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Oligodendrocyte precursor cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769557/nde1-positively-regulates-oligodendrocyte-morphological-differentiation
#1
Shoko Shimizu, Yugo Ishino, Masaya Tohyama, Shingo Miyata
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS), undergo morphological differentiation characterized by elaborated branched processes to enwrap neuronal axons. However, the basic molecular mechanisms underlying oligodendrocyte morphogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we describe the essential roles of Nuclear Distribution E Homolog 1 (NDE1), a dynein cofactor, in oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. In the mouse corpus callosum, Nde1 mRNA expression was detected in oligodendrocyte lineage cells at the postnatal stage...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741724/myelin-modifications-after-chronic-sleep-loss-in-adolescent-mice
#2
Michele Bellesi, John Douglas Haswell, Luisa de Vivo, William Marshall, Patrick H Roseboom, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
Study Objectives: Previous studies found that sleep loss can suppress the expression of genes implicated in myelination and can have adverse effects on oligodendrocyte precursor cells. On the other hand, sleep may favor myelination by promoting the expression of genes involved in its formation and maintenance. Albeit limited, these results suggest that sleep loss can have detrimental effects on the formation and maintenance of myelin. Methods: Here, we tested this hypothesis by evaluating ultrastructural modifications of myelin in two brain regions (corpus callosum and lateral olfactory tract) of mice exposed to different periods of sleep loss, from a few hours of sleep deprivation to ~5 days of chronic sleep restriction...
May 1, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728852/glial-cells-shape-pathology-and-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken
Glial cell types were classified less than 100 years ago by del Rio-Hortega. For instance, he correctly surmised that microglia in pathologic central nervous system (CNS) were "voracious monsters" that helped clean the tissue. Although these historical predictions were remarkably accurate, innovative technologies have revealed novel molecular, cellular, and dynamic physiologic aspects of CNS glia. In this review, we integrate recent findings regarding the roles of glia and glial interactions in healthy and injured spinal cord...
May 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704264/nf-y-dependent-regulation-of-glutamate-receptor-4-expression-and-cell-survival-in-cells-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage
#4
Ghazala Begum, Masahiro Otsu, Usman Ahmed, Zubair Ahmed, Adam Stevens, Daniel Fulton
Glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4) is highly expressed by neural cells sensitive to excitotoxicity, and is the predominant subunit expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) during a key period of vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therefore, transcriptional networks downstream of excitotoxic GluA4 activation represent a promising area for therapeutic intervention. In this work, we identify the CCAAT binding transcription factor NF-Yb as a novel transcriptional regulator of Gria4 (GluA4 gene), and a controller of excitotoxic death in the oligodendroglial lineage...
April 27, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690885/blockade-of-sustained-tumor-necrosis-factor-in-a-transgenic-model-of-progressive-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-limits-oligodendrocyte-apoptosis-and-promotes-oligodendrocyte-maturation
#5
Alice Valentin-Torres, Carine Savarin, Joslyn Barnett, Cornelia C Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although TNF-targeted therapies have been largely unsuccessful in MS, recent preclinical data suggests selective soluble TNF inhibition can promote remyelination. This has renewed interest in regulation of TNF signaling in demyelinating disease, especially given the limited treatment options for progressive MS. Using a mouse model of progressive MS, this study evaluates the effects of sustained TNF on oligodendrocyte (OLG) apoptosis and OLG precursor cell (OPC) differentiation...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683222/ascl1-regulates-proliferation-of-ng2-glia-in-the-embryonic-and-adult-spinal-cord
#6
Demetra P Kelenis, Emma Hart, Morgan Edwards-Fligner, Jane E Johnson, Tou Yia Vue
NG2-glia are highly proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). During development, NG2-glia predominantly differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) to myelinate axon fibers, but they can also remain as OPCs persisting into the mature CNS. Interestingly, NG2-glia in the gray matter (GM) are intrinsically different from those in the white matter (WM) in terms of proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, and electrophysiological properties...
April 23, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681511/a-glial-signature-and-wnt7-signaling-regulate-glioma-vascular-interactions-and-tumor-microenvironment
#7
Amelie Griveau, Giorgio Seano, Samuel J Shelton, Robert Kupp, Arman Jahangiri, Kirsten Obernier, Shanmugarajan Krishnan, Olle R Lindberg, Tracy J Yuen, An-Chi Tien, Jennifer K Sabo, Nancy Wang, Ivy Chen, Jonas Kloepper, Louis Larrouquere, Mitrajit Ghosh, Itay Tirosh, Emmanuelle Huillard, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Michael C Oldham, Anders I Persson, William A Weiss, Tracy T Batchelor, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Mario L Suvà, Joanna J Phillips, Manish K Aghi, Shwetal Mehta, Rakesh K Jain, David H Rowitch
Gliomas comprise heterogeneous malignant glial and stromal cells. While blood vessel co-option is a potential mechanism to escape anti-angiogenic therapy, the relevance of glial phenotype in this process is unclear. We show that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor-like glioma cells invade by single-cell vessel co-option and preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conversely, Olig2-negative glioma cells form dense perivascular collections and promote angiogenesis and BBB breakdown, leading to innate immune cell activation...
April 6, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679562/myotube-derived-factor-promotes-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-proliferation
#8
Akino Nakasone, Rieko Muramatsu, Yuki Kato, Yukio Kawahara, Toshihide Yamashita
Muscle cells secrete numerous molecules that function as endocrine hormones and regulate the functions of distant organs. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by peripheral hormones. However, the effects of muscle-derived molecules on myelination have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we show that muscle-releasing factors promote proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which is an element of myelination process. Supernatants of mouse myotube cultures stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into mouse OPCs...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674595/developmental-and-oncogenic-programs-in-h3k27m-gliomas-dissected-by-single-cell-rna-seq
#9
Mariella G Filbin, Itay Tirosh, Volker Hovestadt, McKenzie L Shaw, Leah E Escalante, Nathan D Mathewson, Cyril Neftel, Nelli Frank, Kristine Pelton, Christine M Hebert, Christine Haberler, Keren Yizhak, Johannes Gojo, Kristof Egervari, Christopher Mount, Peter van Galen, Dennis M Bonal, Quang-De Nguyen, Alexander Beck, Claire Sinai, Thomas Czech, Christian Dorfer, Liliana Goumnerova, Cinzia Lavarino, Angel M Carcaboso, Jaume Mora, Ravindra Mylvaganam, Christina C Luo, Andreas Peyrl, Mara Popović, Amedeo Azizi, Tracy T Batchelor, Matthew P Frosch, Maria Martinez-Lage, Mark W Kieran, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Rameen Beroukhim, Gerhard Fritsch, Gad Getz, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Kai W Wucherpfennig, David N Louis, Michelle Monje, Irene Slavc, Keith L Ligon, Todd R Golub, Aviv Regev, Bradley E Bernstein, Mario L Suvà
Gliomas with histone H3 lysine27-to-methionine mutations (H3K27M-glioma) arise primarily in the midline of the central nervous system of young children, suggesting a cooperation between genetics and cellular context in tumorigenesis. Although the genetics of H3K27M-glioma are well characterized, their cellular architecture remains uncharted. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in 3321 cells from six primary H3K27M-glioma and matched models. We found that H3K27M-glioma primarily contain cells that resemble oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC-like), whereas more differentiated malignant cells are a minority...
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660252/encapsulated-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-fate-is-dependent-on-pdgf-aa-release-kinetics-in-a-3d-microparticle-hydrogel-drug-delivery-system
#10
Meghan R Pinezich, Lauren N Russell, Nicholas P Murphy, Kyle J Lampe
Biomaterial drug delivery systems (DDS) can be used to regulate growth factor release and combat the limited intrinsic regeneration capabilities of central nervous system (CNS) tissue following injury and disease. Of particular interest are systems that aid in oligodendrocyte regeneration, as oligodendrocytes generate myelin which surrounds neuronal axons and helps transmit signals throughout the CNS. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are found in small numbers in the adult CNS, but are unable to effectively differentiate following CNS injury...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658460/-neuroprotective-effects-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-on-white-matter-damage-in-preterm-infants
#11
Yan Yue, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu
White matter damage, characterized by demyelination due to the damage of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), is the most common type of brain damage in preterm infants. Survivors are often subject to long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae because of the lack of effective treatment. In recent years, it has been found that cell transplantation has the potential for the treatment of white matter damage. OPCs are frequently used cells in cell transplantation therapy. With abilities of migration and myelinization, OPCs are the best seed cells for the treatment of white matter damage...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623602/inhibition-of-astrocyte-connexin-43-channels-facilitates-the-differentiation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-under-hypoxic-conditions-in-vitro
#12
Qiong Wang, Zhen Wang, Yeye Tian, Huaqiu Zhang, Yongkang Fang, Zhiyuan Yu, Wei Wang, Minjie Xie, Fengfei Ding
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) proliferation and differentiation are essential for remyelination after white matter injury. Astrocytes could promote oligodendrogenesis after white matter damage whereas the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, the role of astrocytic connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels involved in OPC proliferation and differentiation in chronic hypoxia was evaluated. In an astrocyte-OPC co-culture chronic hypoxia model, OPCs became proliferative but failed to mature into oligodendrocytes...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614310/cxcl12-gene-engineered-endothelial-progenitor-cells-further-improve-the-functions-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#13
Fang Yuan, Shuang Chang, Longlong Luo, Yaning Li, Liping Wang, Yaying Song, Meijie Qu, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are needed for white matter repair after various brain injury. Means that promote OPC functions could benefit white matter recovery after injury. Chemokine CXCL12 and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) both have been shown to promote remyelination. We hypothesize that the beneficial effects of EPCs and CXCL12 can be harnessed by genetically modifying EPCs with cxcl12 to synergistically improve the functions of OPCs. In this work, CXCL12-EPC was generated using virus-mediated gene transfer...
March 31, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603384/axoglial-synapses-are-formed-onto-pioneer-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-at-the-onset-of-spinal-cord-gliogenesis
#14
Guillaume Osterstock, Barbara Le Bras, Kalaimakan Hervé Arulkandarajah, Hervé Le Corronc, Antonny Czarnecki, Christine Mouffle, Erika Bullier, Pascal Legendre, Jean-Marie Mangin
Virtually all oligodendrocyte precursors cells (OPCs) receive glutamatergic and/or GABAergic synapses that are lost upon their differentiation into oligodendrocytes in the postnatal and adult brain. Although OPCs are generated at mid-embryonic stages, several weeks before the onset of myelination, it remains unknown when and where OPCs receive their first synapses and become susceptible to the influence of neuronal activity. In the embryonic spinal cord, neuro-epithelial precursors in the pMN domain cease generating cholinergic motor neurons (MNs) to produce OPCs when the first synapses are formed in the ventral-lateral marginal zone...
March 30, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603376/the-extracellular-matrix-focus-on-oligodendrocyte-biology-and-targeting-cspgs-for-remyelination-therapies
#15
REVIEW
Annie Pu, Erin L Stephenson, V Wee Yong
The repair of myelin, termed remyelination, is a regenerative process that occurs within the central nervous system in conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is enabled by oligodendrocytes that mature from oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Many factors influence the biology of oligodendrocytes and their capacity to reform myelin, and considerable evidence now implicates the extracellular matrix within the injured central nervous system as a major modifier of remyelination. Herein, we review current knowledge of components of the brain extracellular matrix that are beneficial or inhibitory for oligodendrocyte recruitment and maturation, and for their capacity to remyelinate where evidence exists...
March 30, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593734/experimental-demyelination-and-axonal-loss-are-reduced-in-microrna-146a-deficient-mice
#16
Nellie A Martin, Viktor Molnar, Gabor T Szilagyi, Maria L Elkjaer, Arkadiusz Nawrocki, Justyna Okarmus, Agnieszka Wlodarczyk, Eva K Thygesen, Miklos Palkovits, Ferenc Gallyas, Martin R Larsen, Hans Lassmann, Eirikur Benedikz, Trevor Owens, Asa F Svenningsen, Zsolt Illes
Background: The cuprizone (CPZ) model of multiple sclerosis (MS) was used to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) related to in vivo de- and remyelination. We further investigated the role of miR-146a in miR-146a-deficient (KO) mice: this miRNA is differentially expressed in MS lesions and promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during remyelination, but its role has not been examined during demyelination. Methods: MicroRNAs were examined by Agilent Mouse miRNA Microarray in the corpus callosum during CPZ-induced demyelination and remyelination...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590097/modeling-the-dynamics-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-the-genesis-of-gliomas
#17
Aloys Dufour, Emilie Gontran, Christophe Deroulers, Pascale Varlet, Johan Pallud, Basile Grammaticos, Mathilde Badoual
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) have remarkable properties: they represent the most abundant cycling cell population in the adult normal brain and they manage to achieve a uniform and constant density throughout the adult brain. This equilibrium is obtained by the interplay of four processes: division, differentiation or death, migration and active self-repulsion. They are also strongly suspected to be at the origin of gliomas, when their equilibrium is disrupted. In this article, we present a model of the dynamics of OPCs, first in a normal tissue...
March 28, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577885/primary-microglia-isolation-from-mixed-cell-cultures-of-neonatal-mouse-brain-tissue
#18
Jérôme Roy
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the main resident immunological cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that are functionally equivalent to macrophages. However, due to the cellular heterogeneity of the brain, it is technically challenging to obtain highly specific, healthy microglia with the desired phenotype in sufficient yield for in vivo experiments. NEW METHOD: This study presents a new and easy method for the isolation of microglia cells from mouse pups (P1-P3)...
March 22, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575648/spontaneous-development-of-intratumoral-heterogeneity-in-a-transposon-induced-mouse-model-of-glioma
#19
Keisuke Sumiyoshi, Hideto Koso, Sumiko Watanabe
Glioma is the most common form of malignant brain cancer in adults. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based glioma mouse model allows for effective in vivo analysis of candidate genes. In this study, we developed a transposon vector that encodes the triple combination of platelet-derived growth factor subunit A (PDGFA), and shRNAs against Nf1 and Trp53 (shNf1/shp53). Initiation and progression of glioma in the brain were monitored by expression of a fluorescent protein. Transduction of the vector into neural progenitor and stem cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the neonatal brain induced proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and promoted formation of highly penetrant malignant gliomas within 2 to 4 months...
March 25, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569183/trpv4-is-functionally-expressed-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-and-increases-their-proliferation
#20
Kana Ohashi, Ayane Deyashiki, Takahito Miyake, Kazuki Nagayasu, Koji Shibasaki, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
Oligodendrocytes, which differentiate from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), ensheath axons with myelin, play an essential role in rapid conduction of action potentials and metabolically support neurons. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of OPCs is considered indispensable for determining the causes of central nervous system diseases. However, the relationship between these functions of OPCs and their intracellular Ca2+ signaling has not been fully elucidated...
March 22, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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