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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325761/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-governs-epithelial-cell-invasion-during-oropharyngeal-candidiasis
#1
Norma V Solis, Marc Swidergall, Vincent M Bruno, Sarah L Gaffen, Scott G Filler
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), caused predominantly by Candida albicans, is a prevalent infection in patients with advanced AIDS, defects in Th17 immunity, and head and neck cancer. A characteristic feature of OPC is fungal invasion of the oral epithelial cells. One mechanism by which C. albicans hyphae can invade oral epithelial cells is by expressing the Als3 and Ssa1 invasins that interact with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on epithelial cells and stimulate endocytosis of the organism. However, the signaling pathways that function downstream of EGFR and mediate C...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317272/roles-of-ng2-glia-in-ischemic-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Fei-Er Song, Jia-Lv Huang, Si-Han Lin, Shuo Wang, Guo-Fen Ma, Xiao-Ping Tong
Recent studies have shown that a widely distributed class of glial cells, termed NG2-glia, engages in rapid signaling with surrounding neurons through direct synaptic contacts in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). This unique glial cell group has a typical function of proliferating and differentiating into oligodendrocytes during early development of the brain, which is crucial to axon myelin formation. Therefore, NG2-glia are also called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that NG2-glia expressing receptors and ion channels demonstrate functional significance for rapid signaling with neuronal synapses and modulation of neuronal activities in both physiological and pathological conditions...
March 19, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303578/compulsory-community-and-involuntary-outpatient-treatment-for-people-with-severe-mental-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Steve R Kisely, Leslie A Campbell, Richard O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: It is controversial whether compulsory community treatment (CCT) for people with severe mental illness (SMI) reduces health service use, or improves clinical outcome and social functioning. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of compulsory community treatment (CCT) for people with severe mental illness (SMI). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (2003, 2008, 2012, 8 November 2013, 3 June 2016)...
March 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296144/aligned-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-nanofibers-guide-the-orientation-and-migration-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-vitro
#4
Anu Hyysalo, Mervi Ristola, Tiina Joki, Mari Honkanen, Minnamari Vippola, Susanna Narkilahti
Stem cell transplantations for spinal cord injury (SCI) have been studied extensively for the past decade in order to replace the damaged tissue with human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural cells. Transplanted cells may, however, benefit from supporting and guiding structures or scaffolds in order to remain viable and integrate into the host tissue. Biomaterials can be used as supporting scaffolds, as they mimic the characteristics of the natural cellular environment. In this study, hPSC-derived neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are cultured on aligned poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofiber platforms, which guide cell orientation to resemble that of spinal cord in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293728/oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-the-mouse-optic-nerve-originate-in-the-preoptic-area
#5
Katsuhiko Ono, Kengo Yoshii, Hiroyuki Tominaga, Hitoshi Gotoh, Tadashi Nomura, Hirohide Takebayashi, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
The present study aims to examine the origin of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the mouse optic nerve (ON) by labeling OPCs in the fetal forebrain. The labeling of OPCs in the ON was performed by injection of a retrovirus vector carrying the lacZ gene into the lateral ventricle, or by inducible Cre/loxP of Olig2-positive cells. The retrovirus labeling revealed that ventricular zone-derived cells of the fetal forebrain relocated to the ON and differentiated into oligodendrocytes. In addition, lineage tracing of Olig2-positive cells and whole-mount staining of PDGFRα-positive cells demonstrated that OPCs appeared by E12...
March 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288531/occupational-therapists-and-physiotherapists-perceptions-of-implementing-occupational-performance-coaching
#6
Fiona Graham, Pauline Boland, Jenny Ziviani, Sylvia Rodger
PURPOSE: Occupational Performance Coaching (OPC) has been proposed as an intervention for working with caregivers towards achievement of goals for themselves and their children. Preliminary studies indicate the effectiveness of OPC; however, translation into practice requires an understanding of therapists' perceptions of applying OPC in their service delivery settings. This study explored physio- and occupational-therapists' experiences of using OPC and their perceptions of the contextual factors which influence its implementation...
March 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278052/astrocytes-induce-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-via-connexin-47-mediated-activation-of-the-erk-id4-pathway
#7
Zhaoyu Liu, Dan Xu, Shang Wang, Yi Chen, Zhen Li, Xiaoyan Gao, Lu Jiang, Yong Tang, Yan Peng
The proliferative ability of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) varied markedly under different culture conditions. Astrocytes (ASTs) have been verified to play a major role in regulating the proliferation of OPCs through direct contact. However, the mechanisms have not been fully clarified. To investigate the effect and mechanism under AST and OPC co-culture conditions, we analyzed all connexins comprehensively in OPCs under OPC mono-culture, AST-secreted cell factor co-culture and AST-OPC direct-contact co-culture, and found that significantly differentially expressed Cx47 was the most significant...
February 22, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275653/ph20-is-not-expressed-in-murine-cns-and-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#8
Mathieu Marella, Joe Ouyang, Jonathan Zombeck, Chunmei Zhao, Lei Huang, Robert J Connor, Kim B Phan, Michael C Jorge, Marie A Printz, Rudolph D Paladini, Arnold B Gelb, Zhongdong Huang, Gregory I Frost, Barry J Sugarman, Lawrence Steinman, Ge Wei, H Michael Shepard, Daniel C Maneval, Paula J Lapinskas
OBJECTIVE: Expression of Spam1/PH20 and its modulation of high/low molecular weight hyaluronan substrate have been proposed to play an important role in murine oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) maturation in vitro and in normal and demyelinated central nervous system (CNS). We reexamined this using highly purified PH20. METHODS: Steady-state expression of mRNA in OPCs was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction; the role of PH20 in bovine testicular hyaluronidase (BTH) inhibition of OPC differentiation was explored by comparing BTH to a purified recombinant human PH20 (rHuPH20)...
March 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274671/second-opinion-oral-pathology-referrals-in-new-zealand
#9
B Seo, H M Hussaini, A M Rich
Referral for a second opinion is an important aspect of pathology practice, which reduces the rate of diagnostic error and ensures consistency with diagnoses. The Oral Pathology Centre (OPC) is the only specialist oral diagnostic centre in New Zealand. OPC provides diagnostic services to dentists and dental specialists throughout New Zealand and acts as a referral centre for second opinions for oral pathology specimens that have been sent to anatomical pathologists. The aim of this study was to review second opinion referral cases sent to the OPC over a 15-year period and to assess the levels of concordance between the original and final diagnoses...
March 5, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258893/exploring-the-impact-of-human-papillomavirus-status-comorbidity-polypharmacy-and-treatment-intensity-on-outcome-of-elderly-oropharyngeal-cancer-patients-treated-with-radiation-therapy-with-or-without-chemotherapy
#10
Francesca Caparrotti, Brian O'Sullivan, Scott V Bratman, Jolie Ringash, Lin Lu, Andrew Bayley, John Cho, Meredith Giuliani, Andrew Hope, John Kim, John Waldron, Aaron Hansen, David Goldstein, Bayardo Perez-Ordonez, Ilan Weinreb, Li Tong, Yuyao Song, Wei Xu, Shao Hui Huang
PURPOSE: To explore the impact of tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status, comorbidity, polypharmacy, and treatment intensity on overall survival (OS) of elderly oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All elderly (>70 years) OPC patients receiving definitive (chemo-) radiation therapy in 2000 to 2013 were reviewed. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI, comorbidity alone) and the comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS, comorbidity and medication) were calculated...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257064/a-pilot-study-into-the-association-between-oral-health-status-and-human-papillomavirus-16-infection
#11
Charles Xiaohang Sun, Nigel Bennett, Peter Tran, Kai Dun Tang, Yenkai Lim, Ian Frazer, Lakshman Samaranayake, Chamindie Punyadeera
BACKGROUND: Over the next 20 years, oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) will represent the majority of head and neck cancers (HNCs) in the United States. It is estimated that human papillomavirus (HPV) may account for as much as 70% to 80% of OPCs in North America and in certain parts of Europe. It is hence crucial to understand the disease risk factors and natural history of oral HPV infections. We hypothesized that poor oral health (by measures such as poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease) leads to a higher degree of oral HPV-16 infections within a patient cohort from a dental school clinic...
March 1, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256546/promoting-in-vivo-remyelination-with-small-molecules-a-neuroreparative-pharmacological-treatment-for-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Eva María Medina-Rodríguez, Ana Bribián, Amanda Boyd, Valle Palomo, Jesús Pastor, Alfonso Lagares, Carmen Gil, Ana Martínez, Anna Williams, Fernando de Castro
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease where immune-driven demyelination occurs with inefficient remyelination, but therapies are limited, especially those to enhance repair. Here, we show that the dual phosphodiesterase (PDE)7- glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 inhibitor, VP3.15, a heterocyclic small molecule with good pharmacokinetic properties and safety profile, improves in vivo remyelination in mouse and increases both adult mouse and adult human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation, in addition to its immune regulatory action...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253550/olig1-is-required-for-noggin-induced-neonatal-myelin-repair
#13
Jennifer K Sabo, Vivi Heine, John C Silbereis, Lucas Schirmer, Steven W Levison, David H Rowitch
Objective - Neonatal white matter injury (NWMI) is a lesion found in preterm infants that can lead to cerebral palsy. Although antagonists of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, such as Noggin, promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) production after hypoxic-ischemic injury, the downstream functional targets are poorly understood. The bHLH protein Olig1 promotes oligodendrocyte (OL) development and is essential during remyelination in adult mice. Here, we investigated whether Olig1 function is required downstream of BMP antagonism for the response to injury in the neonatal brain...
March 2, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251686/e6020-a-synthetic-tlr4-agonist-accelerates-myelin-debris-clearance-schwann-cell-infiltration-and-remyelination-in-the-rat-spinal-cord
#14
Jamie S Church, Lindsay M Milich, Jessica K Lerch, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are present throughout the adult brain and spinal cord and can replace oligodendrocytes lost to injury, aging, or disease. Their differentiation, however, is inhibited by myelin debris, making clearance of this debris an important step for cellular repair following demyelination. In models of peripheral nerve injury, TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes macrophage phagocytosis of debris. Here we tested whether the novel synthetic TLR4 agonist E6020, a Lipid A mimetic, promotes myelin debris clearance and remyelination in spinal cord white matter following lysolecithin-induced demyelination...
March 2, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249652/validation-of-the-icon-s-staging-for-hpv-associated-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-using-a-pre-defined-treatment-policy
#15
Sandro V Porceddu, Rob Milne, Elizabeth Brown, Anne Bernard, Reza Rahbari, Bena Cartmill, Matthew Foote, Margaret McGrath, Jermaine Coward, Benedict Panizza
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the International Collaboration on Oropharyngeal cancer Network for Staging (ICON-S) for HPV associated oropharyngeal carcinoma (HPV+OPC) is a better discriminator of overall survival (OS), compared with the 7th edition (7th Ed) AJCC/UICC TNM staging following curative radiotherapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 5-year OS for all patients with non-metastatic (M0) p16-confirmed OPC treated between 2005 and 2015 was determined and grouped based on the 7th Ed AJCC/UICC TNM and ICON-S staging...
March 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249651/symptom-burden-and-dysphagia-associated-with-osteoradionecrosis-in-long-term-oropharynx-cancer-survivors-a-cohort-analysis
#16
Angela T T Wong, Stephen Y Lai, G Brandon Gunn, Beth M Beadle, Clifton D Fuller, Martha P Barrow, Theresa M Hofstede, Mark S Chambers, Erich M Sturgis, Abdallah Sherif Radwan Mohamed, Jan S Lewin, Katherine A Hutcheson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to examine the relationship between mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) and chronic dysphagia in long-term oropharynx cancer (OPC) survivors, and to determine the perceived symptom burden associated with ORN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 349 OPC patients treated with bilateral IMRT and systemic therapy were reviewed. ORN was graded using a published 4-point classification schema. Patients were considered to have chronic dysphagia if they had aspiration pneumonia, stricture or aspiration detected by fluoroscopy or endoscopy, and/or feeding tube dependence in long-term follow-up ⩾1year following radiotherapy...
March 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248456/a-three-microrna-signature-identifies-two-subtypes-of-glioblastoma-patients-with-different-clinical-outcomes
#17
Giovanna Marziali, Mariachiara Buccarelli, Alessandro Giuliani, Ramona Ilari, Sveva Grande, Alessandra Palma, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Maurizio Martini, Mauro Biffoni, Roberto Pallini, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults, characterized by aggressive growth, limited response to therapy, and inexorable recurrence. Because of the extremely unfavorable prognosis of GBM, it is important to develop more effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based on biologically and clinically relevant patient stratification systems. Analyzing a collection of patient-derived GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) by gene expression profiling, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and signal transduction pathway activation, we identified two GSC clusters characterized by different clinical features...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245461/radiologic-differences-between-human-papillomavirus-related-and-human-papillomavirus-unrelated-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-on-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#18
Michael W Chan, Kevin Higgins, Danny Enepekides, Ian Poon, Sean P Symons, Rahim Moineddin, Ilan Weinreb, Omid Shearkhani, Amy Chen, Jocelyne Beelen, Aimee Chan, Pejman Jabehdar Maralani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal carcinoma (HPV+ OPC) is a unique entity compared to HPV-unrelated (HPV-) OPC. Previous studies were inconclusive regarding the differences between HPV+ and HPV- OPCs on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). This study sought to determine if there is an association between HPV status and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values as an imaging biomarker in OPCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OPC patients with pretreatment MRI including DWI were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed as a blinded, controlled cohort...
March 1, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237816/mir-146a-promotes-remyelination-in-a-cuprizone-model-of-demyelinating-injury
#19
Jing Zhang, Zheng Gang Zhang, Mei Lu, Xinli Wang, Xia Shang, Stanton B Elias, Michael Chopp
The death of mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) which are the sole myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), leads to demyelination and functional deficits. Currently, there is lack of effective remyelination therapies for patients with demyelinating diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate OL function. We hypothesized that miR-146a, by inactivating interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and thereby enhances remyelination. To test this hypothesis, a demyelination model induced by a cuprizone (CPZ) diet was employed, in which C57BL/6J mice were fed with a CPZ diet for 5weeks...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230861/ripk3-interactions-with-mlkl-and-camkii-mediate-oligodendrocytes-death-in-the-developing-brain
#20
Yi Qu, Jun Tang, Huiqing Wang, Shiping Li, Fengyan Zhao, Li Zhang, Q Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) death is a key contributor to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) in the developing brain. A previous study by our group indicated that receptor-interacting proteins (RIPs) are crucial in mediating necroptosis in developing neurons. However, whether this mechanism is involved in OPCs death is unclear. We aimed to explore the mechanisms of RIP-mediated oligodendrocytes (OLs) death in the developing brain. Oligodendrocytes necroptosis was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation plus caspase inhibitor zVAD treatment (OGD/zVAD) in vitro...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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