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Rebecca Lucas-Roxburgh, Jackie Benschop, Bruce Lockett, Ursula van den Heever, Ruth Williams, Laryssa Howe
BACKGROUND: The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in New Zealand (NZ) has more than doubled over the last 14 years with 126 cases in 2010. Overseas studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a significant role in the development of these cancers. However, the role of HPV in OPC and the burden on the NZ health system is unclear. AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and the genotypes of HPV associated with OPC in New Zealand...
2017: PloS One
Andrew J Darr, Matt C Danzi, Lee Brady, Dorothea Emig-Agius, Amber Hackett, Roozbeh Golshani, Nikita Warner, Jae Lee, Vance P Lemmon, Pantelis Tsoulfas
In jawed vertebrates, oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the myelin-producing glial cells responsible for ensheathment of axons within the central nervous system and are also crucial for remyelination following injury or disease. Olig2 is a crucial factor in the specification and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) that give rise to mature, myelin-producing OLs in the developing and postnatal CNS; however, its role in adulthood is less well understood. To investigate the role Olig2 plays in regulating gene expression in the adult OL lineage in a physiologically-relevant context, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing analysis (ChIP-Seq) using whole spinal cord tissue harvested from adult mice...
2017: PloS One
Yi Sun, Yingping Deng, Mili Xiao, Lan Hu, Zhihua Li, Chao Chen
Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) is a recognized problem in premature infants, particularly in those with very low birth weights. Although the survival rate of premature infants has notably increased due to the advancement of modern medical treatments, their likelihood of developmental disability is higher than infants with an average birth weight. It has been previously reported that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are selectively vulnerable to WMI in premature infants. Following brain injury, glial scars may develop within the white matter...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Min Liu, Ping Xu, Zhenlong Guan, Xiaohong Qian, Peter Dockery, Una Fitzgerald, Timothy O'Brien, Sanbing Shen
Brain nerve fibers are insulated by myelin which is produced by oligodendrocytes. Defects in myelination are increasingly recognized as a common pathology underlying neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, which are associated with deletions of the Unc-51-like kinase 4 (ULK4) gene. Key transcription factors have been identified for oligodendrogenesis, but little is known about their associated regulators. Here we report that Ulk4 acts as a key regulator of myelination. Myelination is reduced by half in the Ulk4(tm1a/tm1a) hypomorph brain, whereas expression of axonal marker genes Tubb3, Nefh, Nefl and Nefm remains unaltered...
October 16, 2017: Glia
Nada J Farsi, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Nicolas Schlecht, Geneviève Castonguay, Paul Allison, Phuc Félix Nguyen-Tan, Denis Soulieres, Francois Coutlée, Michael Hier, Sreenath Madathil, Eduardo L Franco, Belinda Nicolau
Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the main risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a causal role in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), a subset of HNSCC. We assessed the independent effects of tobacco, alcohol, and HPV infection on OPC risk in the Head and Neck Cancer(HeNCe) Life study, a hospital-based case-control study of HNSCC with frequency-matched controls by age and sex from four Montreal hospitals. Interviewers collected information on socio-demographic and behavioural factors...
September 28, 2017: Carcinogenesis
Arvind K Badhey, Ashley Olson, Sameep Kadakia, Jack Russo, Peter Ting, Mian Khalid, Mike Yao, Marita S Teng, Eric M Genden, Brett A Miles, Raymond L Chai
OBJECTIVE: Analyze patients treated with transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the context of the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including 110 human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+OPC) patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up treated with TORS between 2007 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate 3-year disease-free survival and assess differences in recurrence...
October 9, 2017: Laryngoscope
John D Cramer, Kate E Hicks, Alfred W Rademaker, Urjeet A Patel, Sandeep Samant
BACKGROUND: The eighth edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging manual includes major changes in staging of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). We evaluated the new staging system in order to validate this shift in classification. METHODS: We used the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to identify patients with human papillomavirus-associated (HPV-positive) OPC from 2010-2013. We restaged patients using the eighth edition guidelines and compared them with those from the seventh edition...
October 9, 2017: Head & Neck
Sophia C Kamran, Muhammad M Qureshi, Scharukh Jalisi, Andrew Salama, Gregory Grillone, Minh Tam Truong
OBJECTIVE: Randomized data comparing surgery to radiation for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) are lacking. This study evaluated practice patterns and overall survival outcomes from the National Cancer Database. METHODS: A total of 22,676 patients with stage III to IV, locally advanced OPC were treated between 2004 to 2013 with primary chemoradiation (CRT) or surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (aRT ± CT). Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method...
October 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
Yan-Shuai Wang, Jian-Guo Dai, Lei Wang, Daniel C W Tsang, Chi Sun Poon
Inorganic binder-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) of Pb-contaminated soil is a commonly used remediation approach. This paper investigates the influences of soluble Pb species on the hydration process of two types of inorganic binders: ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and magnesium potassium phosphate cement (MKPC). The environmental leachability, compressive strength, and setting time of the cement products are assessed as the primary performance indicators. The mechanisms of Pb involved in the hydration process are analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), hydration heat evolution, and thermogravimetric analyses...
September 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Katsuhiko Ono, Yukie Hirahara, Hitoshi Gotoh, Tadashi Nomura, Hirohide Takebayashi, Hisao Yamada, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
One of the unsolved problems in the research field of oligodendrocyte (OL) development has been the site(s) of origin of optic nerve OLs and its precursor cells (OPCs). It is generally accepted that OLs in the optic nerve are derived from the brain, and thus optic nerve OLs are immigrant cells. We previously demonstrated the brain origin of optic nerve OPCs in chick embryos. However, the site of optic nerve OPC origin has not been examined experimentally in developing rodents for the past two decades. We have recently reported that optic nerve OPCs in mice arise in the preoptic area by E12...
October 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Florian Ettl, Ingrid A M Magnet, Wolfgang Weihs, Alexandra Warenits, Daniel Grassmann, Michael Wagner, Ursula Teubenbacher, Sandra Högler, Fritz Sterz, Andreas Janata
PURPOSE: To establish a ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation model with consistent neurologic and neuropathologic damage as potential therapeutic target. METHODS: Prospectively randomized groups of experiments in 2 phases. In phase 1 four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) were resuscitated after 6 min VFCA with 2 and 6 min basic life support durations (BLS) with and without adrenaline. In phase 2 the most promising group regarding return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival was compared to a group of 8 min CA...
September 28, 2017: Shock
He Wang, Mengchao Li, Ze Yin, Tianxiang Zhang, Xu Chen, Donglei Zhou, Jinyang Zhu, Wen Xu, Haining Cui, Hongwei Song
High brightness of upconversion luminescence (UCL) for a thinner layer of UC nanoparticles is significant for routine applications of effective trademark anticounterfeiting technology. In this work, efficient UCL of NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+)/Tm(3+) was realized by combining a Ta2O5 dielectric layer on the cyclical island silver films supported by poly(methyl methacrylate) opal photonic crystals (PCs). The synergistic modulation of localized surface plasmon resonance and PC effect results in a significant improvement of the local electromagnetic field and an optimum UC enhancement of 145 folds...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joseph J Biernacki, Jeffrey W Bullard, Gaurav Sant, Nemkumar Banthia, Kevin Brown, Fredrik P Glasser, Scott Jones, Tyler Ley, Richard Livingston, Luc Nicoleau, Jan Olek, Florence Sanchez, Rouzbeh Shahsavari, Paul E Stutzman, Konstantine Sobolev, Tracie Prater
In a book published in 1906, Richard Meade outlined the history of portland cement up to that point(1). Since then there has been great progress in portland cement-based construction materials technologies brought about by advances in the materials science of composites and the development of chemical additives (admixtures) for applications. The resulting functionalities, together with its economy and the sheer abundance of its raw materials, have elevated ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete to the status of most used synthetic material on Earth...
July 2017: Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Yeshan Li, Qijun Yu, Wenxue Zhao, Jiaxiang Zhang, Wentao Liu, Mao Huang, Xiaoning Zeng
To date, although a promising anti-inflammatory activity of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) has been observed in asthma, the mechanism responsible for these immunomodulatory properties remains obscure. Dendritic cells (DCs) that reside in the airway have been widely perceived as an important contributor to asthma. Our study was to demonstrate OPCs' effects on maturation and immunoregulation of pulmonary CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs). BALB/c mice were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) to induce murine model of asthma...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Volker Kroehne, Vasiliki Tsata, Lara Marrone, Claudia Froeb, Susanne Reinhardt, Anne Gompf, Andreas Dahl, Jared Sterneckert, Michell M Reimer
Endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a promising target to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) by remyelinating denuded, and therefore vulnerable, axons. Demyelination is the result of a primary insult and secondary injury, leading to conduction blocks and long-term degeneration of the axons, which subsequently can lead to the loss of their neurons. In response to SCI, dormant OPCs can be activated and subsequently start to proliferate and differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
P S Lebow, A T Watnik, J R Lindle
We describe a pulsed phase conjugator system that projects a laser beam possessing a scene-dependent energy distribution. We expand upon the inherent properties of optical phase conjugation (OPC) to include not only corrections for phase aberrations but to provide targeted laser beam illumination of partially obscured objects. For instance, if incorporated into a foliage-penetrating lidar system, OPC could significantly enhance performance. We demonstrate this OPC beam projection concept experimentally.
July 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Krystle A Lang Kuhs, Aimée R Kreimer, Sumita Trivedi, Dana Holzinger, Michael Pawlita, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Sandra P Gibson, Nicole C Schmitt, Allan Hildesheim, Tim Waterboer, Robert L Ferris
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 antibodies may be an early marker of the diagnosis and recurrence of human papillomavirus-driven oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OPC). METHODS: This study identified 161 incident oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) cases diagnosed at the University of Pittsburgh (2003-2013) with pretreatment serum. One hundred twelve had preexisting clinical HPV testing with p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridization (87 were dual-positive [HPV-OPC], and 25 were dual-negative [HPV-negative]); 62 had at least 1 posttreatment serum sample...
September 26, 2017: Cancer
Matti Javanainen, Antti Lamberg, Lukasz Cwiklik, Ilpo Vattulainen, O H Samuli Ollila
Lung surfactant and a tear film lipid layer are examples of biologically relevant macromolecular structures found at the air-water interface. Because of their complexity, they are often studied in terms of simplified lipid layers, the simplest example being a Langmuir monolayer. Given the profound biological significance of these lipid assemblies, there is a need to understand their structure and dynamics on the nanoscale, yet there are not many techniques able to provide this information. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations would be a tool fit for this purpose; however, the simulation models suggested until now have been qualitative instead of quantitative...
October 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Janusz J Jadasz, Lena Tepe, Felix Beyer, Iria Samper Agrelo, Rainer Akkermann, Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Maria Elena Silva, Richard O C Oreffo, Hans-Peter Hartung, Alessandro Prigione, Francisco J Rivera, James Adjaye, Patrick Küry
The generation of new oligodendrocytes is essential for adult brain repair in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We previously identified the multifunctional p57kip2 protein as a negative regulator of myelinating glial cell differentiation and as an intrinsic switch of glial fate decision in adult neural stem cells (aNSCs). In oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs), p57kip2 protein nuclear exclusion was recently found to be rate limiting for differentiation to proceed. Furthermore, stimulation with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived factors enhanced oligodendrogenesis by yet unknown mechanisms...
September 22, 2017: Glia
Emily G Baxi, Joseph DeBruin, Jing Jin, Hayley J Strasburger, Matthew D Smith, Jennifer L Orthmann-Murphy, Jason T Schott, Amanda N Fairchild, Dwight E Bergles, Peter A Calabresi
The regeneration of oligodendrocytes is a crucial step in recovery from demyelination, as surviving oligodendrocytes exhibit limited structural plasticity and rarely form additional myelin sheaths. New oligodendrocytes arise through the differentiation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that are widely distributed throughout the CNS. Although there has been detailed investigation of the behavior of these progenitors in white matter, recent studies suggest that disease burden in multiple sclerosis (MS) is more strongly correlated with gray matter atrophy...
September 22, 2017: Glia
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