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Oligodendrocyte precursor cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#1
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931573/chd7-collaborates-with-sox2-to-regulate-activation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Toru Doi, Toru Ogata, Junji Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Sawada, Sakae Tanaka, Motoshi Nagao
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) act as a reservoir of new oligodendrocytes (OLs) in homeostatic and pathological conditions. OPCs are activated in response to injury, to generate myelinating OLs; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Chd7 regulates OPC activation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Chd7 is expressed in OPCs in the adult spinal cord and its expression is upregulated with a concomitant increase in Sox2 expression following SCI. OPC-specific ablation of Chd7 in the injured mice leads to reduced OPC proliferation, the loss of OPC identity, and impaired OPC differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925069/myelin-plasticity-neural-activity-and-traumatic-neural-injury
#3
REVIEW
Bethany R Kondiles, Philip J Horner
The possibility that adult organisms exhibit myelin plasticity has recently become a topic of great interest. Many researchers are exploring the role of myelin growth and adaptation in daily functions such as memory and motor learning. Here we consider evidence for three different potential categories of myelin plasticity: the myelination of previously bare axons, remodeling of existing sheaths, and the removal of a sheath with replacement by a new internode. We also review evidence that points to the importance of neural activity as a mechanism by which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are cued to differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes, which may potentially be an important component of myelin plasticity...
September 19, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905149/interactions-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-gamma-on-neuroinflammation-demyelination-and-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Noël Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Yves Lecarpentier
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation...
September 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899472/-long-term-effect-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-transplantation-on-a-rat-model-of-white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant
#5
Cheng-Jun Wu, Zhao-Yan Wang, Yin-Xiang Yang, Zuo Luan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effect of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) transplantation on a rat model of white matter injury (WMI) in the preterm infant. METHODS: A total of 80 Sprague-Dawley rats aged 3 days were randomly divided into sham-operation group, model control group, 5-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group, 9-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group, 14-day ventricular/white matter transplantation group (n=10 each)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829781/different-patterns-of-neuronal-activity-trigger-distinct-responses-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-the-corpus-callosum
#6
Balint Nagy, Anahit Hovhannisyan, Ruxandra Barzan, Ting-Jiun Chen, Maria Kukley
In the developing and adult brain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are influenced by neuronal activity: they are involved in synaptic signaling with neurons, and their proliferation and differentiation into myelinating glia can be altered by transient changes in neuronal firing. An important question that has been unanswered is whether OPCs can discriminate different patterns of neuronal activity and respond to them in a distinct way. Here, we demonstrate in brain slices that the pattern of neuronal activity determines the functional changes triggered at synapses between axons and OPCs...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828731/pharmacological-properties-and-biological-functions-of-the-gpr17-receptor-a-potential-target-for-neuro-regenerative-medicine
#7
Marta Fumagalli, Davide Lecca, Giusy T Coppolino, Chiara Parravicini, Maria P Abbracchio
In 2006, cells heterologously expressing the "orphan" receptor GPR17 were shown to acquire responses to both uracil nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes, two families of signaling molecules accumulating in brain or heart as a result of hypoxic/traumatic injuries. In subsequent years, evidence of GPR17 key role in oligodendrogenesis and myelination has highlighted it as a "model receptor" for new therapies in demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. The apparently contrasting evidence in the literature about the role of GPR17 in promoting or inhibiting myelination can be due to its transient expression in the intermediate stages of differentiation, exerting a pro-differentiating function in early oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and an inhibitory role in late stage maturing cells...
August 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825598/peripherally-derived-fgf21-promotes-remyelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Mariko Kuroda, Rieko Muramatsu, Noriko Maedera, Yoshihisa Koyama, Machika Hamaguchi, Harutoshi Fujimura, Mari Yoshida, Morichika Konishi, Nobuyuki Itoh, Hideki Mochizuki, Toshihide Yamashita
Demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) leads to severe neurological deficits that can be partially reversed by spontaneous remyelination. Because the CNS is isolated from the peripheral milieu by the blood-brain barrier, remyelination is thought to be controlled by the CNS microenvironment. However, in this work we found that factors derived from peripheral tissue leak into the CNS after injury and promote remyelination in a murine model of toxin-induced demyelination. Mechanistically, leakage of circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which is predominantly expressed by the pancreas, drives proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) through interactions with β-klotho, an essential coreceptor of FGF21...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812051/comment-on-ph20-is-not-expressed-in-murine-cns-and-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#9
Larry S Sherman, Stephen A Back
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806920/specific-ion-channels-contribute-to-key-elements-of-pathology-during-secondary-degeneration-following-neurotrauma
#10
Ryan L O'Hare Doig, Wissam Chiha, Marcus K Giacci, Nathanael J Yates, Carole A Bartlett, Nicole M Smith, Stuart I Hodgetts, Alan R Harvey, Melinda Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Following partial injury to the central nervous system, cells beyond the initial injury site undergo secondary degeneration, exacerbating loss of neurons, compact myelin and function. Changes in Ca(2+) flux are associated with metabolic and structural changes, but it is not yet clear how flux through specific ion channels contributes to the various pathologies. Here, partial optic nerve transection in adult female rats was used to model secondary degeneration. Treatment with combinations of three ion channel inhibitors was used as a tool to investigate which elements of oxidative and structural damage related to long term functional outcomes...
August 14, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805558/oxytocin-modulates-expression-of-neuron-and-glial-markers-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#11
T Havránek, Z Lešťanová, B Mravec, V Štrbák, J Bakoš, Z Bačová
Neuropeptides including oxytocin belong to the group of factors that may play a role in the control of neuronal cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential contribution of oxytocin to neuronal differentiation by measuring gene and protein expression of specific neuron and glial markers in the brain. Neonatal and adult oxytocin administration was used to reveal developmental and/or acute effects of oxytocin in Wistar rats. Gene and protein expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the hippocampus was increased in 21-day and 2-month old rats in response to neonatal oxytocin administration...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795438/a-specific-gabaergic-synapse-onto-oligodendrocyte-precursors-does-not-regulate-cortical-oligodendrogenesis
#12
Maddalena Balia, Najate Benamer, María Cecilia Angulo
In the brain, neurons establish bona fide synapses onto oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), but the function of these neuron-glia synapses remains unresolved. A leading hypothesis suggests that these synapses regulate OPC proliferation and differentiation. However, a causal link between synaptic activity and OPC cellular dynamics is still missing. In the developing somatosensory cortex, OPCs receive a major type of synapse from GABAergic interneurons that is mediated by postsynaptic γ2-containing GABAA receptors...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783571/a-novel-flavanone-derivative-ameliorates-cuprizone-induced-behavioral-changes-and-white-matter-pathology-in-the-brain-of-mice
#13
Zheng-Yu Sun, Hong-Shun Gu, Xi Chen, Lan Zhang, Xin-Min Li, Jian-Wei Zhang, Lin Li
Recent studies have shown that white matter lesions play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. DHF-6 is a novel flavanone derivative synthesized in our laboratory. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of DHF-6 on behavioral changes and white matter pathology in a 0.2% cuprizone-fed C57BL/6 mice model. The results showed that cuprizone induced a decrease in spontaneous alternations in the Y-maze test, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field test, demyelination determined by electron microscopy, a decline in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), a decrease in the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into mature oligodendrocytes (OLs), and an activation of microglia and astrocytes in the corpus callosum measured by western blot and/or immunocytochemical analyses...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777696/exercise-in-adulthood-after-irradiation-of-the-juvenile-brain-ameliorates-long-term-depletion-of-oligodendroglial-cells
#14
Cecilia Bull, Christiana Cooper, Veronica Lindahl, Sylvia Fitting, Anders I Persson, Rita Grandér, Ann-Marie Alborn, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, H Georg Kuhn, Klas Blomgren
Cranial radiation severely affects brain health and function, including glial cell production and myelination. Recent studies indicate that voluntary exercise has beneficial effects on oligodendrogenesis and myelination. Here, we hypothesized that voluntary running would increase oligodendrocyte numbers in the corpus callosum after irradiation of the juvenile mouse brain. The brains of C57Bl/6J male mice were 6 Gy irradiated on postnatal day 9 during the main gliogenic developmental phase, resulting in a loss of oligodendrocyte precursor cells...
August 4, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768870/the-replication-of-jcv-dna-in-the-g144-oligodendrocyte-cell-line-is-dependent-upon-akt
#15
Jesse N Peterson, Brian Lin, Jong Shin, Paul J Phelan, Philip Tsichlis, James E Schwob, Peter A Bullock
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an often-fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. PML results when oligodendrocytes within immunocompromised individuals are infected with the human JC virus (JCV). We have identified an oligodendrocyte precursor cell line, termed G144, which supports robust levels of JCV DNA replication, a central part of the JCV life cycle. In addition, we have determined that JC virus readily infects G144 cells. Furthermore, we have determined that JCV DNA replication in G144 cells is stimulated by myristoylated (i...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760868/polysialylation-at-early-stages-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-promotes-myelin-repair
#16
Sebastian Werneburg, Hazel L S Fuchs, Iris Albers, Hannelore Burkhardt, Viktoria Gudi, Thomas Skripuletz, Martin Stangel, Rita Gerardy-Schahn, Herbert Hildebrandt
Polysialic acid is a glycan modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) produced by the polysialyltransferases ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4. Polysialic acid has been detected in multiple sclerosis plaques, but its beneficial or adverse role in remyelination is elusive. Here, we show that, despite a developmental delay, myelination at the onset and during cuprizone-induced demyelination was unaffected in male Ncam1(-/-) or St8sia2(-/-) mice. However, remyelination, restoration of oligodendrocyte densities, and motor recovery after the cessation of cuprizone treatment were compromised...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760862/myelinogenic-plasticity-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-following-spinal-cord-contusion-injury
#17
P Assinck, G J Duncan, J R Plemel, M J Lee, J S Stratton, S B Manesh, J Liu, L M Ramer, S H Kang, D E Bergles, J Biernaskie, W Tetzlaff
Spontaneous remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the extent of myelin repair and identity of the cells responsible remain incompletely understood and contentious. We assessed the cellular origin of new myelin by fate mapping PDGFRα+, Olig2+, and P0+ cells following contusion SCI in mice. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs; PDGFRα+) produced oligodendrocytes responsible for de novo ensheathment of ∼30% of myelinated spinal axons at injury epicenter three months after SCI, demonstrating that these resident cells are a major contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751784/rapid-generation-of-opc-like-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-treating-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Dae-Sung Kim, Se Jung Jung, Jae Souk Lee, Bo Young Lim, Hyun Ah Kim, Jeong-Eun Yoo, Dong-Wook Kim, Joong Woo Leem
Remyelination via the transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) has been considered as a strategy to improve the locomotor deficits caused by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, enormous efforts have been made to derive OPCs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), and significant progress in the transplantation of such cells in SCI animal models has been reported. The current methods generally require a long period of time (>2 months) to obtain transplantable OPCs, which hampers their clinical utility for patients with SCI...
July 28, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751716/static-magnetic-field-stimulation-enhances-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-secretion-of-neurotrophic-factors
#19
Ankshita Prasad, Daniel B Loong Teh, Agata Blasiak, Chou Chai, Yang Wu, Payam M Gharibani, In Hong Yang, Thang T Phan, Kah Leong Lim, Hyunsoo Yang, Xiaogang Liu, Angelo H All
The cellular-level effects of low/high frequency oscillating magnetic field on excitable cells such as neurons are well established. In contrast, the effects of a homogeneous, static magnetic field (SMF) on Central Nervous System (CNS) glial cells are less investigated. Here, we have developed an in vitro SMF stimulation set-up to investigate the genomic effects of SMF exposure on oligodendrocyte differentiation and neurotrophic factors secretion. Human oligodendrocytes precursor cells (OPCs) were stimulated with moderate intensity SMF (0...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#20
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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