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Gottfried von Keudell, Anas Younes
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with an excellent prognosis for the majority of patients who are treated with multi-agent chemotherapy, with or without radiation. A subset of patient, however, does not respond to therapy or relapses after accomplishing an initial response. Their outcome is poor and new treatment strategies are urgently needed for this patient population. Recent advances in the understanding of the tumour biology of HL and its microenvironment have ushered a new era of targeted- and immuno-therapies with remarkable activity...
December 11, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Famke Aeffner, Hibret A Adissu, Michael C Boyle, Robert D Cardiff, Erik Hagendorn, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Robert Klopfleisch, Susan Newbigging, Dirk Schaudien, Oliver Turner, Kristin Wilson
Advancements in technology and digitization have ushered in novel ways of enhancing tissue-based research via digital microscopy and image analysis. Whole slide imaging scanners enable digitization of histology slides to be stored in virtual slide repositories and to be viewed via computers instead of microscopes. Easier and faster sharing of histologic images for teaching and consultation, improved storage and preservation of quality of stained slides, and annotation of features of interest in the digital slides are just a few of the advantages of this technology...
December 7, 2018: ILAR Journal
Bryan D Merrill, Christopher P Fajardo, Jared A Hilton, Ashley M Payne, Andy T Ward, Jamison K Walker, Aziza Dhalai, Cameron Imahara, James Mangohig, Josh Monk, Cristian Pascacio, Padmani Rai, Alicia Salisbury, Kathie Velez, Travis J Bloomfield, Brett Buhler, Steven G Duncan, David A Fuhriman, Josil George, Kiel Graves, Karli Heaton, Hunter L Hill, Michelle Kim, Bradley K Knabe, Devin B Ririe, Spencer L Rogers, Casey Stamereilers, Michael B Stephenson, Brittian K Usher, Colton S Ward, Jacob M Withers, Cole K Wright, Donald P Breakwell, Julianne H Grose, Sandra Hope, Philippos K Tsourkas
We present here the complete genomes of 18 phages that infect Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood in honeybees. The phages were isolated between 2014 and 2016 as part of an undergraduate phage discovery course at Brigham Young University. The phages were isolated primarily from bee debris and lysogens.
October 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Guillaume Jouret, Céline Poirsier, Marta Spodenkiewicz, Clémence Jaquin, Evan Gouy, Carl Arndt, Marc Labrousse, Dominique Gaillard, Martine Doco-Fenzy, Anne-Sophie Lebre
OBJECTIVE: To describe the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of Usher syndrome after 6 years of studies by next-generation sequencing, and propose an up-to-date classification of Usher genes in patients with both visual and hearing impairments suggesting Usher syndrome, and in patients with seemingly isolated deafness. STUDY DESIGN: The systematic review and meta-analysis protocol was based on Cochrane and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
January 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Jesse M Gray, Ivo Spiegel
Experience leaves a lasting mark on neural circuit function in part through activity-regulated gene (ARG) expression. New genome wide approaches have revealed that ARG programs are highly cell-type-specific, raising the possibility that they mediate different forms of experience-dependent plasticity in different cell types. The cell-type specificity of these gene programs is achieved by a combination of cell-intrinsic mechanisms that determine the transcriptional response of each neuronal subtype to a given stimulus and by cell-extrinsic mechanisms that influence the nature of the stimulus a cell receives...
December 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Gregory Cabanas, Mary Barna Bridgeman, Evelyn R Hermes-DeSantis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pharmacy residency training standards require development of medical writing skills. These skills are fundamental to pharmacy clinicians and scholars alike. Despite this requirement, new practitioners and seasoned clinicians frequently struggle with scholarly development and manuscript generation for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of experience or familiarity with the process of peer-review submission to time constraints. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: We describe a process for fostering pharmacy resident scholarship and publication utilized at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, including the stages of the project development process and corresponding responsibilities during each phase of the manuscript submission process...
December 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Yu-Tzu Liu, Tai-Chung Tseng, Ruey-Shyang Soong, Chun-Yi Peng, Yu-Hsing Cheng, Shiu-Feng Huang, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Jia-Horng Kao, Li-Rung Huang
Immunotherapy has ushered in a new era of cancer therapy, and this is also applicable to therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this context, effective development of therapeutic strategies requires an HCC mouse model with known tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and an HCC growth reporter. We created such a model using hydrodynamic injection and a transposon system to introduce AKT and NRAS and open reading frames (ORFs) encoding surrogate tumor antigens and luciferase into chromosomes of hepatocytes to induce nodular and diffuse tumors in the liver...
December 7, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Dorina Cadar, Marius Usher, Eddy J Davelaar
Although ageing is known to affect memory, the precise nature of its effect on retrieval and encoding processes is not well understood. Here, we examine the effect of ageing on the free recall of word lists, in which the semantic structure of word sequences was manipulated from unrelated words to pairs of associated words with various separations (between pair members) within the sequence. We find that ageing is associated with reduced total recall, especially for sequences with associated words. Furthermore, we find that the degree of semantic clustering (controlled for chance clustering) shows an age effect and that it interacts with the distance between the words within a pair...
November 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
Rikki Jones, Cindy Woods, Kim Usher
BACKGROUND: Health research through review of medical charts is a useful way to understand presentations related to the effects and burden of illness, disease and substance misuse. However, the design and methods used in studies can affect their validity and reliability. It is therefore vital to ensure a strong study design and to use appropriate methodologies. AIM: To highlight some of the challenges nurse researchers face when designing and conducting research using reviews of medical charts...
December 4, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Kathryn Dane, Shruti Chaturvedi
The advent of plasma exchange has dramatically changed the prognosis of acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Recent insights into TTP pathogenesis have led to the development of novel therapies targeting pathogenic anti-ADAMTS13 antibody production, von Willebrand factor (VWF)-platelet interactions, and ADAMTS13 replacement. Retrospective and prospective studies have established the efficacy of rituximab as an adjunct to plasma exchange for patients with acute TTP, either upfront or for refractory disease...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Daniel A Pollyea
We are several years into the "postdiscovery" era in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) thanks to extensive work involving the sequencing of genomes and exomes of countless patients, which has led to routine comprehensive targeted sequencing in clinical care. The ability to unlock the molecular underpinnings of each patient's disease was supposed to usher in a new treatment era in which each patient was assigned, based on her mutational profile, a personalized cocktail of targeted therapies that would snuff the disease into submission with minimal toxicity...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Babak Basiri, J Michael Sutton, Shirin Hooshfar, Charnel C Byrnes, Mandi M Murph, Michael G Bartlett
In recent years, small endogenous RNAs have come to the forefront of both basic and translational research. For example, many studies have pointed to the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as disease biomarkers. However, precise quantitative methods for the analysis of miRNAs are still lacking. In this study, we report the first mass spectrometry-based quantitation of miR-451, a circulatory microRNA. Using a highly selective sample preparation method with an average recovery of 83.6% and a novel mobile phase chemistry, we were able to reach an LOQ of 0...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Marc Schulte, Torsten Sterzenbach, Katarzyna Miskiewicz, Laura Elpers, Michael Hensel, Nicole Hansmeier
The expression of bacterial virulence factors is controlled in response to host or environmental factors and most virulence genes are not expressed under laboratory conditions. Investigations of molecular structures and cellular functions of bacterial virulence factors demand systems for experimentally controlled expression. We describe a simple and robust system that is based on the tetA promoter and the cognate repressor TetR. Expression under control of PtetA can be induced by non-antibiotic derivatives of tetracycline such as anhydrotetracycline (AHT)...
November 16, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Zachary L McCormick, Michael Hooten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Joanne Durkin, Kim Usher, Debra Jackson
AIM: To provide a review of empirical research investigating how compassion is expressed by nurses and received by patients in hospital settings. BACKGROUND: Compassion is viewed as an important and fundamental part of a health professional practice. Universally, reports from both media and government agencies have addressed perceived deficits of compassion in healthcare with nurses accused of a lack of compassion. Research into compassion to date has largely focused on the problematic nature of compassion such as burnout, fatigue and other negative personal and work-related outcomes...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
David Novikov, Zlatan Cizmic, James E Feng, Richard Iorio, Morteza Meftah
The original architects of Medicare modeled the payment system on the existing fee-for-service (FFS) structure that historically dominated the health-insurance market. Under the FFS paradigm, health-care expenditures experienced an exponential rise. In response, the managed care and capitation models of health-care delivery were developed. However, changes in Medicare reimbursement, along with an increasing volume of orthopaedic procedures and escalating implant costs, call into question the cost-effectiveness of this service line...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Hyunwoo Yuk, Baoyang Lu, Xuanhe Zhao
Bioelectronic interfacing with the human body including electrical stimulation and recording of neural activities is the basis of the rapidly growing field of neural science and engineering, diagnostics, therapy, and wearable and implantable devices. Owing to intrinsic dissimilarities between soft, wet, and living biological tissues and rigid, dry, and synthetic electronic systems, the development of more compatible, effective, and stable interfaces between these two different realms has been one of the most daunting challenges in science and technology...
November 26, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Alexander Rusanov, Riccardo Miotto, Chunhua Weng
Objectives: Traditionally, summarization of research themes and trends within a given discipline was accomplished by manual review of scientific works in the field. However, with the ushering in of the age of "big data," new methods for discovery of such information become necessary as traditional techniques become increasingly difficult to apply due to the exponential growth of document repositories. Our objectives are to develop a pipeline for unsupervised theme extraction and summarization of thematic trends in document repositories, and to test it by applying it to a specific domain...
October 2018: JAMIA open
Erik C Cook, Grace A Usher, Scott A Showalter
NMR spectroscopy remains the only experimental technique that provides (near) atomistic structural information for intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), but their sequence and structure characteristics still pose major challenges for high-resolution spectroscopy. Carbon-13 direct-detect NMR spectroscopy can overcome poor spectral dispersion and other difficulties associated with traditional 1 H-detected NMR of nonaggregating disordered proteins. This chapter presents spectroscopic protocols suitable for complete characterization of IDPs that rely exclusively on 13 C direct-detect experiments...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Carla Sanjurjo-Soriano, Nejla Erkilic, Gaël Manes, Gregor Dubois, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Meunier, Vasiliki Kalatzis
We generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line using dermal fibroblasts from a patient with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). This individual was homozygous for the most prevalent variant reported in the USH2A gene, c.2299delG localized in exon 13. Reprogramming was performed using the non-integrative Sendai virus reprogramming method and the human OSKM transcription factor cocktail under feeder-free culture conditions. This iPSC line will be an invaluable tool for studying the pathophysiology of USH2 and for testing the efficacy of novel treatments...
November 16, 2018: Stem Cell Research
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