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Peter Savadjiev, Jaron Chong, Anthony Dohan, Maria Vakalopoulou, Caroline Reinhold, Nikos Paragios, Benoit Gallix
The recent explosion of 'big data' has ushered in a new era of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms in every sphere of technological activity, including medicine, and in particular radiology. However, the recent success of AI in certain flagship applications has, to some extent, masked decades-long advances in computational technology development for medical image analysis. In this article, we provide an overview of the history of AI methods for radiological image analysis in order to provide a context for the latest developments...
August 13, 2018: European Radiology
Talha Khan Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Thomas W Flanagan, Charles D Nichols
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)2A receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Francisco Zurita-Díaz, María Del Carmen Ortuño-Costela, Ana Moreno-Izquierdo, Liliana Galbis, José María Millán, Carmen Ayuso, Rafael Garesse, M Esther Gallardo
A human iPSC line, IISHDOi004-A, from fibroblasts obtained from a patient with Usher syndrome, harboring a homozygous mutation in the USH2A gene (c.2276G>T; p.Cys759Phe) has been generated. Reprogramming factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc were delivered using Sendai virus.
August 2, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Miranda K Culley, Stephen Y Chan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a heterogeneous and fatal disease of the lung vasculature, where metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction may drive pathogenesis. Similar to the Warburg effect in cancer, a shift from mitochondrial oxidation to glycolysis occurs in diseased pulmonary vessels and the right ventricle. However, appreciation of metabolic events in PH beyond the Warburg effect is only just emerging. This Review discusses molecular, translational, and clinical concepts centered on the mitochondria and highlights promising, controversial, and challenging areas of investigation...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Nosheen Ehsan, Sajjad Ahmad, Syed Sikander Azam, Thanyada Rungrotmongkol, Reaz Uddin
Proteus mirabilis is one of the important pathogens of urinary tract and exhibits resistance to multiple drugs. Development of vaccine tends to be the most promising and cost-effective remedy against the said pathogen. Herein, we implement a combinatorial approach for screening proteins harboring potential broad-spectrum antigenic epitopes in the proteome of P. mirabilis. The targets are host non-homologous, essential and virulent, and have localization in the extracellular and outer membrane. Immuno-informatics revealed antigenic, surface exposed and broad-spectrum B-cell derived T-cell epitopes for three membrane usher family candidates: AtfC, PMI2533 and PMI1466, which could evoke a substantial immune response...
August 2, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Lucia Galli-Resta, Giorgio Placidi, Francesca Campagna, Lucia Ziccardi, Marco Piccardi, Angelo Minnella, Edoardo Abed, Silvia Iovine, Paolo Maltese, Matteo Bertelli, Benedetto Falsini
Purpose: Recent studies show that patients with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) have abnormal cone structure and density in the central retina. This occurs in the presence of normal acuity, opening the quest for additional sensitive functional measures of central cone function in USH. We tested here whether focal macular cone electroretinogram (fERG) could be such a tool. Methods: This retrospective study of central cone function loss was based on data from 47 patients with USH2 from the Ophthalmology Department of the Policlinico Gemelli/Catholic University in Rome...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Matthew D Durbin, Adrian G Cadar, Young Wook Chun, Charles C Hong
The study of disease pathophysiology has long relied on model systems, including animal models and cultured cells. In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka achieved a breakthrough by reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This revolutionary discovery provided new opportunities for disease modeling and therapeutic intervention. With established protocols, investigators can generate iPSC lines from patient blood, urine, and tissue samples. These iPSCs retain ability to differentiate into every human cell type...
May 30, 2018: Pediatric Research
Marius Usher, Zohar Z Bronfman, Shiri Talmor, Hilla Jacobson, Baruch Eitam
We contrast two theoretical positions on the relation between phenomenal and access consciousness. First, we discuss previous data supporting a mild Overflow position, according to which transient visual awareness can overflow report. These data are open to two interpretations: (i) observers transiently experience specific visual elements outside attentional focus without encoding them into working memory; (ii) no specific visual elements but only statistical summaries are experienced in such conditions. We present new data showing that under data-limited conditions observers cannot discriminate a simple relation (same versus different) without discriminating the elements themselves and, based on additional computational considerations, we argue that this supports the first interpretation: summary statistics (same/different) are grounded on the transient experience of elements...
September 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Qing Chen, Gloria Lee, Candice Craig, Victoria Ng, Paul E Carlson, Deborah M Hinton, Scott Stibitz
In Bordetella pertussis , two serologically distinct fimbriae, FIM2 and FIM3, undergo on/off phase variation independently of each other via variation in the lengths of C-stretches in the promoters for the their major subunit genes, fim2 and fim3 These two promoters are also part of the BvgAS virulence regulon and therefore, if in an on configuration, are activated by BvgA∼P under normal growth conditions (Bvg+ mode) but not in the Bvg- mode, inducible by growth in medium containing MgSO4 or other compounds termed "modulators"...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
L R Ranganath, M Khedr, A M Milan, A S Davison, A T Hughes, J L Usher, S Taylor, N Loftus, A Daroszewska, E West, A Jones, M Briggs, M Fisher, M McCormick, S Judd, S Vinjamuri, R Griffin, E E Psarelli, T F Cox, N Sireau, J P Dillon, J M Devine, G Hughes, J Harrold, G J Barton, J C Jarvis, J A Gallagher
QUESTION: Does Nitisinone prevent the clinical progression of the Alkaptonuria? FINDINGS: In this observational study on 39 patients, 2 mg of daily nitisinone inhibited ochronosis and significantly slowed the progression of AKU over a three-year period. MEANING: Nitisinone is a beneficial therapy in Alkaptonuria. BACKGROUND: Nitisinone decreases homogentisic acid (HGA), but has not been shown to modify progression of Alkaptonuria (AKU)...
July 24, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Kamil Charubin, R Kyle Bennett, Alan G Fast, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
Clostridium organisms are of major importance in the development of technologies to produce biofuels and chemicals. They are uniquely capable of utilizing virtually all biomass-derived carbohydrates, as well as waste gases, waste materials, and C1 compounds, and they possess diverse biosynthetic capabilities for producing a broad spectrum of metabolites, including those of C4 to C8 chain length. They can also readily be used in synthetic syntrophic and other microbial consortia to broaden the biosynthetic repertoire of individual organisms, thus enabling the development of novel biotechnological processes...
July 25, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Bing Zhu, Yoshikazu Suzuki, Thomas DiSanto, Samantha Rubin, Zachary Penfil, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Shampa Chatterjee, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Edward Cantu
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Out of body organ perfusion is a concept that has been around for a long time. As technology has evolved, so have the systems available for out of body perfusion making whole organ preservation for extended evaluation, resuscitation, and discovery routine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical use of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) systems has continued to expand as evidence has accumulated to suggest EVLP transplants experience similar mortality, ICU length of stay, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, and rates of primary graft dysfunction as conventional lung transplants...
July 24, 2018: Academic Radiology
Ronald Domalaon, Liam Berry, Quinn Tays, George G Zhanel, Frank Schweizer
Continuous development of new antibacterial agents is necessary to counter the problem of antimicrobial resistance. Polymyxins are considered as drugs of last resort to combat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Structural optimization of polymyxins requires an in-depth understanding of its structure and how it relates to its antibacterial activity. Herein, the effect of hydrophobicity was explored by adding a secondary fatty acyl component of varying length onto the polymyxin structure at the amine side-chain of l-diaminobutyric acid at position 1, resulting to the development of dilipid polymyxins...
July 19, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Uri Hasson, Giovanna Egidi, Marco Marelli, Roel M Willems
Recent decades have ushered in tremendous progress in understanding the neural basis of language. Most of our current knowledge on language and the brain, however, is derived from lab-based experiments that are far removed from everyday language use, and that are inspired by questions originating in linguistic and psycholinguistic contexts. In this paper we argue that in order to make progress, the field needs to shift its focus to understanding the neurobiology of naturalistic language comprehension. We present here a new conceptual framework for understanding the neurobiological organization of language comprehension...
July 24, 2018: Cognition
Florent Delhommel, Florence Cordier, Frederick Saul, Lucas Chataigner, Ahmed Haouz, Nicolas Wolff
Whirlin is a protein essential to sensory neurons. Its defects are responsible for non-syndromic deafness or for the Usher syndrome, a condition associating congenital deafness and progressive blindness. This large multidomain scaffolding protein is expressed in three isoforms with different functions and localizations in stereocilia bundles of hearing hair cells or in the connector cilia of photoreceptor cells. The HHD2 domain of whirlin is the only domain shared by all isoforms, but its function remains unknown...
July 27, 2018: FEBS Journal
A S Davison, J A Harrold, G Hughes, B P Norman, J Devine, J Usher, A T Hughes, M Khedr, J A Gallagher, A M Milan, Halford J C G, L R Ranganath
OBJECTIVE: Concerns exist over hypertyrosinaemia that is observed following treatment with nitisinone. It has been suggested that tyrosine may compete with tryptophan for uptake into the central nervous system, and or inhibit tryptophan hydroxylase activity reducing serotonin production. At the National Alkaptonuria (AKU) Centre nitisinone is being used off-licence to treat AKU, and there is uncertainty over whether hypertyrosinaemia may alter mood. Herein results from clinical and biochemical assessments of depression in patients with AKU before and after treatment with nitisinone are presented...
July 19, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Eric J Bellefroid, Ashleigh V S Hood, Paul F Hoffman, Matthew D Thomas, Christopher T Reinhard, Noah J Planavsky
The oxygenation of Earth's surface environment dramatically altered key biological and geochemical cycles and ultimately ushered in the rise of an ecologically diverse biosphere. However, atmospheric oxygen partial pressures ( p O2 ) estimates for large swaths of the Precambrian remain intensely debated. Here we evaluate and explore the use of carbonate cerium (Ce) anomalies (Ce/Ce*) as a quantitative atmospheric p O2 proxy and provide estimates of Proterozoic p O2 using marine carbonates from a unique Precambrian carbonate succession-the Paleoproterozoic Pethei Group...
August 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Perry Caviness, Ryan Bauer, Keisuke Tanaka, Katarzyna Janowska, J Randy Roeser, Dawn Weir, Jes Sanders, Christopher Ruth, Osamu Matsushita, Joshua Sakon
To penetrate host tissues, histotoxic clostridia secrete virulence factors including enzymes to hydrolyze extracellular matrix. Clostridium histolyticum, recently renamed as Hathewaya histolytica, produces two classes of collagenase (ColG and ColH). The high-speed AFM study showed that ColG collagenase moves unidirectionally to plane collagen fibril and re-bundles fibril when stalled [1]. The structural explanation of the roles for the tandem collagen-binding segment (CBDs) is illuminated by its calcium-bound crystal structure at 1...
July 23, 2018: FEBS Journal
Kai-Min Niu, Damini Kothari, Sang-Buem Cho, Sung-Gu Han, In-Geun Song, Sam-Churl Kim, Soo-Ki Kim
Herein, we explore the probiotic potentials and soybean meal (SBM) compound feed fermentative applications of Lactobacillus plantarum SK1305 strain isolated previously from Korean green chili pickled pepper (gochu-jangajji). The isolate exhibited higher acid (pH 2.5) and bile tolerance (0.3%, w/v) up to 2 h and 4 h, respectively. The cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) displayed a broad spectrum antibacterial activities against various pathogens, which may be ascribed to high lactic acid production (L-form, 86...
July 20, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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