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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159915/performance-of-a-hybrid-monte-carlo-pencil-beam-dose-algorithm-for-proton-therapy-inverse-planning
#1
Ana María Barragán Montero, Kevin Souris, Daniel Sanchez-Parcerisa, Edmond Sterpin, John Aldo Lee
PURPOSE: Analytical algorithms have a limited accuracy when modeling very heterogeneous tumor sites. This work addresses the performance of a hybrid dose optimizer that combines both Monte Carlo (MC) and pencil beam (PB) dose engines to get the best trade-off between speed and accuracy for proton therapy plans. METHODS: The hybrid algorithm calculates the optimal spot weights (w) by means of an iterative optimization process where the dose at each iteration is computed by using a precomputed dose influence matrix based on the conventional PB plus a correction term c obtained from a MC simulation...
February 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072592/prostate-cancer-detection-with-a-tactile-resonance-sensor-measurement-considerations-and-clinical-setup
#2
Anders P Åstrand, Britt M Andersson, Ville Jalkanen, Börje Ljungberg, Anders Bergh, Olof A Lindahl
Tumors in the human prostate are usually stiffer compared to surrounding non-malignant glandular tissue, and tactile resonance sensors measuring stiffness can be used to detect prostate cancer. To explore this further, we used a tactile resonance sensor system combined with a rotatable sample holder where whole surgically removed prostates could be attached to detect tumors on, and beneath, the surface ex vivo. Model studies on tissue phantoms made of silicone and porcine tissue were performed. Finally, two resected human prostate glands were studied...
October 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989573/corn-silk-extract-improves-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-experimental-rat-model
#3
So Ra Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Hyun Ji Choi, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a corn silk extract on improving benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). MATERIALS/METHODS: The experimental animals, 6-week-old male Wistar rats, were divided into sham-operated control (Sham) and experimental groups. The experimental group, which underwent orchiectomy and received subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of testosterone propionate to induce BPH, was divided into a Testo Only group that received only testosterone, a Testo+Fina group that received testosterone and 5 mg/kg finasteride, a Testo+CSE10 group that received testosterone and 10 mg/kg of corn silk extract, and a Testo+CSE100 group that received testosterone and 100 mg/kg of corn silk extract...
October 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923301/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-pazufloxacin-in-prostate-tissue-dosing-considerations-for-prostatitis
#4
Kogenta Nakamura, Kazuro Ikawa, Genya Nishikawa, Ikuo Kobayashi, Masahiro Narushima, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Shingo Morinaga, Keishi Kajikawa, Yoshiharu Kato, Masahito Watanabe, Kenji Zennami, Kent Kanao, Norifumi Morikawa, Makoto Sumitomo
The present study examined the clinical pharmacokinetics of pazufloxacin in prostate tissue and estimated the probability of target attainment for tissue-specific pharmacodynamic goals related to treating prostatitis using various intravenous dosing regimens. Patients with prostatic hypertrophy received prophylactic infusions of pazufloxacin (500 mg, n = 23; 1000 mg, n = 25) for 0.5 h prior to transurethral prostate resection. Drug concentrations in plasma (0.5-5 h) and prostate tissue (0.5-1.5 h) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and used for subsequent noncompartmental and three-compartmental analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822840/role-of-adp-ribosylation-factor6-cytohesin1-phospholipased-signaling-axis-in-u46619-induced-activation-of-nadph-oxidase-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cell-membrane
#5
Sajal Chakraborti, Jaganmay Sarkar, Animesh Chowdhury, Tapati Chakraborti
Treatment of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) with the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548 inhibited U46619 stimulation of phospholipase D (PLD) and NADPH oxidase activities in the cell membrane. Pretreatment with apocynin inhibited U46619 induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity. The cell membrane contains predominantly PLD2 along with PLD1 isoforms of PLD. Pretreatment with pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of PLD2, but not PLD1, attenuated U46619 stimulation of NADPH oxidase activity...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733445/enhanced-no-dependent-pulmonary-vasodilation-limits-increased-vasoconstrictor-sensitivity-in-neonatal-chronic-hypoxia
#6
Joshua R Sheak, Laura Weise-Cross, Ray J deKay, Benjimen R Walker, Nikki L Jernigan, Thomas C Resta
Augmented vasoconstrictor reactivity is thought to play an important role in the development of chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced neonatal pulmonary hypertension. However, whether this response to CH results from pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is not well understood. We hypothesized that neonatal CH enhances basal tone and pulmonary vasoconstrictor sensitivity by limiting NO-dependent pulmonary vasodilation. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) on baseline pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and vasoconstrictor sensitivity to the thromboxane mimetic U-46619 in saline - perfused lungs (in situ) from 2-wk-old control and CH (12-day exposure, 0...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725588/role-of-mpmri-of-the-prostate-in-screening-for-prostate-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Christopher J D Wallis, Masoom A Haider, Robert K Nam
Prostate cancer screening offers the opportunity to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from this disease. Currently, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is the most widely used screening modality. However, PSA testing continues to have low positive and negative predictive value leading to unnecessary invasive prostate biopsy while missing patients with aggressive forms of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been gaining an increasingly large role in the management of patients with early stage prostate cancer including diagnosis in patients with abnormal PSA levels, monitoring of patients on active surveillance, and staging prior to definitive interventions...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658877/bilateral-testicular-metastases-from-occult-primary-prostate-cancer-in-a-young-adult-a-rare-case-report
#8
Vijaya Rajesh Kamble, Purva Mahesh Agrawal
Testicular metastases are detected incidentally in upto 4% cases after orchiectomy for Prostate Carcinoma (PCa). Most of the secondaries to testes are due to PCa, only few patients have clinically manifested metastases to bilateral testes. Metastases to bilateral testis is unusual while unilateral involvement of the testis is seen usually. We report a case of primary PCa with bilateral testicular metastases which presented with palpable mass in the right testis. A 43-year-old male patient presented with two-month history of swelling in right inguino-scrotal region...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644897/trpa1-and-trpv1-contribute-to-propofol-mediated-antagonism-of-u46619-induced-constriction-in-murine-coronary-arteries
#9
Pritam Sinharoy, Ian N Bratz, Sayantani Sinha, Loral E Showalter, Spencer R Andrei, Derek S Damron
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have emerged as key components contributing to vasoreactivity. Propofol, an anesthetic is associated with adverse side effects including hypotension and acute pain upon infusion. Our objective was to determine the extent to which TRPA1 and/or TRPV1 ion channels are involved in mediating propofol-induced vasorelaxation of mouse coronary arterioles in vitro and elucidate the potential cellular signal transduction pathway by which this occurs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432421/the-effect-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-with-and-without-inhibition-of-prostaglandins-on-blood-flow-in-different-human-skeletal-muscles
#10
Ilkka Heinonen, Bengt Saltin, Ylva Hellsten, Kari K Kalliokoski
PURPOSE: Animal studies suggest that the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) affects blood flow differently in different skeletal muscles according to their muscle fibre type composition (oxidative vs glycolytic). Quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle consists of four different muscle parts: vastus intermedius (VI), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus lateralis (VL) of which VI is located deep within the muscle group and is generally regarded to consist mostly of oxidative muscle fibres...
June 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383142/auraptene-induces-apoptosis-via-myeloid-cell-leukemia-1-mediated-activation-of-caspases-in-pc3-and-du145-prostate-cancer-cells
#11
Jae Chul Lee, Eun Ah Shin, Bonglee Kim, Bo-Im Kim, Mahsa Chitsazian-Yazdi, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Sung-Hoon Kim
Although auraptene, a prenyloxy coumarin from Citrus species, was known to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, antiinflammatory, and anti-tumor activities, the underlying anti-tumor mechanism of auraptene in prostate cancers is not fully understood to date. Thus, in the present study, we have investigated the anti-tumor mechanism of auraptene mainly in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, because auraptene suppressed the viability of androgen-independent PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells better than androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells...
June 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356298/activation-of-cb-1-receptors-by-2-arachidonoylglycerol-attenuates-vasoconstriction-induced-by-u46619-and-angiotensin-ii-in-human-and-rat-pulmonary-arteries
#12
Olga Karpińska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Monika Kloza, Ewa Ambroz Ewicz, Tomasz Kozłowski, Irena Kasacka, Barbara Malinowska, Hanna Kozłowska
Recent evidence suggests that endocannabinoids acting via cannabinoid CB1 receptors may modulate vascular responses of various vasoconstrictors in the rodent systemic vasculature. The aim of the study was to investigate whether endocannabinoids modulate the contractile responses evoked by a thromboxane A2 analog (U46619), angiotensin II (ANG II), serotonin (5-HT), and phenylephrine, which stimulate distinct Gq/11 protein-coupled receptors (thromboxane, ANG II type 1, 5-HT2 , and α1 -adrenergic receptors) in isolated endothelium-intact human and rat pulmonary arteries (hPAs and rPAs, respectively)...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339503/rat-retinal-vasomotion-assessed-by-laser-speckle-imaging
#13
Anastasiia Y Neganova, Dmitry D Postnov, Olga Sosnovtseva, Jens Christian B Jacobsen
Vasomotion is spontaneous or induced rhythmic changes in vascular tone or vessel diameter that lead to rhythmic changes in flow. While the vascular research community debates the physiological and pathophysiological consequence of vasomotion, there is a great need for experimental techniques that can address the role and dynamical properties of vasomotion in vivo. We apply laser speckle imaging to study spontaneous and drug induced vasomotion in retinal network of anesthetized rats. The results reveal a wide variety of dynamical patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286123/the-enhancement-of-txa2-receptors-mediated-contractile-response-in-intrarenal-artery-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#14
Su-Juan Kuang, Jie-Sheng Qian, Hui Yang, Fang Rao, Xiao-Yan Chen, Meng-Zhen Zhang, Zhi-Xin Shan, Qiu-Xiong Lin, Yu-Mei Xue, Shu-Lin Wu, Li Jiang, Chun-Bo Chen, Chun-Yu Deng
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the alterations in TXA2 receptor signal transduction in type 2 diabetic renal arteries. The contraction of renal arterial rings in control (db/m+) mice and type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice was measured by a Multi Myograph System. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in vascular smooth muscle cells was measured by Fluo-4/AM dye and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222172/rhoa-promotes-epidermal-stem-cell-proliferation-via-pkn1-cyclin-d1-signaling
#15
Fan Wang, Rixing Zhan, Liang Chen, Xia Dai, Wenping Wang, Rui Guo, Xiaoge Li, Zhe Li, Liang Wang, Shupeng Huang, Jie Shen, Shirong Li, Chuan Cao
OBJECTIVE: Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) play a critical role in wound healing, but the mechanism underlying ESC proliferation is not well defined. Here, we explore the effects of RhoA on ESC proliferation and the possible underlying mechanism. METHODS: Human ESCs were enriched by rapid adhesion to collagen IV. RhoA(+/+)(G14V), RhoA(-/-)(T19N) and pGFP control plasmids were transfected into human ESCs. The effect of RhoA on cell proliferation was detected by cell proliferation and DNA synthesis assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164613/high-concentrations-of-the-angiogenic-peptide-vegf-a-in-seminal-fluid-and-its-association-to-prostasomes
#16
Lena Carlsson, Gunnar Ronquist, Rune Elisasson, Louise Dubois, Karl G Ronquist, Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels by capillary sprouting from pre-existing vessels. This process is associated with increased expression of angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF family consists of five members denoted VEGF-A, B, C, D and placenta growth factor (PlGF). Prostasomes are exosome-like extracellular vesicles existing in seminal plasma. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship between VEGF-A in seminal fluid and blood plasma and the prostasomal association of VEGF-A...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131897/long-noncoding-rnas-and-sulforaphane-a-target-for-chemoprevention-and-suppression-of-prostate-cancer
#17
Laura M Beaver, Rachael Kuintzle, Alex Buchanan, Michelle W Wiley, Sarah T Glasser, Carmen P Wong, Gavin S Johnson, Jeff H Chang, Christiane V Löhr, David E Williams, Roderick H Dashwood, David A Hendrix, Emily Ho
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important in cancer development and progression. The impact of diet on lncRNA expression is largely unknown. Sulforaphane (SFN), obtained from vegetables like broccoli, can prevent and suppress cancer formation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SFN attenuates the expression of cancer-associated lncRNAs. We analyzed whole-genome RNA-sequencing data of normal human prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells treated with 15 μM SFN or dimethylsulfoxide. SFN significantly altered expression of ~100 lncRNAs in each cell type and normalized the expression of some lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in cancer cells...
April 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118732/relationship-between-pdk1-and-contraction-in-carotid-arteries-in-goto-kakizaki-rat-a-spontaneous-type-2-diabetic-animal-model
#18
Shun Watanabe, Takayuki Matsumoto, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
We studied the relationship between 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) and contractions induced by serotonin, phenylephrine, and thromboxane A2 mimetic (U46619) in the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in the carotid arteries of Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a spontaneous type 2 diabetic model, in the chronic stage of disease. Serotonin-induced contraction was greater in the GK rats than in the control Wistar rats. A specific PDK1 inhibitor (GSK2334470) decreased the serotonin-induced contraction in the GK rats but not in the Wistar rats, and the difference in such contraction was abolished with this treatment...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116771/non-adrenergic-tamsulosin-insensitive-smooth-muscle-contraction-is-sufficient-to-replace-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-tension-in-the-human-prostate
#19
Martin Hennenberg, Alice Acevedo, Nicolas Wiemer, Aysenur Kan, Alexander Tamalunas, Yiming Wang, Qingfeng Yu, Beata Rutz, Anna Ciotkowska, Annika Herlemann, Frank Strittmatter, Christian G Stief, Christian Gratzke
BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia may be caused by prostate smooth muscle contraction. Although α1 -blockers may improve symptoms by prostate smooth muscle relaxation, their efficacy is limited. This may be explained by non-adrenergic mediators causing contraction in parallel to α1 -adrenoceptors. However, little is known about the relevance and cooperative actions of non-adrenergic mediators in the prostate. METHODS: Prostate tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy (n = 127 patients)...
May 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062398/perineural-invasion-and-risk-of-lethal-prostate-cancer
#20
Piotr Zareba, Richard Flavin, Masis Isikbay, Jennifer R Rider, Travis A Gerke, Stephen Finn, Andreas Pettersson, Francesca Giunchi, Robert H Unger, Alex M Tinianow, Swen-Olof Andersson, Ove Andrén, Katja Fall, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Lorelei A Mucci
Background: Prostate cancer has a propensity to invade and grow along nerves, a phenomenon called perineural invasion (PNI). Recent studies suggest that the presence of PNI in prostate cancer has been associated with cancer aggressiveness. Methods: We investigated the association between PNI and lethal prostate cancer in untreated and treated prostate cancer cohorts: the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort of 615 men who underwent watchful waiting, and the U.S. Health Professionals Follow-Up Study of 849 men treated with radical prostatectomy...
May 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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