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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634078/astrocytes-regulate-the-expression-of-sp1r3-on-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-through-cx47-and-promote-their-proliferation
#1
Dan Xu, Zhaoyu Liu, Shang Wang, Yan Peng, Xiaochuan Sun
Many degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are associated with demyelination. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are potential stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types, including oligodendrocytes (OLs). Promoting the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs into mature OLs that can myelinate axons is the key to stimulate remyelination. Here, we report that astrocytes (ASTs) increase the number of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 3 (S1pR3) on OPCs and promote OPCs proliferation through a direct contact via connexin 47 (Cx47)...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633281/the-sweet-side-of-the-pathogenic-neisseria-the-role-of-glycan-interactions-in-colonisation-and-disease
#2
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Evgeny A Semchenko, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Glycomics is a rapidly growing field that focuses on the structure and function of carbohydrates (glycans) in biological systems. Glycan interactions play a major role in infectious disease, at all stages of colonisation and disease progression. Neisseria meningitidis, the cause of meningococcal sepsis and meningitis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. N. meningitidis displays a range of surface glycosylations including capsule polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins...
June 13, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631093/myelin-regulatory-factor-drives-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Greg J Duncan, Jason R Plemel, Peggy Assinck, Sohrab B Manesh, Fraser G W Muir, Ryan Hirata, Matan Berson, Jie Liu, Michael Wegner, Ben Emery, G R Wayne Moore, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Remyelination is limited in the majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions despite the presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in most lesions. This observation has led to the view that a failure of OPCs to fully differentiate underlies remyelination failure. OPC differentiation requires intricate transcriptional regulation, which may be disrupted in chronic MS lesions. The expression of few transcription factors has been differentially compared between remyelinating lesions and lesions refractory to remyelination...
June 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623606/marcks-is-necessary-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-maturation
#4
Zhao-Huan Zhang, Fan-Fei Ma, Hui Zhang, Xiao-Hui Xu
Oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) development into myelinated oligodendrocytes demands vigorous membrane addition. Since myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) reportedly contributes to Ras-associated protein (Rab)-10-associated vesicle insertion into neuronal membranes, we investigated the role of MARCKS in OPC maturation. We found that either knockdown of MARCKS or interruption of its interaction with Rab10 would cause a decrease of the cell membrane area during OPC development. Enhanced MARCKS phosphorylation by Nogo66 or myelin debris treatment inhibited OPC maturation, while its dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2 A activator D-erythro-sphingosine promoted OPC development in the presence of myelin debris...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622549/immunological-and-epidemiological-factors-affecting-candidiasis-in-hiv-patients-beginning-antiretroviral-therapy-in-an-asian-clinic
#5
Endah A T Wulandari, Henny Saraswati, Robiatul Adawiyah, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Retno Wahyuningsih, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVES: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is common in HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here we address the response to ART, and the roles of poor oral hygiene and defects in local innate immunity with a focus on salivary β-defensins, as they are implicated in control of candidiasis but have not been investigated in this context. DESIGN: ART naïve HIV-infected adults (n=82) with <200 CD4(+) T-cells/mm(3) attending clinics at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, were examined at the commencement of ART, and 73 were re-examined after 3 months...
June 3, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619503/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-levornidazole-in-elderly-subjects-and-dosing-regimen-evaluation-using-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis
#6
Beining Guo, Gaoli He, Xiaojie Wu, Jicheng Yu, Guoying Cao, Yi Li, Yaxin Fan, Yuancheng Chen, Yaoguo Shi, Yingyuan Zhang, Jing Zhang
PURPOSE: Levornidazole, the levo-isomer of ornidazole, is a third-generation nitroimidazole derivative newly developed after metronidazole, tinidazole, and ornidazole. An open-label, parallel-controlled, single-dose study was conducted for the investigation of the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of levornidazole and its metabolites in healthy elderly Chinese subjects, and for the evaluation of 2 dosing regimens in the elderly. METHODS: Levornidazole was intravenously administered at 500 mg to healthy elderly (aged 60-80 years) or young subjects (aged 19-45 years)...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600955/parp-activity-and-inhibition-in-fetal-and-adult-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-effect-on-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#7
Vito A Baldassarro, Alessandra Marchesini, Luciana Giardino, Laura Calzà
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family members are ubiquitously expressed and play a key role in cellular processes, including DNA repair and cell death/survival balance. Accordingly, PARP inhibition is an emerging pharmacological strategy for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Consistent evidences support the critical involvement of PARP family members in cell differentiation and phenotype maturation. In this study we used an oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) enriched system derived from fetal and adult brain to investigate the role of PARP in OPCs proliferation, survival, and differentiation...
May 30, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600705/distress-levels-in-patients-with-oropharyngeal-vs-non-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinomas-of-the-head-and-neck-over-1%C3%A2-year-after-diagnosis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Melissa Schorr, Linda E Carlson, Harold Y Lau, Lihong Zhong, Barry D Bultz, Amy Waller, Shannon L Groff, Desiree Hao
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers have been associated with different demographic profiles and disease characteristics than HPV-unrelated cancers in head and neck patients, but distress and other symptoms have not been compared. The aim of this study was to assess whether distress levels, fatigue, pain, anxiety, depression, and common psychological and practical problems differ between head and neck cancer patients with HPV-related vs. HPV-unrelated carcinomas (using oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) and non-OPC cancers as surrogates for HPV status)...
June 10, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594400/the-role-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-expressing-the-gpr17-receptor-in-brain-remodeling-after-stroke
#9
Elisabetta Bonfanti, Paolo Gelosa, Marta Fumagalli, Leda Dimou, Francesca Viganò, Elena Tremoli, Mauro Cimino, Luigi Sironi, Maria P Abbracchio
Following stroke-induced neuronal damage, quiescent oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) are activated to proliferate and later to differentiate to myelin-producing cells. GPR17, a receptor transiently expressed on early OPCs, has emerged as a target to implement stroke repair through stimulation of OPC maturation. However, being GPR17 completely downregulated in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, its actual role in determining the final fate of OPCs after cerebral ischemia is still uncertain. Here, to univocally define the spatiotemporal changes and final fate of GPR17-expressing OPCs, we induced ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in reporter GPR17iCreER(T2):CAG-eGreen florescent protein (GFP) mice, in which, upon tamoxifen treatment, cells expressing GPR17 become green and traceable for their entire life...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586011/microglia-activation-triggers-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-apoptosis-via-hsp60
#10
Yunhong Li, Rui Zhang, Xiaolin Hou, Yumei Zhang, Feijia Ding, Fan Li, Yao Yao, Yin Wang
Reactive microglia are present in lesions of myelin‑associated white matter disorders resulting in injuries to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Therefore, protection of OPCs from injury due to excessive activation of microglia is important in treating these diseases. Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) has been demonstrated to be released extracellularly in the failing heart upon stress or injury. However, the role of HSP60 in the central nervous system and whether it participates in the toxic effects of microglia on OPCs remains unclear...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583585/effects-of-the-notch-signalling-pathway-on-hyperoxia-induced-immature-brain-damage-in-newborn-mice
#11
Min Du, Yuting Tan, Guangjian Liu, Lan Liu, Fei Cao, Jianxia Liu, Pu Jiang, Ying Xu
Hyperoxia exposure can cause dramatic release of proinflammatory cytokines, leading to neuronal apoptosis and inducing white matter damage in newborn mouse brains. Some studies indicated that the Notch activation was provoked during inflammation and might regulate adaptive and innate immune responses. Moreover, the pathway also regulated oligodendrocyte maturation which was disrupted in neonatal mice after hyperoxia exposure. This study sought to investigate whether the Notch signalling activation contributed to immature brain damage after hyperoxia exposure...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580605/morphologic-and-topographic-radiologic-features-of-human-papillomavirus-related-and-unrelated-oropharyngeal-carcinoma
#12
Michael W Chan, Eugene Yu, Eric Bartlett, Brian O'Sullivan, Jie Su, John Waldron, Jolie Ringash, Scott V Bratman, Yingming Amy Chen, Jonathan Irish, John Kim, Patrick Gullane, Ralph Gilbert, Douglas Chepeha, Bayardo Perez-Ordonez, Ilan Weinreb, Aaron Hansen, Li Tong, Wei Xu, Shao Hui Huang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinicoradiologic characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related (HPV-positive) and HPV-unrelated (HPV-negative) oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). METHODS: Primary tumor and lymph node features of HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPCs from 2008 to 2013 were compared on pretreatment CT/MRI. Intrarater/interrater concordance was assessed. Multivariable analyses identified factors associated with HPV-positivity to be used in nomogram construction...
June 5, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576706/rhigm22-enhances-remyelination-in-the-brain-of-the-cuprizone-mouse-model-of-demyelination
#13
Ariana P Mullin, Charlene Cui, Yu Wang, Jing Wang, Erika Troy, Anthony O Caggiano, Tom J Parry, Raymond W Colburn, Elias Pavlopoulos
Failure of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to differentiate and remyelinate axons is thought to be a major cause of the limited ability of the central nervous system to repair plaques of immune-mediated demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). Current therapies for MS aim to lessen the immune response in order to reduce the frequency and severity of attacks, but these existing therapies do not target remyelination or stimulate repair of the damaged tissue. Thus, the promotion of OPC differentiation and remyelination is potentially an important therapeutic goal...
May 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576176/controversies-in-postoperative-irradiation-of-oropharyngeal-cancer-after-transoral-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Sue S Yom, Jon Mallen-St Clair, Patrick K Ha
Transoral surgery (TOS) is a novel technology whose adoption is expanding in the United States and other countries. TOS offers the possibility of a minimally invasive surgical approach to head and neck cancers. Its most frequent application has been in oropharyngeal cancers (OPC), of which most are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). For HPV-associated OPC, where high response and survival rates are expected, deintensification of standard therapy is a major area of clinical research. In HPV-OPC, traditional pathologic risk factors indicating a need for adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation may not apply as strongly...
July 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561022/il-17-induced-notch1-activation-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-enhances-proliferation-and-inflammatory-gene-expression
#15
Chenhui Wang, Cun-Jin Zhang, Bradley N Martin, Katarzyna Bulek, Zizhen Kang, Junjie Zhao, Guanglin Bian, Julie A Carman, Ji Gao, Ashok Dongre, Haibo Xue, Stephen D Miller, Youcun Qian, Dolores Hambardzumyan, Tom Hamilton, Richard M Ransohoff, Xiaoxia Li
NOTCH1 signalling contributes to defective remyelination by impairing differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Here we report that IL-17 stimulation induces NOTCH1 activation in OPCs, contributing to Th17-mediated demyelinating disease. Mechanistically, IL-17R interacts with NOTCH1 via the extracellular domain, which facilitates the cleavage of NOTHC1 intracellular domain (NICD1). IL-17-induced NOTCH1 activation results in the interaction of IL-17R adaptor Act1 with NICD1, followed by the translocation of the Act1-NICD1 complex into the nucleus...
May 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555375/overview-of-the-8th-edition-tnm-classification-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Shao Hui Huang, Brian O'Sullivan
The main purpose of the TNM system is to provide an anatomic-based classification to adequately depict cancer prognosis. Accurate cancer staging is important for treatment selection and outcome prediction, research design, and cancer control activities. To maintain clinical relevance, periodical updates to TNM are necessary. The recently published 8th edition TNM classification institutes the following changes to the staging of head and neck (excluding thyroid cancer): new stage classifications [HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+ OPC) and soft tissue sarcoma of the head and neck (HN-STS)] and modification of T and N categories [T and N categories for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), T categories for oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), N categories for non-viral related head and neck cancer and unknown primary (CUP), and T categories for head and neck cutaneous carcinoma]...
July 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553648/serum-vaspin-concentration-in-elderly-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-with-differing-body-mass-index-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Wei Yang, Yun Li, Tian Tian, Li Wang
Aims. This study was to evaluate the association of serum vaspin concentrations with body mass index (BMI) among elderly patients (>60 years old). Methods. A total of 227 elderly individuals included 76 healthy with normal glucose tolerance, which divided into normal weight control (BMI < 25, n = 38) and overweight or obese control (BMI ≥ 25, n = 38) subgroups, and 150 T2DM patients, which divided into normal weight diabetes (BMI < 25, n = 55), overweight diabetes (30 > BMI ≥ 25, n = 52), and obese diabetes (BMI ≥ 30, n = 43) subgroups...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553319/heterogeneous-populations-of-neural-stem-cells-contribute-to-myelin-repair
#18
REVIEW
Rainer Akkermann, Felix Beyer, Patrick Küry
As ingenious as nature's invention of myelin sheaths within the mammalian nervous system is, as fatal can be damage to this specialized lipid structure. Long-term loss of electrical insulation and of further supportive functions myelin provides to axons, as seen in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), leads to neurodegeneration and results in progressive disabilities. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated the increasing inability of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to replace lost oligodendrocytes (OLs) in order to restore lost myelin...
April 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552605/defined-and-scalable-differentiation-of-human-oligodendrocyte-precursors-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-a-3d-culture-system
#19
Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Thomas Gaj, Maroof M Adil, Joyce Wahba, Antara T Rao, Franziska K Lorbeer, Rishi U Kulkarni, Maria Margarida Diogo, Joaquim M S Cabral, Evan W Miller, Dirk Hockemeyer, David V Schaffer
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) offer considerable potential for the treatment of demyelinating diseases and injuries of the CNS. However, generating large quantities of high-quality OPCs remains a substantial challenge that impedes their therapeutic application. Here, we show that OPCs can be generated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in a three-dimensional (3D), scalable, and fully defined thermoresponsive biomaterial system. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to create a NKX2.2-EGFP human embryonic stem cell reporter line that enabled fine-tuning of early OPC specification and identification of conditions that markedly increased the number of OLIG2(+) and NKX2...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552479/biopharmaceutic-parameters-pharmacokinetics-transport-and-cyp-mediated-drug-interactions-of-iiim-017-a-novel-nitroimidazooxazole-analogue-with-anti-tuberculosis-activity
#20
Gurleen Kour, Parvinder Pal Singh, Asha Bhagat, Zabeer Ahmed
Nitroimidazoles are emerging as a new class of therapeutic agents with potent anti-tubercular activity. CSIR-IIIM has synthesized a novel nitrohydroimidazooxazole (NHIO) analogue, IIIM-017 with a MIC of 0.37μg/ml (against H37Rv). Here, we aim at further exploration of physicochemical properties and preclinical absorption, metabolism, disposition and pharmacokinetics of IIIM-017. In this study, in silico physicochemical parameters, lipophilicity, permeability, transport, hepatotoxicity, CYP mediated drug interactions and pharmacokinetics of IIIM-017 were investigated...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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