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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526718/p16-hpv-and-cetuximab-what-is-the-evidence
#1
James A Bonner, Ricard Mesia, Jordi Giralt, Amanda Psyrri, Ulrich Keilholz, David I Rosenthal, Frank Beier, Jeltje Schulten, Jan B Vermorken
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It has recently been appreciated that human papillomavirus (HPV) status (or p16 status, which is a frequently used surrogate for HPV status) is prognostic for oropharyngeal SCCHN. Here, we review and contextualize existing p16 and HPV data, focusing on the cetuximab registration trials in previously untreated, locoregionally advanced, nonmetastatic SCCHN (LA SCCHN) and in recurrent and/or metastatic SCCHN (R/M SCCHN): the IMCL-9815 and EXTREME clinical trials, respectively...
May 18, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#2
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521040/cortical-remyelination-is-heterogeneous-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Eva M M Strijbis, Evert-Jan Kooi, Paul van der Valk, Jeroen J G Geurts
Cortical lesions (CLs) are an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology; they correlate better with physical disability and cognitive impairment than white matter lesions (WMLs). Because remyelination can be extensive in CLs, we quantified remyelination in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), addressing oligodendrocyte (OGD) maturation state and clinical relevance of remyelination. Brain tissue samples from 21 chronic MS patients were immunohistochemically stained for myelin proteolipid protein, Olig2, which is strongly expressed in OGD precursor cells (OPCs), but weakly expressed in mature OGDs and other OGD markers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#4
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
May 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512742/differing-intrinsic-biological-properties-between-forebrain-and-spinal-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells
#5
Makoto Horiuchi, Yoko Suzuki-Horiuchi, Tasuku Akiyama, Aki Itoh, David Pleasure, Earl Carstens, Takayuki Itoh
Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509260/rapid-serum-free-isolation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#6
John Bianco, Dario Carradori, Ronald Deumens, Anne des Rieux
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) play a pivotal role in both health and disease within the central nervous system, with oligodendrocytes, arising from resident OPCs, being the main myelinating cell type. Disruption in OPC numbers can lead to various deleterious health defects. Numerous studies have described techniques for isolating OPCs to obtain a better understanding of this cell type and to open doors for potential treatments of injury and disease. However, the techniques used in the majority of these studies involve several steps and are time consuming, with current culture protocols using serum and embryonic or postnatal cortical tissue as a source of isolation...
May 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504711/the-stabilizing-effect-of-an-oligomeric-proanthocyanidin-on-red-blood-cell-membrane-structure-of-poorly-controlled-type-ii-diabetes
#7
J Visser, P J van Staden, P Soma, A V Buys, E Pretorius
Type II diabetes (T2D) is a pandemic characterized by pathological circulating inflammatory markers, high-glucose levels and oxidative stress. The hematological system is especially vulnerable to these aberrant circulating molecules, and erythrocytes (RBCs) show aberrant rheology properties, owing to the direct contact with these molecules. Pathological levels of circulating inflammatory markers in T2D therefore have a direct effect on the molecular and cellular structure of RBCs. Previous research has suggested that antioxidants may reduce oxidative stress that results from the pathological inflammatory markers...
May 15, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503032/limestone-and-silica-powder-replacements-for-cement-early-age-performance
#8
Dale P Bentz, Chiara F Ferraris, Scott Z Jones, Didier Lootens, Franco Zunino
Developing functional concrete mixtures with less ordinary portland cement (OPC) has been one of the key objectives of the 21(st) century sustainability movement. While the supplies of many alternatives to OPC (such as fly ash or slag) may be limited, those of limestone and silica powders produced by crushing rocks seem virtually endless. The present study examines the chemical and physical influences of these powders on the rheology, hydration, and setting of cement-based materials via experiments and three-dimensional microstructural modeling...
April 2017: Cement & Concrete Composites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500734/differentiation-of-human-olfactory-bulb-derived-neural-stem-cell-towards-oligodendrocyte-development
#9
H E Marei, Z Shouman, A Althani, N Afifi, A Abd-Elmaksoud, S Lashen, A Hasan, T Caceci, R Rizzi, C Cenciarelli, P Casalbore
In the central nervous system, oligodendrocytes are the glial element in charge of myelin formation. Obtaining an overall presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells/oligodendrocytes. (OPCs/OLs) in culture from different sources of NSCs is an important research area, because OPCs/OLs may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for diseases affecting myelination of axons. The present study was designed to differentiate human olfactory bulb NSCs (OBNSCs) into OPCs/OLs and using expression profiling (RT-qPCR) gene, immunocytochemistry and specific protein expression to highlight molecular mechanism(s) underlying differentiation of human OBNSCs into OPCs/OLs...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499870/fibronectin-on-extracellular-vesicles-from-microvascular-endothelial-cells-is-involved-in-the-vesicle-uptake-into-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#10
Sho Osawa, Masashi Kurachi, Hanako Yamamoto, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Yasuki Ishizaki
We previously reported transplantation of brain microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) into cerebral white matter infarction model improved the animal's behavioral outcome by increasing the number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). We also revealed extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from MVECs promoted survival and proliferation of OPCs in vitro. In this study, we investigated the mechanism how EVs derived from MVECs contribute to OPC survival and proliferation. Protein mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed fibronectin was abundant on the surface of EVs from MVECs...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497639/functionalization-of-p4-through-direct-p-c-bond-formation
#11
Jaap Borger, Andreas W Ehlers, J C Slootweg, Koop Lammertsma
Research on chlorine-free conversions of P4 into organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) has a long track record, but methods that allow desirable, direct P-C bond formations have only recently emerged. These include the use of metal organyls, carbenes, carboradicals and photochemical approaches. The versatile product scope enables the preparation of both industrially relevant organophosphorus compounds, as well as a broad range of intriguing new compound classes. Herein we provide a concise overview of recent breakthroughs and outline the acquired fundamental insights to aid future developments...
May 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490013/sulfatase-2-modulates-fate-change-from-motor-neurons-to-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-through-coordinated-regulation-of-shh-signaling-with-sulfatase-1
#12
Wen Jiang, Yugo Ishino, Hirokazu Hashimoto, Kazuko Keino-Masu, Masayuki Masu, Kenji Uchimura, Kenji Kadomatsu, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Sulfatases (Sulfs) are a group of endosulfatases consisting of Sulf1 and Sulf2, which specifically remove sulfate from heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Although several studies have shown that Sulf1 acts as a regulator of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling during embryonic ventral spinal cord development, the detailed expression pattern and function of Sulf2 in the spinal cord remains to be determined. In this study, we found that Sulf2 also modulates the cell fate change from motor neurons (MNs) to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) by regulating Shh signaling in the mouse ventral spinal cord in coordination with Sulf1...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488008/ameliorating-the-effect-of-pioglitazone-on-lps-induced-inflammation-of-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#13
Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Motahare-Sadat Hashemi, Ali Ghoochani, Abbas Kiani-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Hossein Baharvand
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are appropriate model cells for studying the progress of neurodegenerative disorders and evaluation of pharmacological efficacies of small molecules for treatment of these disorders. Here, we focused on the therapeutic role of Pioglitazone, which is a selective agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a respective nuclear receptor in inflammatory responses. Human embryonic stem cell-derived OPCs were pretreated by Pioglitazone at differing concentrations...
May 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487966/oligomeric-proanthocyanidins-protects-a549-cells-against-h2o2-induced-oxidative-stress-via-the-nrf2-are-pathway
#14
Chao Sun, Weiguo Jin, Hongcan Shi
Oxidative signaling and oxidative stress contribute to aging, cancer and diseases resulting from lung fibrosis. In this study, we explored the anti-oxidative potential of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), natural flavonoid compounds. We examined the protective effects of OPCs against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549). We demonstrated that OPC markedly attenuated H2O2-induced A549 cell viability, as shown by by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475690/safety-effectiveness-and-haemodynamic-performance-of-a-new-stented-aortic-valve-bioprosthesis%C3%A2
#15
Robert J M Klautz, A Pieter Kappetein, Rüdiger Lange, Francois Dagenais, Louis Labrousse, Vinayak Bapat, Michael Moront, Martin Misfeld, Cathy Zeng, Joseph F Sabik Iii
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the safety, effectiveness and haemodynamic performance of a new bovine stented aortic valve bioprosthesis (Avalus™). METHODS: The PERIGON Pivotal Trial is a prospective, non-randomized, multicentre study. Subjects had symptomatic moderate or severe aortic stenosis or chronic, severe aortic regurgitation. Death, valve-related adverse events (AEs), functional recovery and haemodynamic performance were assessed at discharge, 3-6 months and 1 year...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474539/induced-neural-activity-promotes-an-oligodendroglia-regenerative-response-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-and-improves-motor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Qun Li, Thierry Houdayer, Su Liu, Visar Belegu
Myelination in central nervous system (CNS) is a dynamic process that includes birth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, and ensheathment of axons. Regulation of myelination by neuronal activity has emerged as a new mechanism of CNS plasticity. Indeed, activity-dependent myelination has been shown to regulate sensory, motor and cognitive functions. In this work, we aimed to employ this mechanism of CNS plasticity by utilizing induced neuronal activity to promote remyelination and functional recovery in a subchronic model of SCI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473753/mechanical-strain-promotes-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-by-global-changes-of-gene-expression
#17
Anna Jagielska, Alexis L Lowe, Ekta Makhija, Liliana Wroblewska, Jochen Guck, Robin J M Franklin, G V Shivashankar, Krystyn J Van Vliet
Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) to oligodendrocytes and subsequent axon myelination are critical steps in vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration. Growing evidence supports the significance of mechanical factors in oligodendrocyte biology. Here, we explore the effect of mechanical strains within physiological range on OPC proliferation and differentiation, and strain-associated changes in chromatin structure, epigenetics, and gene expression. Sustained tensile strain of 10-15% inhibited OPC proliferation and promoted differentiation into oligodendrocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472858/selective-neuronal-expression-of-the-soxe-factor-sox8-in-direct-pathway-striatal-projection-neurons-of-the-developing-mouse-brain
#18
Paloma Merchan-Sala, Diana Nardini, Ronald R Waclaw, Kenneth Campbell
The striatum is the major component of the basal ganglia and is well known to play a key role in the control of motor function via balanced output from the indirect (iSPNs) and direct pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs). Little is known, however, about the molecular genetic mechanisms that control the formation of the iSPNs versus dSPNs. We show here that the SoxE family member, Sox8, is co-expressed with the dSPN marker, Isl1, in the developing striatum. Moreover, dSPNs, as marked by Isl1-cre fate map, express Sox8 in the embryonic striatum and Sox8-EGFP BAC transgenic mice specifically reveal the direct pathway axons during development...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472653/migrating-interneurons-secrete-fractalkine-to-promote-oligodendrocyte-formation-in-the-developing-mammalian-brain
#19
Anastassia Voronova, Scott A Yuzwa, Beatrix S Wang, Siraj Zahr, Charvi Syal, Jing Wang, David R Kaplan, Freda D Miller
During development, newborn interneurons migrate throughout the embryonic brain. Here, we provide evidence that these interneurons act in a paracrine fashion to regulate developmental oligodendrocyte formation. Specifically, we show that medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) interneurons secrete factors that promote genesis of oligodendrocytes from glially biased cortical precursors in culture. Moreover, when MGE interneurons are genetically ablated in vivo prior to their migration, this causes a deficit in cortical oligodendrogenesis...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456938/glioprotective-effect-of-resveratrol-an-emerging-therapeutic-role-for-oligodendroglial-cells
#20
Priscila Machado Rosa, Leo Anderson Meira Martins, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol compound highly found in red wine that displays several beneficial effects on the central nervous system (CNS), preventing or slowing the progression of a wide variety of neurological diseases. Its neuroprotective role is particularly associated to modulation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses in glial cells in a mechanism dependent of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC), primarily known for giving rise to mature oligodendrocytes, have emerged as dynamic cells that are also important to maintain the CNS homeostasis...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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