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Oligodendrocyte precursor cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913589/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#1
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane, which can mediate some of these signals...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#2
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882335/id-ealizing-control-of-adult-subventricular-zone-neural-stem-precursor-cell-differentiation-for-cns-regeneration
#3
COMMENT
Christian Bohrer, Christian Schachtrup
The adult central nervous system (CNS) was considered a comparatively static tissue with little cell turnover. It is now well established that there is more plasticity than previously thought and that astrocytes act as neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The discovery that these NSPCs can give rise to a limited number of new neurons, reactive astrocytes and oligodendrocytes contributing to brain repair in CNS disease, has raised hopes toward harnessing these cells for therapeutic interventions...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874947/the-relationship-between-the-occurrence-of-intractable-epilepsy-with-glial-cells-and-myelin-sheath-an-experimental-study
#4
X Hu, J-Y Wang, R Gu, H Qu, M Li, L Chen, R Liu, P Yuan
OBJECTIVE: The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with myelin sheath injury; oligodendrocyte (OL) is the main cell of myelin sheath; In this study, we observed the changes of OL, demyelination, and myelin associated protein in different stages of intractable epilepsy (IE) at the epileptic foci of patients, and provide useful information for the pathophysiology of IE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: IE patients who received epileptogenic focus resection were recruited as the experimental group, their medical records were collected and postoperative follow-up was performed...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863528/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-embryonic-tuberal-hypothalamus-and-the-influence-of-ascl1
#5
Candace M Marsters, Jessica M Rosin, Hayley F Thornton, Shaghayegh Aslanpour, Natasha Klenin, Grey Wilkinson, Carol Schuurmans, Quentin J Pittman, Deborah M Kurrasch
BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of cells in our brains are glia, we are only beginning to understand programs governing their development, especially within the embryonic hypothalamus. In mice, gliogenesis is a protracted process that begins during embryonic stages and continues into the early postnatal period, with glial progenitors first producing oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which then differentiate into pro-oligodendrocytes, pro-myelinating oligodendrocytes, and finally, mature myelinating oligodendrocytes...
November 18, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863043/the-g%C3%A2-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr17-overview-and-update
#6
REVIEW
Gabriella Marucci, Diego Dal Ben, Catia Lambertucci, Claudia Santinelli, Andrea Spinaci, Ajiroghene Thomas, Rosaria Volpini, Michela Buccioni
The GPR17 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that seems to respond to two unrelated families of endogenous ligands: nucleotide sugars (UDP, UDP-galactose, and UDP-glucose) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTD4 , LTC4 , and LTE4 ), with significant affinity at micromolar and nanomolar concentrations, respectively. This receptor has a broad distribution at the level of the central nervous system (CNS) and is found in neurons and in a subset of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Unfortunately, disparate results emerging from different laboratories have resulted in a lack of clarity with regard to the role of GPR17-targeting ligands in OPC differentiation and in myelination...
November 14, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854261/taking-advantage-of-nature-s-gift-can-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-improve-myelin-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
Rainer Akkermann, Janusz Joachim Jadasz, Kasum Azim, Patrick Küry
Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830160/usp9x-deletion-elevates-the-density-of-oligodendrocytes-within-the-postnatal-dentate-gyrus
#8
Sabrina Oishi, Oressia Zalucki, Susitha Premarathne, Stephen A Wood, Michael Piper
Neural stem cells (NSCs) within the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus reside in the subgranular zone (SGZ). A dynamic network of signaling mechanisms controls the balance between the maintenance of NSC identity, and their subsequent differentiation into dentate granule neurons. Recently, the ubiquitin-specific protease 9 X-linked (USP9X) was shown to be important for hippocampal morphogenesis, as mice lacking this gene exhibited a higher proportion of proliferating NSCs, yet a decrease in neuronal numbers, within the postnatal dentate gyrus...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829126/oligodendrogenesis-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
REVIEW
Hajime Takase, Kazuo Washida, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Ken Arai, Xiaoying Wang, Eng H Lo, Josephine Lok
White matter injury is an important contributor to long term motor and cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury. During brain trauma, acceleration, deceleration, torsion, and compression forces often cause direct damage to the axon tracts, and pathways that are triggered by the initial injury can trigger molecular events that result in secondary axon degeneration. White matter injury is often associated with altered mental status, memory deficits, motor or autonomic dysfunction, and contribute to the development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases...
November 6, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807898/yap-functions-as-a-mechanotransducer-in-oligodendrocyte-morphogenesis-and-maturation
#10
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kenji F Tanaka, Manabu Abe, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that mechanical factors influence various cell properties. Mechanical stimuli can be transduced into intracellular biochemical signals through mechanosensors and intracellular mechanotransducers, such as YAP. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying mechanical regulation of OLs by YAP remain unknown. We found that OL morphology and interactions between OLs and neuronal axons were affected by knocking down YAP...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807896/transient-cnp-expression-by-early-progenitors-causes-cre-lox-based-reporter-lines-to-map-profoundly-different-fates
#11
Reshmi Tognatta, Wenjing Sun, Sandra Goebbels, Klaus-Armin Nave, Akiko Nishiyama, Susanne Schoch, Leda Dimou, Dirk Dietrich
NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796063/endogenous-gaba-controls-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cell-number-myelination-and-cns-internode-length
#12
Nicola B Hamilton, Laura E Clarke, I Lorena Arancibia-Carcamo, Eleni Kougioumtzidou, Moritz Matthey, Ragnhildur Káradóttir, Louise Whiteley, Linda H Bergersen, William D Richardson, David Attwell
Adjusting the thickness and internodal length of the myelin sheath is a mechanism for tuning the conduction velocity of axons to match computational needs. Interactions between oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and developing axons regulate the formation of myelin around axons. We now show, using organotypic cerebral cortex slices from mice expressing eGFP in Sox10-positive oligodendrocytes, that endogenously released GABA, acting on GABAA receptors, greatly reduces the number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells...
October 31, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775720/a-neuronal-pi-3-4-5-p3-dependent-program-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-recruitment-and-myelination
#13
Sandra Goebbels, Georg L Wieser, Alexander Pieper, Sonia Spitzer, Bettina Weege, Kuo Yan, Julia M Edgar, Oleksandr Yagensky, Sven P Wichert, Amit Agarwal, Khalad Karram, Nicolas Renier, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Moritz J Rossner, Ragnhildur Thóra Káradóttir, Klaus-Armin Nave
The molecular trigger of CNS myelination is unknown. By targeting Pten in cerebellar granule cells and activating the AKT1-mTOR pathway, we increased the caliber of normally unmyelinated axons and the expression of numerous genes encoding regulatory proteins. This led to the expansion of genetically wild-type oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, oligodendrocyte differentiation and de novo myelination of parallel fibers. Thus, a neuronal program dependent on the phosphoinositide PI(3,4,5)P3 is sufficient to trigger all steps of myelination...
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751227/-neuroprotective-effect-of-nogo-66-receptor-silencing-in-preterm-rats-with-brain-injury-caused-by-intrauterine-infection
#14
Shi-Fa Zhang, Yan Zhou, Kai-Jing Zhang, Jia-Jie Luan, Shi-Mei Qi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) silencing with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) on brain injury repair in preterm rats with brain injury caused by intrauterine infection and related mechanism of action. METHODS: The pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (with a gestational age of 15 days) were selected, and premature delivery was induced by RU486 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The preterm rats delivered by those treated with RU486 were selected as the control group...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701172/engineering-biomaterials-to-influence-oligodendroglial-growth-maturation-and-myelin-production
#15
Lauren N Russell, Kyle J Lampe
Millions of people suffer from damage or disease to the nervous system that results in a loss of myelin, such as through a spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. Diminished myelin levels lead to further cell death in which unmyelinated neurons die. In the central nervous system, a loss of myelin is especially detrimental because of its poor ability to regenerate. Cell therapies such as stem or precursor cell injection have been investigated as stem cells are able to grow and differentiate into the damaged cells; however, stem cell injection alone has been unsuccessful in many areas of neural regeneration...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698367/mir-125a-3p-timely-inhibits-oligodendroglial-maturation-and-is-pathologically-up-regulated-in-human-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Davide Lecca, Davide Marangon, Giusy T Coppolino, Aida Menéndez Méndez, Annamaria Finardi, Gloria Dalla Costa, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberto Furlan, Maria P Abbracchio
In the mature central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes provide support and insulation to axons thanks to the production of a myelin sheath. During their maturation to myelinating cells, oligodendroglial precursors (OPCs) follow a very precise differentiation program, which is finely orchestrated by transcription factors, epigenetic factors and microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation. Any alterations in this program can potentially contribute to dysregulated myelination, impaired remyelination and neurodegenerative conditions, as it happens in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644104/ng2-glial-cells-integrate-synaptic-input-in-global-and-dendritic-calcium-signals
#17
Wenjing Sun, Elizabeth A Matthews, Vicky Nicolas, Susanne Schoch, Dirk Dietrich
Synaptic signaling to NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NG2 cells) could be key to rendering myelination of axons dependent on neuronal activity, but it has remained unclear whether NG2 glial cells integrate and respond to synaptic input. Here we show that NG2 cells perform linear integration of glutamatergic synaptic inputs and respond with increasing dendritic calcium elevations. Synaptic activity induces rapid Ca(2+) signals mediated by low-voltage activated Ca(2+) channels under strict inhibitory control of voltage-gated A-type K(+) channels...
September 19, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634580/fingolimod-enhances-myelin-repair-of-hippocampus-in-pentylenetetrazol-induced-kindling-model
#18
Mohammad Gol, Davoud Ghorbanian, Samaneh Hassanzadeh, Mohammad Javan, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Recent evidence indicates that demyelination occurs in epilepsy patients and kindling animal models. Regarding the well-known literature on anti-inflammatory and myelin protective effects of fingolimod (FTY720) in multiple sclerosis patients and animal models, we hypostatized whether FTY720 administration could exert myelin protective effects in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling model. To end this, animals received 0.3 or 1mg/kg dosage of FTY720, 1h before PTZ injections. In another approach, after achieving fully kindling stage, FTY720 was administrated i...
September 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630672/aldynoglia-cells-and-modulation-of-rhogtpase-activity-as-useful-tools-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#19
REVIEW
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro
A combined approach in spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy is the modulation of the cellular and molecular processes involved in glial scarring. Aldaynoglial cells are neural cell precursors with a high capacity to differentiate into neurons, promote axonal growth, wrapping and myelination of resident neurons. These important characteristics of aldaynoglia can be combined with specific inhibition of the RhoGTPase activity in astroglia and microglia that cause reduction of glial proliferation, retraction of glial cell processes and myelin production by oligodendrocytes...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629829/development-of-a-high-throughput-drug-screening-assay-to-identify-compounds-that-protect-oligodendrocyte-viability-and-differentiation-under-inflammatory-conditions
#20
Karen D Lariosa-Willingham, Elen S Rosler, Jay S Tung, Jason C Dugas, Tassie L Collins, Dmitri Leonoudakis
BACKGROUND: Newly proliferated oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and surround lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases, but fail to differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) and remyelinate remaining viable axons. The abundance of secreted inflammatory factors within and surrounding these lesions likely plays a major inhibitory role, promoting cell death and preventing OL differentiation and axon remyelination. To identify clinical candidate compounds that may protect existing and differentiating OLs in patients, we have developed a high throughput screening (HTS) assay that utilizes purified rat OPCs...
2016: BMC Research Notes
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