to elevated herpesvirus antibody titers, dysregulated appetite-relevant hormones, and increased food consumption. Furthermore, these relationships are largely consistent for both men and women...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Huei-Wen Lim, Benny Yiu Wong, David Elkowitz, Keith Sultan
An 85-year-old woman presented with 9.1 kg (20 lb) weight loss over 5 months and an acute onset crampy abdominal pain. Examination revealed a diffusely tender abdomen, with gastric wall thickening noted on CT scan. Upper endoscopy showed diffuse severe erythema and friability. Histologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed collagenous gastritis characterized by active chronic inflammation with sub-epithelial collagen deposition and erosion. The patient was started on steroid therapy with rapid clinical improvement and tapered off over 2...
August 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
F Hofer, K A Koinig, L Nagl, B Borjan, R Stauder
Prospective data on fatigue in elderly persons with a hematological malignancy are rare. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue and its association with clinical outcome and geriatric impairments in older individuals newly diagnosed with blood cancer. The EORTC QLQ-C30 and a multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA) were performed in parallel in 149 consecutive patients aged > 67 years (median 77.8 years) at Innsbruck Medical University between January 2009 and April 2016. Fatigue as defined by EORTC QLQ-C30 was the most prevalent symptom (84%) and was significantly associated with self-reported role and physical functioning, global health status and insomnia, dyspnea, and loss of appetite (p < 0...
November 2018: Annals of Hematology
Anisha Dayaram, Kyriakos Tsangaras, Selvaraj Pavulraj, Walid Azab, Nicole Groenke, Gudrun Wibbelt, Florian Sicks, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
Polar bears in captivity can be exposed to opportunistic pathogens not present in their natural environments. A 4-month-old polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) living in an isolated enclosure with his mother in the Tierpark Berlin, Berlin, Germany, was suffering from severe abdominal pain, mild diarrhea, and loss of appetite and died in early 2017. Histopathology revealed severe hepatic degeneration and necrosis without evidence of inflammation or inclusion bodies, although a viral infection had been suspected on the basis of the clinical signs...
July 25, 2018: MSphere
Akinori Kanzaki, Kiyoshi Matsui, Tadahiko Sukenaga, Koushi Mase, Aya Nishioka, Tomoharu Tamori, Seiko Kataoka, Hiroyuki Konya, Shin Mizutani, Akira Takeda, Masato Koseki, Tetsuo Nishiura, Hidenori Koyama, Hajime Sano
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a disease commonly seen in elderly individuals, however, the etiology has not been reported. Typical clinical features include bilateral shoulder pain and morning stiffness, while serologic autoantibody test findings are negative. Approximately 40%-50% of affected patients present with low-grade fever, fatigue, and appetite loss, which we often experience in the field of general medicine, and thus, the condition should not be given low priority. However, knowledge regarding such constitutional manifestations is also limited...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Mustafa Metin Donma, Orkide Donma
Burn injury is a severe form of trauma associated with pain, metabolic abnormalities, susceptibility to infections, muscle loss, mental and emotional distress. Conventional therapies as well as some recent approaches for the treatment of burned patients are currently in use. Nutritional therapy is also suggested as a supplementary option in major burns. Within this context, hormones involved in the regulation of appetite will have a paramount importance. The aim is to evaluate the interactions among ghrelin, some inflammatory parameters and the burn injury...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Violette Said Hanna, Ebtisam Abdel Aziz Hafez
Arachidonic acid (AA), a 20 carbon chain polyunsaturated fatty acid with 4 double bonds, is an integral constituent of biological cell membrane, conferring it with fluidity and flexibility. The four double bonds of AA predispose it to oxygenation that leads to a plethora of metabolites of considerable importance for the proper function of the immune system, promotion of allergies and inflammation, resolving of inflammation, mood, and appetite. The present review presents an illustrated synopsis of AA metabolism, corroborating the instrumental importance of AA derivatives for health and well-being...
May 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Nalú Navarro-Alvarez, Beatriz M M Gonçalves, Alec R Andrews, David H Sachs, Christene A Huang
Similarities between porcine and human skin make the pig an ideal model for preclinical studies of cutaneous inflammation and wound healing. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) has been used to induce inflammation and to study inflammatory pain in several animal models. Here, we evaluated the inflammation caused by CFA injected in different layers of skin and subcutaneous (SC) tissue in a large-animal model. The degree of inflammation was evaluated at early and late time points by visual inspection and histopathologic analysis...
2018: International Journal of Inflammation
Franca M Iorember
Patients with chronic kidney disease are at substantial risk for malnutrition, characterized by protein energy wasting and micronutrient deficiency. Studies show a high prevalence rate of malnutrition in both children and adults with chronic kidney disease. Apart from abnormalities in growth hormone-insulin like growth factor axis, malnutrition also plays a role in the development of stunted growth, commonly observed in children with chronic kidney disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of malnutrition in chronic kidney disease are complex and involve an interplay of multiple pathophysiologic alterations including decreased appetite and nutrient intake, hormonal derangements, metabolic imbalances, inflammation, increased catabolism, and dialysis related abnormalities...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Zhu Chen, Wanye Ni, Caixia Yang, Ting Zhang, Shanhong Lu, Ronghua Zhao, Xiaojian Mao, Jie Yu
Introduction: Amomum villosum Lour., a herbaceous plant in the ginger family, has been proven to be effective in treating gastrointestinal diseases. It has been listed in the Chinese Pharmacopeia as a legal source of Amomi Fructus. In our previous study, we demonstrated that treatment with extracts of A. villosum prevented the development and progression of intestinal mucositis. In the current study, we aimed to verify and explain the potential beneficial effects of A. villosum on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Cristina Gardelli, Hiroki Wada, Asim Ray, Moya Caffrey, Antonio Llinas, Igor Shamovsky, Joakim Tholander, Joakim Larsson, Ulf Sivars, Leif Hultin, Ulf Andersson, Hitesh J Sanganee, Kristina Stenvall, Brith Leidvik, Karin Gedda, Lisa Jinton, Marie Rydén Landergren, Kostas Karabelas
Cachexia and muscle wasting are very common among patients suffering from cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other chronic diseases. Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion via the ghrelin receptor, which subsequently leads to increase of IGF-1 plasma levels. The activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis leads to an increase of muscle mass and functional capacity. Ghrelin further acts on inflammation, appetite, and adipogenesis and for this reason was considered an important target to address catabolic conditions...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
W Kyle Simmons, Kaiping Burrows, Jason A Avery, Kara L Kerr, Ashlee Taylor, Jerzy Bodurka, William Potter, T Kent Teague, Wayne C Drevets
There exists little human neuroscience research to explain why some individuals lose their appetite when they become depressed, while others eat more. Answering this question may reveal much about the various pathophysiologies underlying depression. The present study combined neuroimaging, salivary cortisol, and blood markers of inflammation and metabolism collected prior to scanning. We compared the relationships between peripheral endocrine, metabolic, and immune signaling and brain activity to food cues between depressed participants experiencing increased (N = 23) or decreased (N = 31) appetite and weight in their current depressive episode and healthy control participants (N = 42)...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
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