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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725186/foxb1-regulates-negatively-the-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#1
Yuanfeng Zhang, Elti Hoxha, Tianyu Zhao, Xunlei Zhou, Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC), neurons and astrocytes share a neural progenitor cell (NPC) in the early ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic neuroepithelium. Both switch to produce either of the three cell types and the generation of the right number of them undergo complex genetic regulation. The components of these regulatory cascades vary between brain regions giving rise to the unique morphological and functional heterogeneity of this organ. Forkhead b1 (Foxb1) is a transcription factor gene expressed by NPCs in specific regions of the embryonic neuroepithelium...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720847/the-glycointeractome-of-serogroup-b-neisseria-meningitidis-strain-mc58
#2
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Evgeny A Semchenko, Freda E-C Jen, Yogitha N Srikhanta, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Neisseria meningitidis express numerous virulence factors that enable it to interact with diverse microenvironments within the host, during both asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization and invasive disease. Many of these interactions involve bacterial or host glycans. In order to characterise the meningococcal glycointeractome, glycan arrays representative of structures found on human cells, were used as a screening tool to investigate host glycans bound by N. meningitidis. Arrays probed with fluorescently labelled wild-type MC58 revealed binding to 223 glycans, including blood group antigens, mucins, gangliosides and glycosaminoglycans...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720571/the-integrated-stress-response-in-hypoxia-induced-diffuse-white-matter-injury
#3
Benjamin Ll Clayton, Aaron Huang, Rejani B Kunjamma, Ani Solanki, Brian Popko
Currently no treatments exist for preterm infants with diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia. Due to improved care of preterm neonates and increased recognition by advanced imaging techniques, the prevalence of DWMI is increasing. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of DWMI is therefore of critical importance. The integrated stress response (ISR), a conserved eukaryotic response to myriad stressors including hypoxia, may play a role in hypoxia-induced DWMI and may represent a novel target for much needed therapies...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717866/mir-30a-positively-regulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-microglia-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#4
Xue Fang, Dingya Sun, Zhihong Wang, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Yingyan Pu, Dan Wang, Aijun Huang, Mingdong Liu, Zhenghua Xiang, Cheng He, Li Cao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a classical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are the main resident immune cells in the CNS and are closely associated with the pathogenesis of MS. In the present study, we found that miR-30a was highly expressed in jellyfish-like microglia in chronic active lesions of MS patients, as well as in the microglia of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) at the chronic phase. In vitro, the conditioned supernatant of mouse microglia overexpressing miR-30a promoted the apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and inhibited OPC differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702713/the-role-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-in-acute-brain-trauma
#5
Anja Scheller, Xianshu Bai, Frank Kirchhoff
An acute brain injury is commonly characterized by an extended cellular damage. The post-injury process of scar formation is largely determined by responses of various local glial cells and blood-derived immune cells. The role of astrocytes and microglia have been frequently reviewed in the traumatic sequelae. Here, we summarize the diverse contributions of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and their precursor cells (OPCs) in acute injuries. OLs at the lesion site are highly sensitive to a damaging insult, provoked by Ca(2+) overload after hyperexcitation originating from increased levels of transmitters...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696692/evaluating-force-field-performance-in-thermodynamic-calculations-of-cyclodextrin-host-guest-binding-water-models-partial-charges-and-host-force-field-parameters
#6
Niel M Henriksen, Michael K Gilson
Computational prediction of noncovalent binding free energies with methods based on molecular mechanical force fields has become increasingly routine in drug discovery projects, where they promise to speed the discovery of small molecule ligands to bind targeted proteins with high affinity. Because the reliability of free energy methods still has significant room for improvement, new force fields, or modifications of existing ones, are regularly introduced with the aim of improving the accuracy of molecular simulations...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694334/loss-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex1-in-adult-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-enhances-axon-remyelination-and-increases-myelin-thickness-after-a-focal-demyelination
#7
Lauren E McLane, Jennifer N Bourne, Angelina V Evangelou, Luipa Khandker, Wendy B Macklin, Teresa L Wood
While the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an essential regulator of developmental oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, oligodendrocyte-specific deletion of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a major upstream inhibitor of mTOR, surprisingly also leads to hypomyelination during CNS development. However, the function of TSC has not been studied in the context of remyelination. Here, we utilized the inducible Cre-lox system to study the function of TSC in the remyelination of a focal, lysolecithin demyelinated lesion in adult male mice...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692939/oligomeric-proanthocyanidin-derived-from-grape-seeds-inhibited-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-activated-hsc-involvement-of-jnk-erk-mapk-and-pi3k-akt-pathways
#8
Min Jiang, Yan-Ling Wu, Xia Li, Yu Zhang, Kai-Li Xia, Ben-Wen Cui, Li-Hua Lian, Ji-Xing Nan
In current study, we aimed to reveal the potential antifibrotic effects of oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC) from grape seeds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated, HSC-T6, a rat hepatic stellate cell line. HSC-T6 cells were treated with OPC 1h prior to LPS, and then incubated for indicated time. OPC inhibited cells viability of HSC-T6 cells and decrease protein expression of collagen I, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases I (TIMP-1) on LPS-induced HSC-T6 cells. OPC also significantly inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)...
July 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684344/inhibition-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-reduces-reactive-glia-and-scar-formation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#9
Dan Pei, Nan Liu, Dan Li, Hongjing Yan, Qiu-Bo Wang, Yan Fang, Ling Xie, Hong-Peng Li
Brain injury leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions within the central nervous system. As the glial scar was a mechanical barrier to regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Here we investigated the roles of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating astrocyte reactivity and scar formation in mice following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The expression and distribution of phosphorylated PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (IBA1), oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) (NG2) and leukocytes (CD45)...
July 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676401/hv1-proton-channel-facilitates-production-of-ros-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-microglia-and-enhances-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-damage-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-vitro
#10
Ying Yu, Zhiyuan Yu, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang, Xiang Luo
The contribution of microglial activation to oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) damage in the brain is considered to be a principal pathophysiological feature of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in microglia has been shown to be significantly toxic to OPCs. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is selectively expressed in microglia and is essential for NOX-dependent ROS production in the central nervous system...
July 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675381/matched-computed-tomography-segmentation-and-demographic-data-for-oropharyngeal-cancer-radiomics-challenges
#11
(no author information available yet)
Cancers arising from the oropharynx have become increasingly more studied in the past few years, as they are now epidemic domestically. These tumors are treated with definitive (chemo)radiotherapy, and have local recurrence as a primary mode of clinical failure. Recent data suggest that 'radiomics', or extraction of image texture analysis to generate mineable quantitative data from medical images, can reflect phenotypes for various cancers. Several groups have shown that developed radiomic signatures, in head and neck cancers, can be correlated with survival outcomes...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664402/reduced-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-the-postnatal-brain-of-dystonia-musculorum-mice
#12
M Ibrahim Hossain, Masao Horie, Hirohide Takebayashi
Dystonia musculorum (dt) mice show sensory neurodegeneration and movement disorder, such as dystonia and cerebellar ataxia. The causative gene Dystonin (Dst) encodes a cytoskeleton linker protein. Although sensory neurodegeneration has been well studied, glial cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated cell proliferation in the CNS of Dst (Gt) homozygous mice using newly generated in situ hybridization (ISH) probes-Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) probes-both of which effectively detect proliferating cells...
June 29, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657760/effect-of-monovalent-ion-parameters-on-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-g-quadruplexes
#13
Marek Havrila, Petr Stadlbauer, Barira Islam, Michal Otyepka, Jiri Sponer
G-quadruplexes (GQs) are key non-canonical DNA and RNA architectures stabilized by desolvated monovalent cations present in their central channels. We analyze extended atomistic molecular dynamics simulations (~ 580 µs in total) of GQs with eleven monovalent cation parametrizations, assessing GQ overall structural stability, dynamics of internal cations and distortions of the G-tetrad geometries. Majority of simulations were executed with the SPC/E water model, however, test simulations with TIP3P and OPC water models are also reported...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656055/optimal-dose-of-epidural-dexmedetomidine-added-to-ropivacaine-for-epidural-labor-analgesia-a-pilot-study
#14
Zhang Wangping, Ren Ming
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine combined with local anesthetics can decrease the concentration of epidural ropivacaine. However, the optimal dose of epidural dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine for labor analgesia is still uncertain. This study investigated the effect of adding different dose of epidural dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine during epidural labor analgesia. METHODS: One hundred women were randomly assigned to one of the four groups (Groups A, B, C, and D received 0...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654002/integration-of-sensors-controllers-and-instruments-using-a-novel-opc-architecture
#15
Isaías González, Antonio José Calderón, Antonio Javier Barragán, José Manuel Andújar
The interconnection between sensors, controllers and instruments through a communication network plays a vital role in the performance and effectiveness of a control system. Since its inception in the 90s, the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control (OPC) protocol has provided open connectivity for monitoring and automation systems. It has been widely used in several environments such as industrial facilities, building and energy automation, engineering education and many others. This paper presents a novel OPC-based architecture to implement automation systems devoted to R&D and educational activities...
June 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647856/glial-and-neuronal-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-alpha-ptp%C3%AE-regulate-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-myelination
#16
Yuda Shih, Philip T T Ly, Jing Wang, Catherine J Pallen
CNS myelination defects occur in mice deficient in receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTPα). Here, we investigated the role of PTPα in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination using cells and tissues from wild-type (WT) and PTPα knockout (KO) mice. PTPα promoted the timely differentiation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Compared to WT OPCs, KO OPC cultures had more NG2+ progenitors, fewer myelin basic protein (MBP)+ oligodendrocytes, and reduced morphological complexity...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643952/asn194lys-mutation-in-rvg29-peptide-increases-gfp-transgene-delivery-by-endocytosis-to-neuroblastoma-and-astrocyte-cells
#17
Sheila Adela Villa-Cedillo, Humberto Rodríguez-Rocha, Laura Mireya Zavala-Flores, Roberto Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Aracely García-García, Maria de Jesus Loera-Arias, Odila Saucedo-Cárdenas
OBJECTIVES: A cell-penetrating peptide-based delivery system could target specific types of cells for therapeutic genes delivery. To increase the gene delivery efficiency into neuronal phenotype cells, we introduced an Asn194Lys mutation to RVG29 peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein and added a nuclear localization signal to enhance its nuclear import. METHODS: Mutant RVG or wild-type RVG peptide, a karyophilic peptide (KP) and a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (pGL) were bound by electrostatic charges to form four different kinds of RVG complexes...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638124/expression-of-the-human-herpesvirus-6a-latency-associated-transcript-u94a-disrupts-human-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-migration
#18
Andrew Campbell, Jessica M Hogestyn, Christopher J Folts, Brittany Lopez, Christoph Pröschel, David Mock, Margot Mayer-Pröschel
Progression of demyelinating diseases is caused by an imbalance of two opposing processes: persistent destruction of myelin and myelin repair by differentiating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Repair that cannot keep pace with destruction results in progressive loss of myelin. Viral infections have long been suspected to be involved in these processes but their specific role remains elusive. Here we describe a novel mechanism by which HHV-6A, a member of the human herpesvirus family, may contribute to inadequate myelin repair after injury...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637097/coding-proforma-in-tnflo-clinic-from-a-uk-center-an-audit-of-85-procedures
#19
Hassan Mohammed, David Chrastek, Liam Masterson, Ramez Nassif
Within the NHS and other health service providers, alphanumeric clinical coding has been introduced as a common language to interpret and compare mortality and morbidity data (1) . The two systems of clinical coding commonly utilised are the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) devised by the World Health Organisation(1) and the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys 4 (OPCS-4) published in the UK by the Health and Social Care Information Centre (2) . This article is protected by copyright...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634078/astrocytes-regulate-the-expression-of-sp1r3-on-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-through-cx47-and-promote-their-proliferation
#20
Dan Xu, Zhaoyu Liu, Shang Wang, Yan Peng, Xiaochuan Sun
Many degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are associated with demyelination. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are potential stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types, including oligodendrocytes (OLs). Promoting the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs into mature OLs that can myelinate axons is the key to stimulate remyelination. Here, we report that astrocytes (ASTs) increase the number of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 3 (S1pR3) on OPCs and promote OPCs proliferation through a direct contact via connexin 47 (Cx47)...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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