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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207253/enantioselective-alkyne-conjugate-addition-enabled-by-readily-tuned-atropisomeric-p-n-ligands
#1
Sourabh Mishra, Ji Liu, Aaron Aponick
By the nature of its structure, the 5-membered chiral biaryl heterocyclic scaffold represents a departure from 6-membered P,N-ligands that facilitates tuning and enables ligand evolution to address issues of selectivity and reactivity. In this vein, the Cu-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate alkynylation of Meldrum's acid acceptors is reported using Me-StackPhos. Enabled by this new ligand, the reaction tolerates a wide range of alkynes furnishing the products in high yields and excellent enantioselectivity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203606/dna-methylation-in-oligodendroglial-cells-during-developmental-myelination-and-in-disease
#2
Sarah Moyon, Patrizia Casaccia
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). During development, they differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes (OL) and ensheath axons, providing trophic and functional support to the neurons. This process is regulated by the dynamic expression of specific transcription factors, which, in turn, is controlled by epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation. Here we discuss recent findings showing that DNA methylation levels are differentially regulated in the oligodendrocyte lineage during developmental myelination, affecting both genes expression and alternative splicing events...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196689/subependymal-zone-derived-oligodendroblasts-respond-to-focal-demyelination-but-fail-to-generate-myelin-in-young-and-aged-mice
#3
Ilias Kazanis, Kimberley A Evans, Evangelia Andreopoulou, Christina Dimitriou, Christos Koutsakis, Ragnhildur Thora Karadottir, Robin J M Franklin
Two populations of oligodendrogenic progenitors co-exist within the corpus callosum (CC) of the adult mouse. Local, parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (pOPCs) and progenitors generated in the subependymal zone (SEZ) cytogenic niche. pOPCs are committed perinatally and retain their numbers through self-renewing divisions, while SEZ-derived cells are relatively "young," being constantly born from neural stem cells. We compared the behavior of these populations, labeling SEZ-derived cells using hGFAP:Cre(Ert2) mice, within the homeostatic and regenerating CC of the young-adult and aging brain...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193690/lingo-1-regulates-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-through-the-cytoplasmic-gelsolin-signaling-pathway
#4
Zhaohui Shao, Xinhua Lee, Guanrong Huang, Guoqing Sheng, Christopher E Henderson, Daniel Louvard, Jiho Sohn, Blake Pepinsky, Sha Mi
Differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) involve the assembly and disassembly of actin microfilaments. How actin dynamics is regulated during this process remains poorly understood. Leucine rich repeat and Immunoglobulin-like domain-containing Nogo receptor interacting protein 1(LINGO-1) is a negative regulator of OPC differentiation. We discovered that anti-LINGO-1 antibody promoted OPC differentiation was accompanied by upregulation of cytoplasmic gelsolin (cGSN), an abundant actin-severing protein involved in the depolymerization of actin filaments...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193090/estimating-false-recent-classification-for-the-limiting-antigen-avidity-eia-and-bed-capture-enzyme-immunoassay-in-vietnam-implications-for-hiv-1-incidence-estimates
#5
Neha S Shah, Yen T Duong, Linh-Vi Le, Nguyen Anh Tuan, Bharat Parekh, Hoang Thi Thanh Ha, Quang Duy Pham, Cao Thi Thu Cuc, Trudy Dobbs, Tran Hong Tram, Truong Tx Lien, Nick Wagar, Chunfu Yang, Amy Martin, Mitchell I Wolfe, Hien Tran Nguyen, Andrea A Kim
BACKGROUND: Laboratory tests that can distinguish recent from long-term HIV infection are used to estimate HIV incidence in a population but can potentially misclassify a proportion of long-term HIV infections as recent. Correct application of an assay requires determination of the proportion false recents (PFR) as part of the assay characterization and for calculating HIV incidence in a local population using a HIV incidence assay. METHODS: From April 2009 to December 2010, blood specimens were collected from HIV-infected individuals attending 9 outpatient clinics (OPCs) in Vietnam (4 from northern and 5 from southern Vietnam)...
February 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188953/minimizing-adjuvant-treatment-after-transoral-robotic-surgery-through-surgical-margin-revision-and-exclusion-of-radiographic-extracapsular-extension-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#6
Benoit Morisod, Ioana I Venara-Vulpe, Stephen Alzuphar, Yan Monnier, Massimo Bongiovanni, Patric Hagmann, Hanan Bouchaab, Jean Bourhis, Christian Simon
BACKGROUND: We investigated in a prospective cohort of patients treated with trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS) for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), who were selected for the absence of radiographic extra-capsular extension (ECS) and surgically revised for inadequate margins, the possibility of reducing adjuvant radiation (RT)/chemo-radiation therapy (CRT) without jeopardizing tumor control and functional outcome. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort of patients treated with TORS for oropharyngeal cancer...
February 11, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188285/rna-binding-protein-quaking-stabilizes-sirt2-mrna-during-oligodendroglial-differentiation
#7
Merlin P Thangaraj, Kendra L Furber, Jotham K Gan, Shaoping Ji, Larhonda Sobchishin, J Ronald Doucette, Adil J Nazarali
Myelination is controlled by timely expression of genes involved in the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs). Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, plays a critical role in OL differentiation by promoting both arborization and downstream expression of myelin specific genes. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating SIRT2 expression during OL development are largely unknown. The RNA binding protein Quaking (QKI) plays an important role in myelination by post-transcriptionally regulating the expression of several myelin specific genes...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187443/analysis-of-the-cancer-genome-atlas-sequencing-data-reveals-novel-properties-of-the-human-papillomavirus-16-genome-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Tara J Nulton, Amy L Olex, Mikhail Dozmorov, Iain M Morgan, Brad Windle
Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is detected in up to 80% of oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPC) and this HPV positive disease has reached epidemic proportions. To increase our understanding of the disease, we investigated the status of the HPV16 genome in HPV-positive head and neck cancers (HNC). Raw RNA-Seq and Whole Genome Sequence data from The Cancer Genome Atlas HNC samples were analyzed to gain a full understanding of the HPV genome status for these tumors. Several remarkable and novel observations were made following this analysis...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179194/rsdl-decontamination-of-human-skin-contaminated-with-the-nerve-agent-vx
#9
L Thors, S Lindberg, S Johansson, B Koch, M Koch, L Hägglund, A Bucht
Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174059/alterations-of-myelin-morphology-and-oligodendrocyte-development-in-early-stage-of-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#10
Yu Wu, Yuanlin Ma, Zhuo Liu, Qi Geng, Zexin Chen, Yan Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause to dementia and predicted to influence about 35 million people by the end of 2050. In this study, we discover alterations of myelin morphology in hippocampus tissues of 2-month-old APP/PS1 mouse. Myelin sheath is thicker and internodal distance is shorter in APP/PS1 mouse. Oligodendrocytes, differentiated from oligodendrocytes progenitor cells (OPCs), are responsible for formation and maintenance of myelin sheath in central nervous system (CNS). Our current results demonstrate that the oligodendrocytes development is disordered in 2-month-old APP/PS1 mouse...
February 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161590/granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-dependent-cd11c-positive-cells-differentiate-into-active-osteoclasts
#11
Nina Ruef, Silvia Dolder, Daniel Aeberli, Michal Seitz, Deepak Balani, Willy Hofstetter
Levels of circulating cytokines are elevated in inflammatory diseases. Previously, it was shown that interleukin (IL-)17A, in synergism with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), induces the release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by murine osteoblasts in vitro. In this study, we further analyzed the effects of GM-CSF on osteoclast development in vitro. The effects of IL-17A, TNFα, and 1,25(OH)2D3 on the regulation of osteoclast development were investigated in cocultures of bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitor cells (OPC) and mouse calvarial osteoblasts...
February 1, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145507/transplanted-mir-219-overexpressing-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-promoted-remyelination-and-improved-functional-recovery-in-a-chronic-demyelinated-model
#12
Hong-Bin Fan, Li-Xia Chen, Xue-Bin Qu, Chuan-Lu Ren, Xiu-Xiang Wu, Fu-Xing Dong, Bao-Le Zhang, Dian-Shuai Gao, Rui-Qin Yao
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) have the ability to repair demyelinated lesions by maturing into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Recent evidence suggests that miR-219 helps regulate the differentiation of OPCs into oligodendrocytes. We performed oligodendrocyte differentiation studies using miR-219-overexpressing mouse embryonic stem cells (miR219-mESCs). The self-renewal and multiple differentiation properties of miR219-mESCs were analyzed by the expression of the stage-specific cell markers Nanog, Oct4, nestin, musashi1, GFAP, Tuj1 and O4...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137912/l2hgdh-deficiency-accumulates-l-2-hydroxyglutarate-with-progressive-leukoencephalopathy-and-neurodegeneration
#13
Shenghong Ma, Renqiang Sun, Bowen Jiang, Jun Gao, Wanglong Deng, Peng Liu, Ruoyu He, Jing Cui, Minbiao Ji, Wei Yi, Pengyuan Yang, Xiaohui Wu, Yue Xiong, Zilong Qiu, Dan Ye, Kun-Liang Guan
L-2-hydroxyglutarate aciduria (L-2-HGA) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by a mutation in the L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L2HGDH) gene. In this study, we generated L2hgdh knockout (KO) mice and observed a robust increase of 2-hydroxyglutarate (L-2-HG) levels in multiple tissues. The highest levels of L-2-HG were observed in the brain and testis with a corresponding increase in histone methylation in these tissues. L2hgdh KO mice exhibit white matter abnormalities, extensive gliosis, microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, and an expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs)...
January 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134316/poly-carboxylate-ether-based-superplasticizer-achieves-workability-retention-in-calcium-aluminate-cement
#14
Omid Akhlaghi, Yusuf Ziya Menceloglu, Ozge Akbulut
Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) suffers from loss of workability in less than an hour (~15 minutes) after first touch of water. Current superplasticizers that are utilized to modify the viscosity of cement admixtures are designed to target ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The high affinity between these superplasticizers and cement particles were found to be detrimental in CAC systems. Utilization of a monomer that, instead, facilitates gradual adsorption of a superplasticizer provides workability retention...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132130/rab10-disruption-results-in-delayed-opc-maturation
#15
Zhao-Huan Zhang, Wei-Qian Zhao, Fan-Fei Ma, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Hui Xu
Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) maturation requires membrane addition for myelin sheath formation. Since the Rab system has been shown to contribute to membrane addition in other cell types, in this study, we explored the role of Rab in OPC maturation. SiRNA and shRNA techniques and conditional knockout mice provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that Rab10 is involved in OPC maturation and may affect myelination during OPC development.
January 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130416/crystal-structure-of-the-solute-binding-protein-bxle-from-streptomyces-thermoviolaceus-opc-520-complexed-with-xylobiose
#16
REVIEW
Koji Tomoo, Yasuhiro Miki, Hideaki Morioka, Kiho Seike, Toshimasa Ishida, Sadao Ikenishi, Katsushiro Miyamoto, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Akihito Yamano, Kensaku Hamada, Hiroshi Tsujibo
BxlE from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520 is a xylo-oligosaccharide (mainly xylobiose)-binding protein that serves as the initial receptor for the bacterial ABC-type xylo-oligosaccharide transport system. To determine the ligand-binding mechanism of BxlE, X-ray structures of ligand-free (open form) and ligand (xylobiose)-bound (closed form) BxlE were determined at 1.85 Å resolution. BxlE consists of two globular domains that are linked by two β-strands, with the cleft at the interface of the two domains creating the ligand-binding pocket...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123964/evaluation-of-the-integrated-clinic-model-for-hiv-aids-services-in-ho-chi-minh-city-viet-nam-2013-2014
#17
V Hung, S T Nguyen, V T T Tieu, T T T Nguyen, T H Duong, S Lyss, J E Oeltmann
Setting: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. Objective: To evaluate a new integrated service model for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care. Design: In HCMC, co-located services, including voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), HIV treatment at out-patient clinics (OPC), and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for persons who inject drugs, have operated under different administrative structures. In the context of decreasing international financial support, integration of these services into one administrative structure with reduced staff occurred in seven districts in HCMC between October 2013 and June 2014...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115362/mouse-models-of-pediatric-supratentorial-high-grade-glioma-reveal-how-cell-of-origin-influences-tumor-development-and-phenotype
#18
Smitha Sreedharan, Naga Prathyusha Maturi, Yuan Xie, Anders Sundström, Malin Jarvius, Sylwia Libard, Irina Alafuzoff, Holger Weishaupt, Mårten Fryknäs, Rolf Larsson, Fredrik J Swartling, Lene Uhrbom
High-grade glioma (HGG) is a group of primary malignant brain tumors with dismal prognosis. Whereas adult HGG has been studied extensively, childhood HGG, a relatively rare disease, is less well-characterized. Here, we present two novel platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-driven mouse models of pediatric supratentorial HGG. Tumors developed from two different cells of origin reminiscent of neural stem cells (NSC) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC). Cross-species transcriptomics showed that both models are closely related to human pediatric HGG as compared with adult HGG...
February 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112256/fsd-c10-a-fasudil-derivative-promotes-neuroregeneration-through-indirect-and-direct-mechanisms
#19
Yan-Hua Li, Chong Xie, Yuan Zhang, Xing Li, Hai-Fei Zhang, Qing Wang, Zhi Chai, Bao-Guo Xiao, Rodolfo Thome, Guang-Xian Zhang, Cun-Gen Ma
FSD-C10, a Fasudil derivative, was shown to reduce severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), through the modulation of the immune response and induction of neuroprotective molecules in the central nervous system (CNS). However, whether FSD-C10 can promote neuroregeneration remains unknown. In this study, we further analyzed the effect of FSD-C10 on neuroprotection and remyelination. FSD-C10-treated mice showed a longer, thicker and more intense MAP2 and synaptophysin positive signal in the CNS, with significantly fewer CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and microglia...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107712/innovative-solidification-stabilization-of-lead-contaminated-soil-using-incineration-sewage-sludge-ash
#20
Jiangshan Li, Chi Sun Poon
The proper treatment of lead (Pb) contaminated soils and incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) has become an environmental concern. In this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blended OPC containing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) were used to solidify/stabilize (S/S) soils contaminated with different concentrations of Pb. After curing for 7 and 28 d, the S/S soils were subjected to a series of strength, leaching and microscopic tests. The results showed that replacement of OPC by ISSA significantly reduced the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of S/S soils and leached Pb...
January 12, 2017: Chemosphere
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