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Baranya Murugan, Uma Maheswari Krishnan
Nanotechnology-based interventions have gained popularity in the past decade for cancer therapy owing to their ability to overcome several shortcomings encountered in conventional therapy. Among the various nanoparticles that have been explored as drug carriers, mesoporous silica possesses certain desirable properties such as regulated pore size, high surface area, chemical and thermal stability, amenability for surface modification and biocompatibility. These systems have been widely investigated for site-specific delivery of single and multiple therapeutic agents as well as for imaging and theranostic applications...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Mansoureh Mkarimi, Hiroshi Mashimo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal adenocarcinoma bears one of the fastest rising incidence of any cancers and generally arises in the setting of gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett's esophagus. However, early detection of neoplasia can be challenging since most patients are asymptomatic until they progress to more advanced and less curable stages, and early dysplastic lesions can be small, multifocal, and difficult to detect. Clearly, new imaging tools are needed in light of sampling error associated with random biopsies, the current standard of practice...
October 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Juan R Chamorro, Tyrel M McQueen
Ages of history are defined by the underlying materials that promoted human development: stone, bronze, and iron ages. Since the middle of the last century, humanity has lived in a silicon age, where the development of the transistor ushered in new technologies previously thought inconceivable. But as technology has advanced, so have the requirements for new materials to sustain increasing physical demands. The field of solid state chemistry is dedicated to the discovery of new materials and phenomena, and though most materials discoveries in history have been through serendipity rather than careful reaction design, the last few decades have seen an increase in the number of materials discovered through a consideration of chemical reaction kinetics and thermodynamics...
October 9, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Cameron K Baker, John G Flannery
The advent of optogenetics has ushered in a new era in neuroscience where spatiotemporal control of neurons is possible through light application. These tools used to study neural circuits can also be used therapeutically to restore vision. In order to recapitulate the broad spectral and light sensitivities along with high temporal sensitivity found in human vision, researchers have identified and developed new optogenetic tools. There are two major kinds of optogenetic effectors employed in vision restoration: ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xiaotian Zhang, Lvlin Zhou, Henry Asante Antwi
This study aims to examine the impact of China's population policy changes on social insurance. Nearly 4 decades ago, China ushered in the 1-child policy as a family planning policy to control the adverse effect of high population growth. The current maternity insurance system in China is designed to fit the operations of the 1-child policy. However, the implementation of the comprehensive 2-child policy can pose a challenge to the sustainability of the current maternity insurance scheme hence the call for reform...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Timothy R Olsen, Jon A Rowley
RoosterBio, Inc. (MD, USA) is a privately held stem cell tools and technology company focused on accelerating the development of a sustainable regenerative medicine industry, one customer at a time. RoosterBio's products are high-volume and well-characterized adult human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) paired with highly engineered media systems. RoosterBio has aimed to simplify and standardize how stem cells are purchased, expanded and used in the development of regenerative medicine products. To this end, RoosterBio supplies off-the-shelf cGMP hMSC working cell banks with bioprocess media that mimic the format and formulation of the research grade counterparts, radically simplifying and shortening product development and clinical translation...
October 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Minge Du, Zuanning Yuan, Hongjun Yu, Nadine Henderson, Samema Sarowar, Gongpu Zhao, Glenn T Werneburg, David G Thanassi, Huilin Li
Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli assemble surface structures termed pili, or fimbriae, to mediate binding to host-cell receptors1 . Type 1 pili are assembled via the conserved chaperone-usher pathway2-5 . The outer-membrane usher FimD recruits pilus subunits bound by the chaperone FimC via the periplasmic N-terminal domain of the usher. Subunit translocation through the β-barrel channel of the usher occurs at the two C-terminal domains (which we label CTD1 and CTD2) of this protein. How the chaperone-subunit complex bound to the N-terminal domain is handed over to the C-terminal domains, as well as the timing of subunit polymerization into the growing pilus, have previously been unclear...
October 3, 2018: Nature
Tedi-Marie Usher, Jennifer S Forrester, Marshall McDonnell, Joerg Neuefeind, Katharine Page, Peter F Peterson, Igor Levin, Jacob L Jones
Characterizing the structural response of functional materials (e.g., piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics) to electric fields is key for the creation of structure-property relationships. Here, we present a new sample environment and data reduction routines which allow the measurement of time-of-flight neutron total scattering during the in situ or ex situ application of high voltage (<10 kV) to a sample. Instead of utilizing the entire detector space of the diffractometer, only selected regions of detector pixels with scattering at the desired angle to the sample electric field are interrogated, which allows the generation of orientation-dependent reciprocal space patterns and real-space pair distribution functions (PDFs)...
September 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Michael G Usher, Christine Fanning, Vivian W Fang, Madeline Carroll, Amay Parikh, Anne Joseph, Dana Herrigel
BACKGROUND: Patients transferred between hospitals are at high risk of adverse events and mortality. The relationship between insurance status, transfer practices, and outcomes has not been definitively characterized. OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between insurance coverage and mortality of patients transferred between hospitals. DESIGN: We conducted a single-institution observational study, and validated results using a national administrative database of inter-hospital transfers...
October 1, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Natalie S Omattage, Zengqin Deng, Jerome S Pinkner, Karen W Dodson, Fredrik Almqvist, Peng Yuan, Scott J Hultgren
Chaperone-usher pathway pili are extracellular proteinaceous fibres ubiquitously found on Gram-negative bacteria, and mediate host-pathogen interactions and biofilm formation critical in pathogenesis in numerous human diseases1 . During pilus assembly, an outer membrane macromolecular machine called the usher catalyses pilus biogenesis from the individual subunits that are delivered as chaperone-subunit complexes in the periplasm. The usher orchestrates pilus assembly using all five functional domains: a 24-stranded transmembrane β-barrel translocation domain, a β-sandwich plug domain, an amino-terminal periplasmic domain and two carboxy-terminal periplasmic domains (CTD1 and CTD2)2-6 ...
October 1, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Dane Menkin, Dalmacio Dennis Flores
Transgender individuals are disproportionately affected by negative mental and sexual health outcomes. School nurses have prime opportunities to combat these outcomes through affirming nursing care, especially when transgender students are socially transitioning. Examples of affirming practice include recognizing students' gender-affirming names, using their pronouns, ensuring safe locker rooms, advocating for student's clothing choices, stopping bullying and harassment, and refraining from making assumptions about their transgender students' sexual orientation...
October 1, 2018: NASN School Nurse
R Griffin, E E Psarelli, T F Cox, M Khedr, A M Milan, A S Davison, A T Hughes, J L Usher, S Taylor, N Loftus, A Daroszewska, E West, A Jones, M Briggs, M Fisher, M McCormick, S Judd, S Vinjamuri, N Sireau, J P Dillon, J M Devine, G Hughes, J Harrold, G J Barton, J C Jarvis, J A Gallagher, L R Ranganath
Alkaptonuria is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a high level of circulating (and urine) homogentisic acid (HGA), which contributes to ochronosis when it is deposited in connective tissue as a pigmented polymer. In an observational study carried out by National AKU Centre (NAC) in Liverpool, a total of thirty-nine AKU patients attended yearly visits in varying numbers. At each visit a mixture of clinical, joint and spinal assessments were carried out and the results calculated to yield an AKUSSI (Alkaptonuria Severity Score Index), see "Nitisinone arrests ochronosis and decreases rate of progression of Alkaptonuria: evaluation of the effect of nitisinone in the United Kingdom National Alkaptonuria Centre" (Ranganath at el...
October 2018: Data in Brief
Andrew C Cortopassi, Redd Driver, Lisa A Eaton, Seth C Kalichman
HIV is transmitted in social and sexual relationships, and HIV transmission risks, as well as protective actions, are evolving as HIV epidemics unfold. The current focus of HIV prevention is centered on antiretroviral medications used to reduce HIV infectiousness in persons already infected with HIV [treatment as prevention (TasP)]. The same medications used to treat infected persons can also be used by uninfected persons as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the infectivity of HIV. Both PrEP and TasP are effective when adherence is high and individuals do not have co-occurring sexually transmitted infections...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Antonis A Manolis, Theodora A Manolis, Antonis S Manolis
Results from recent cardiovascular outcome trials have ushered in a new era in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, moving from a focus on glycemic control to the cardiovascular safety of antihyperglycemic agents. Several new antihyperglycemic drugs have been shown to exert either neutral or cardioprotective effects in patients with diabetes. Among them, the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors (gliflozins) and selected agents from the incretin mimetics or enhancers, such as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins), appear to confer cardiovascular safety and/or protection in patients with underlying, or at high risk for, cardiovascular disease...
September 24, 2018: Drugs
Shanshan Han, Xiliang Liu, Shanglun Xie, Meng Gao, Fei Liu, Shanshan Yu, Peng Sun, Changquan Wang, Stephen Archacki, Zhaojing Lu, Xuebin Hu, Yayun Qin, Zhen Qu, Yuwen Huang, Yuexia Lv, Jiayi Tu, Jingzhen Li, Tinsae Assefa Yimer, Tao Jiang, Zhaohui Tang, Daji Luo, Fangyi Chen, Mugen Liu
Most cases of Usher syndrome type II (USH2) are due to mutations in the USH2A gene. There are no effective treatments or ideal animal models for this disease, and the pathological mechanisms of USH2 caused by USH2A mutations are still unknown. Here, we constructed a ush2a knockout (ush2a-/- ) zebrafish model using TALEN technology to investigate the molecular pathology of USH2. An early onset auditory disorder and abnormal morphology of inner ear stereocilia were identified in the ush2a-/- zebrafish. Consequently, the disruption of Ush2a in zebrafish led to a hearing impairment, like that in mammals...
September 21, 2018: Human Genetics
Kelsey J Picha, Kate N Jochimsen, Nicholas R Heebner, John P Abt, Ellen L Usher, Gilson Capilouto, Tim L Uhl
OBJECTIVES: Low self-efficacy is a barrier to rehabilitation adherence. Before an intervention can be implemented to improve self-efficacy, assessment is required. It is currently unknown if a standard measure of self-efficacy has been used to assess this in patients with musculoskeletal conditions, specifically for home exercise programmes (HEPs). The aim of the present study was to determine which self-efficacy scales are being used in conjunction with exercise adherence, identify if any scale has been developed to evaluate self-efficacy for HEPs and evaluate their psychometric properties...
September 20, 2018: Musculoskeletal Care
Natalia Pakharukova, Sophie McKenna, Minna Tuittila, Sari Paavilainen, Henri Malmi, Yingqi Xu, Olena Parilova, Steve Matthews, Anton V Zavialov
Adhesive pili are external component of fibrous adhesive organelles and help bacteria attach to biotic or abiotic surfaces. The biogenesis of adhesive pili via the chaperone-usher pathway (CUP) is independent of external energy sources. In the classical CUP, chaperones transport assembly-competent pilins in a folded but expanded conformation. During donor-strand exchange, pilins subsequently collapse, producing a tightly-packed hydrophobic core and releasing the necessary free energy to drive fiber formation...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Michael S Kinch, Grant A Kinch, Rebekah H Griesenauer
It is widely understood that the 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act ushered in the modern regulation of medicines requiring a combination of safety and efficacy. However, fewer appreciate the amendment was applied retroactively to virtually all medicines sold in the USA. For various reasons, many medicines faded into history. Here, we identify and analyze >1600 medicines (including over-the-counter drugs) and their innovators prior to the enactment of Kefauver-Harris. We report 880 of these past medicines are no longer accessible...
September 14, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Bharath Chandra Talluri, Anne E Urai, Konstantinos Tsetsos, Marius Usher, Tobias H Donner
People's assessments of the state of the world often deviate systematically from the information available to them [1]. Such biases can originate from people's own decisions: committing to a categorical proposition, or a course of action, biases subsequent judgment and decision-making. This phenomenon, called confirmation bias [2], has been explained as suppression of post-decisional dissonance [3, 4]. Here, we provide insights into the underlying mechanism. It is commonly held that decisions result from the accumulation of samples of evidence informing about the state of the world [5-8]...
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Vivek Kumbhari, Ling Li, Klaus Piontek, Masaharu Ishida, Rongdang Fu, Bassem Khalil, Caroline M Garrett, Eleni Liapi, Anthony N Kalloo, Florin M Selaru
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A simple, safe, targeted, and efficient in vivo DNA delivery system is necessary for clinical-grade liver-targeted gene therapy in humans. Intravascular hydrodynamic gene delivery has been investigated in large animal models, but translation to humans has been hampered by its technical challenges, invasiveness, and potential for significant cardiovascular adverse events. We posited that intrabiliary delivery of DNA plasmids via ERCP-guided hydrodynamic injection could overcome these obstacles...
October 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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