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Yong Pang, Huimei Liu, Gaoxiong Duan, Hai Liao, Yanfei Liu, Zhuo Feng, Jien Tao, Zhuocheng Zou, Guoxiang Du, Rongchao Wan, Peng Liu, Demao Deng
Background : Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a menstrual cycle-related disorder which causes physical and mood changes prior to menstruation and is associated with the functional dysregulation of the brain. Acupuncture is an effective alternative therapy for treating PMS, and sanyinjiao (SP6) is one of the most common acupoints used for improving the symptoms of PMS. However, the mechanism behind acupuncture's efficacy for relieving PMS symptoms remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the brain response patterns induced by acupuncture at acupoint SP6 in patients with PMS...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ryo Ohtomo, Atsushi Iwata, Ken Arai
Even in adult brains, restorative mechanisms are still retained to maintain the microenvironment. Under the pathological conditions of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, several immature cells in the brain would be activated as a compensative response. As the concept of the neurovascular unit emphasizes, cell-cell interactions play important roles in this restorative process. White matter damage and oligodendrocyte loss are representative characteristics for many neurodegenerative diseases. In response to oligodendrocyte damage, residual oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) initiate their proliferation and differentiation for the purpose of remyelination...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
William Ong, Junquan Lin, Marie E Bechler, Kai Wang, Mingfeng Wang, Charles Ffrench-Constant, Sing Yian Chew
Our ability to rescue functional deficits after demyelinating diseases or spinal cord injuries is limited by our lack of understanding of the complex remyelination process, which is crucial to functional recovery. In this study, we developed an electrospun suspended poly(ε-caprolactone) microfiber platform to enable the screening of therapeutics for remyelination. As a proof of concept, this platform employed scaffold-mediated non-viral delivery of a microRNA (miR) cocktail to promote oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) differentiation and myelination...
June 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
D Anantharaman, A Billot, T Waterboer, T Gheit, B Abedi-Ardekani, P Lagiou, A Lagiou, W Ahrens, I Holcátová, F Merletti, K Kjaerheim, J Polesel, L Simonato, L Alemany, M Mena Cervigon, T V Macfarlane, A Znaor, P J Thomson, M Robinson, C Canova, D I Conway, S Wright, C M Healy, M E Toner, M Pawlita, M Tommasino, P Brennan
OBJECTIVES: HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients experience better outcomes compared to HPV16-negative patients. Currently, strategies for treatment de-escalation are based on HPV status, smoking history and disease stage. However, the appropriate cut-point for smoking and the role of other non-clinical factors in OPC survival remains uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined factors associated with OPC outcome in 321 patients recruited in a large European multi-center study...
June 2018: Oral Oncology
Xiangyin Wei, Michael Hindle, Anubhav Kaviratna, Bao K Huynh, Renishkumar R Delvadia, Dennis Sandell, Peter R Byron
BACKGROUND: In vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) for lung deposition may be established by testing inhalers in vitro with realistic mouth-throat (MT) models and inhalation profiles (IP). This study was designed to compare the currently available MT models and their ability to predict in vivo lung deposition. METHODS: Budelin® Novolizer® , Ventolin® Evohaler® , and Respimat® fenoterol were chosen to represent a dry powder inhaler (DPI), metered dose inhaler (MDI), and soft mist inhaler (SMI) in tests using eight MT models: small, medium, and large Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) models; small, medium, and large oropharyngeal consortium (OPC) models, the medium adult Alberta Idealized Throat (AIT), and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Induction Port, with IPs that simulated those used by volunteers in lung scintigraphy studies...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Xu Ma, Zhiqiang Wang, Yanqiu Li, Gonzalo R Arce, Lisong Dong, Javier Garcia-Frias
Optical proximity correction (OPC) is an extensively used resolution enhancement technique (RET) in optical lithography. To date, the computational efficiency has become a big issue for pixelated OPC techniques due to the increasing complexity of lithographic masks in modern integrated circuits. This paper is the first to apply nonlinear compressive sensing (CS) theory to break through the computational efficiency of gradient-based pixelated OPC methods. The proposed method reduces the dimensionality of the OPC problem by downsampling the layout pattern...
May 28, 2018: Optics Express
Shankargouda Patil, Barnali Majumdar, Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Kamran H Awan
Oropharyngeal candidosis (OPC) is an opportunistic fungal infection that is commonly found in HIV-infected patients, even in the twenty-first century. Candida albicans is the main pathogen, but other Candida species have been isolated. OPC usually presents months or years before other severe opportunistic infections and may indicate the presence or progression of HIV disease. The concept of OPC as a biofilm infection has changed our understanding of its pathobiology. Various anti-fungal agents (both topical and systemic) are available to treat OPC...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tao Li, Lingyun Wang, Teng Ma, Shouyu Wang, Jianqin Niu, Hongli Li, Lan Xiao
Increased intracellular Ca2+ in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is important to initiate their differentiation, but the intracellular Ca2+ channel involved in this process remains unclear. As a Ca2+ -induced Ca2+ release (CICR) channel that mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release, the role of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in oligodendroglial development is unexplored. In the present study, we observed that among the three mammalian isoforms, oligodendroglial lineage cells selectively expressed RyR3...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sarah E Davis, Robert N Tams, Norma Solis, Andrew S Wagner, Tian Chen, Joseph W Jackson, Sahar Hasim, Anthony E Montedonico, Justin Dinsmore, Timothy E Sparer, Scott G Filler, Todd B Reynolds
Candida albicans mutants for phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase ( cho1 ΔΔ) and PS decarboxylase ( psd1 ΔΔ psd2 ΔΔ) are compromised for virulence in mouse models of systemic infection and oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC). Both of these enzymes are necessary to synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by the de novo pathway, but these mutants are still capable of growth in culture media as they can import ethanolamine from media to synthesize PE through the Kennedy pathway. Given that the host has ethanolamine in its serum, the exact mechanism by which virulence is lost in these mutants is not clear...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Kumiko Eguchi, Tomohiko Shindo, Kenta Ito, Tsuyoshi Ogata, Ryo Kurosawa, Yuta Kagaya, Yuto Monma, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Sachie Kasukabe, Satoshi Miyata, Takeo Yoshikawa, Kazuhiko Yanai, Hirofumi Taki, Hiroshi Kanai, Noriko Osumi, Hiroaki Shimokawa
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic focused-ultrasound to the hippocampus has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on dementia. In the present study, we examined whether the whole-brain LIPUS (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound) therapy is effective and safe in 2 mouse models of dementia (vascular dementia, VaD and Alzheimer's disease, AD), and if so, to elucidate the common underlying mechanism(s) involved. METHODS: We used bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model with micro-coils in male C57BL/6 mice as a VaD model and 5XFAD transgenic mice as an AD model...
May 22, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Ramesh Periasamy, Daniel V Surbek, Andreina Schoeberlein
The loss of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) is a hallmark of perinatal brain injury. Our aim was to develop an in vitro culture condition for human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that enhances their stem cell properties and their capability to differentiate towards OPC-like cells. MSC were grown either in serum replacement medium (SRM) or serum-containing medium (SM) and tested for their morphology, proliferation, secretome, migration, protein expression and differentiation into OPC-like cells...
June 2018: Tissue & Cell
Barbara S Ducatman
CONTEXT: - Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPC), particularly those cancers developing in tonsillar tissue. OBJECTIVES: - To review the prevalence, subtypes, and methods of detecting HPV in OPC and to review the epidemiology, histology, staging, management, and prevention of these cancers. DATA SOURCES: - The study comprised a review of the literature. CONCLUSIONS: - The incidence of HPV-OPC is rising globally and in the United States, but rates of HPV-positivity vary with the anatomic site(s) and the population studied, as well as the method of detecting HPV infection...
June 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Márcio Freire Cruz, Carlos Arthur Mattos Teixeira Cavalcante, Sérgio Torres Sá Barretto
Health Level Seven (HL7) is one of the standards most used to centralize data from different vital sign monitoring systems. This solution significantly limits the data available for historical analysis, because it typically uses databases that are not effective in storing large volumes of data. In industry, a specific Big Data Historian, known as a Process Information Management System (PIMS), solves this problem. This work proposes the same solution to overcome the restriction on storing vital sign data. The PIMS needs a compatible communication standard to allow storing, and the one most commonly used is the OLE for Process Control (OPC)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Robert G Ewing, Blandina R Valenzuela
Real-time low to sub parts-per-trillion vapor detection of some organophosphorous compounds (OPCs) is demonstrated with an atmospheric flow tube - mass spectrometer. The chemical species investigated included dimethyl methylphosphonate, triethyl phosphate and tributylphosphate. The atmospheric flow tube provides ambient chemical ionization with up to several seconds of ionization time. With sensitivities in the ppqv range, there are many background contaminants competing for charge with the target analytes...
May 29, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Stefanie Giera, Rong Luo, Yanqin Ying, Sarah D Ackerman, Sung-Jin Jeong, Hannah M Stoveken, Christopher J Folts, Christina A Welsh, Gregory G Tall, Beth Stevens, Kelly R Monk, Xianhua Piao
In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin formation and repair are regulated by oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells, which sense and integrate signals from their environment, including from other glial cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The signaling pathways that coordinate this complex communication, however, remain poorly understood. The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor ADGRG1 (also known as GPR56) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of OL development in humans, mice, and zebrafish, although its activating ligand for OL lineage cells is unknown...
May 29, 2018: ELife
Sergio M Borghi, Victor Fattori, Miriam S N Hohmann, Waldiceu A Verri
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory diseases that affect spinal cord or associated spinal nerves represent challenging conditions for management in current medicine because of their complex pathology, poor prognosis, and high morbidity, which strikingly reduces the quality of life of patients. In this sense, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of spinal cord neuroinflammation might contribute to the development of novel therapies. Oligodendrocytes have unique and vital biological properties in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and physiology...
May 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Rui Liu, Xu Cong, Yingshi Song, Tao Wu, Min Zhang
The aim of this investigation was to improve the barrier and mechanical properties of gluten films and further explore their application in the packaging of seasonings. The effects of flaxseed gum (FG), oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs), and lauric acid (LA) on the water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical properties, and peroxide value (POV) were determined. FG and OPCs improved the WVP properties of the gluten films, whereas LA significantly improved the oxygen-barrier properties. The FG/OPCs/LA/GP composite film was then optimized, and the morphological, microstructural, and thermal properties of the composite gluten film were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface hydrophobicity analysis; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Madeline Nicholson, Rhiannon J Wood, Jessica L Fletcher, Maarten van den Buuse, Simon S Murray, Junhua Xiao
The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) plays important roles in promoting myelination in the developing central nervous system (CNS), however the influence it exerts on oligodendrocyte development in vivo remain unclear. As BDNF knockout mice die in the perinatal period, we undertook a systematic developmental analysis of oligodendroglial lineage cells within multiple CNS regions of BDNF heterozygous (HET) mice. Our data identify that BDNF heterozygosity results in transient reductions in oligodendroglial lineage cell density and progression that are largely restricted to the optic nerve, whereas the corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, basal forebrain and spinal cord white matter tracts are unaffected...
May 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Florian Sparber, Tamas Dolowschiak, Sarah Mertens, Laura Lauener, Björn E Clausen, Nicole Joller, Patrizia Stoitzner, Roxane Tussiwand, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans frequently causes diseases such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in immunocompromised individuals. Although it is well appreciated that the cytokine IL-17 is crucial for protective immunity against OPC, the cellular source and the regulation of this cytokine during infection are still a matter of debate. Here, we directly visualized IL-17 production in the tongue of experimentally infected mice, thereby demonstrating that this key cytokine is expressed by three complementary subsets of CD90+ leukocytes: RAG-dependent αβ and γδ T cells, as well as RAG-independent ILCs...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Shoko Shimizu, Yugo Ishino, Masaya Tohyama, Shingo Miyata
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS), undergo morphological differentiation characterized by elaborated branched processes to enwrap neuronal axons. However, the basic molecular mechanisms underlying oligodendrocyte morphogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we describe the essential roles of Nuclear Distribution E Homolog 1 (NDE1), a dynein cofactor, in oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. In the mouse corpus callosum, Nde1 mRNA expression was detected in oligodendrocyte lineage cells at the postnatal stage...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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