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Irem Dogan Turacli, Tuba Candar, Emine Berrin Yuksel, Sebnem Kalay, Ali Kemal Oguz, Selda Demirtas
Metformin is used to reduce hyperglycemia that induces energetic stress and leads to reduction in gluconeogenesis. Also, metformin inhibits complex I in oxidative phosphorylation, thereby decreasing cellular ATP levels. Activation of AMPK by the reduced ATP levels can induce inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activate p53-mediated DNA repair. DNA polymerase-β and XRCC1 function to repair DNA damages in the BER (base excision repair) system. In type 2 diabetes patients, metformin can enhance AMPK activation therefore suppress oxidative stress...
August 8, 2018: Biochimie
Biji T Kurien, R Hal Scofield
It is customary to dry gels (SDS-PAGE, native gels, or two-dimensional gels) after staining for record keeping purposes. This is typically carried out with gel dryers or by drying between two cellophane sheets held together by acrylic frames. Here, we report a simple method to store a variety of stained gels without any storage buffer within flexible nonsealed polyethylene bags. Gels can be stored for several months at room temperature without significant shrinking or protein diffusion. The gel stays hydrated owing to the de facto sealing achieved by the polyethylene sheets adhering air-tightly to the gel on either side...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sirjhun Patel, Lai-Ling Tan, Helen Murgatroyd
A patient presented with left upper eyelid swelling and ptosis. The MRI reported a cyst with proteinaceous content. On surgical excision of the cyst, a rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens was found. The RGP lens was encapsulated within the upper eyelid soft tissue. It was later revealed that the patient experienced childhood trauma while wearing RGP contact lenses 28 years previously. The patient assumed that the RGP lens fell out and was lost; however, it can be inferred that the lens migrated into the eyelid and resided there asymptomatically for 28 years...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ruey-Hwang Chou, Chang-Yin Lee, Lee-Won Chong, Kuang-Hsi Chang, Cheng-Li Lin, Ke-Sin Yan, Chingfu Tsou, Yi-Chao Hsu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma due to the main pathogenic X protein of HBV (HBx). Whether HBV infection and the HBx protein could result in macular degeneration (MD) is not known. The aim of this study is to assess the association and underlying mechanisms between HBV infection and MD. METHODS: The National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan built a large database, the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), which includes the claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) program...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Fubo Sun, Ayaz Ahmed, Lina Wang, Ming Dong, Weidong Niu
Orthodontic treatments often include dental displacement using a fixed retainer such as braces, which may result in the accumulation of plaque that provides a suitable environment for microorganisms to cause oral infection. So, this study was designed to investigate the microbial diversity among orthodontic patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: Fifty individuals i.e. 30 orthodontic patients and 20 normal individuals were included in this study. Samples were collected during the midterm of orthodontic treatment (10-12 months)...
August 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Adriana G Patlán, Saúl U Corona, Víctor M Ayala-García, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
It has been shown that mutation frequency decline (Mfd) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) deficiencies promote UV-induced mutagenesis in B. subtilis sporangia. As replication is halted in sporulating B. subtilis cells, in this report, we investigated if this response may result from an error-prone repair event involving the UV-endonuclease YwjD and low fidelity (LF) DNA synthesis. Accordingly, disruption of YwjD generated B. subtilis sporangia that were more susceptible to UV-C radiation than sporangia of the WT strain and such susceptibility increased even more after the single or simultaneous inactivation of the LF DNA polymerases YqjH and YqjW...
July 27, 2018: DNA Repair
Chia-Wen Tsai, Wen-Shin Chang, Te-Chun Shen, Chen-Hsien Su, Hwei-Chung Wang, Liang-Chih Liu, Da-Tian Bau
Compared with other subgroups of breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered to be the one with the greatest invasiveness and metastatic mobility, and the highest recurrence rate. Considering the lack of predictive markers for TNBC, we aimed to examine the contribution of excision repair cross complementing-group 1 (ERCC1) genotypes to TNBC. The rs11615 and rs3212986 of ERCC1 were investigated and evaluated for their associations with susceptibility to breast cancer, especially TNBC, in Taiwan...
2018: PloS One
Alexandra L Martin, J Ryan Stewart, Harshitha Girithara-Gopalan, Jeremy T Gaskins, Nicole J McConnell, Erin E Medlin
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine complications associated with primary closure compared with reconstruction after vulvar excision and predisposing factors to these complications. METHODS: Patients undergoing vulvar excision with or without reconstruction from 2011 to 2015 were abstracted from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Common Procedural Terminology codes were used to characterize surgical procedures as vulvar excision alone or vulvar excision with reconstruction...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Gilbert Bigras, Simon Mairs, Paul E Swanson, Didier Morel, Raymond Lai, Iyare Izevbaye
Pembrolizumab is an FDA-approved immune-checkpoint (IC) inhibitor that targets programmed cell death protein PD-1, and recent phase III trials have demonstrated its superiority over chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligibility for treatment with Pembrolizumab is based on demonstration of PD-L1 expression on tumoral cells using the approved companion test 22C3 PharmDx (Dako). Access to the drug depends on a tumor proportion score (TPS) expressing the PD-L1 protein above predetermined cutoffs...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Adeleh Gholipour-Kanani, Monireh Mohsenzadegan, Mohammadreza Fayyazi, Hajir Bahrami, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Poly (ɛ-caprolactone)-chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) (PCL: Cs: PVA) nanofibrous blend scaffolds were known as useful materials for skin wound healing and would help the healing process about 50% faster at the final time point. From the previous studies by the authors, PCL: Cs: PVA (in 2: 1: 1.5 mass ratio) nanofibres showed high efficacy in healing on rat models. In this study, the scaffolds were examined in burn and excision wounds healing on dogs as bigger models. The scaffolds were applied on dorsum skin wounds ( n  = 5) then macroscopic and microscopic investigations were carried out to measure the wounds areas and to track healing rate, respectively...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Yasusei Kudo
Determining cancer prognosis in patients is crucial to controlling the suffering and death due to cancer. In general, the diagnosis of cancer is based on the histology. Histology of cancer is determined by the tissue obtained from patients via several sampling approaches, including excision or biopsy, fine-needle aspiration, and cytologic smears. As the pathologic diagnosis of cancer is an essential initial step for the determination of the line of therapy, pathologists face a great responsibility in the diagnosis of cancer...
August 10, 2018: Oral Diseases
Jaroslaw Jakub Jedrych, Sekhar Duraisamy, Arivarasan Karunamurthy
Aneurysmal fibrous histiocytoma (FH) is an uncommon variant of cutaneous benign fibrous histiocytoma/dermatofibroma1 typically presenting as a solitary, pigmented, up to several centimeters in size nodule on extremities or trunk of middle-aged adults.1,2 Some cases may be clinically concerning for melanoma or vascular neoplasia.1 The local recurrence rate is ~20%, if incompletely excised.1 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Jayson Miedema, Shane R Starr, May P Chan
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare entity with initial descriptions in the mid 1990's.1 It typically affects elderly patients with a slight male predominance (M:F ratio 2-3:1).2,3 Clinically, BPDCN is characterized by abrupt onset of rapidly progressive nodules or ecchymotic plaques with concurrent or subsequent involvement of the bone marrow and peripheral blood.3 Prognosis is dismal.2 Histopathologically, the neoplastic infiltrate is composed of monomorphous medium-sized to large cells expressing CD4, CD56, CD123, and TCL1...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
M Sahinoglu, A Mutlukan, E Koktekir, H Karabagli
BACKGROUND: Gaucher disease is a rare hereditary glycolipid storage disease. One of the rare complications is neurodeficits due to vertebral involvement. CASE PRESENTATION: An 18-year-old female patient presented to the outpatient clinic with cauda equina syndrome due to sacral involvement of type 1 GD. Bilateral laminectomy via posterior approach without posterior stabilization was performed. CONCLUSION: Maximum excision of the mass avoiding destabilization of the spinal column can provide long-term vertebral stability and improvement in neurodeficits...
August 9, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Agata Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Paulina Trybek, Łukasz Machura, Beata Dworakowska, Zbigniew J Grzywna
BK channels are potassium selective and exhibit large single-channel conductance. They play an important physiological role in glioma cells: they are involved in cell growth and extensive migrating behavior. Due to the fact that these processes are accompanied by changes in membrane stress, here, we examine mechanosensitive properties of BK channels from human glioblastoma cells (gBK channels). Experiments were performed by the use of patch-clamp method on excised patches under membrane suction (0-40 mmHg) at membrane hyper- and depolarization...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Stylianos Vittorakis, Georgia Giannakopoulou, Konstantinos Konstantinides, Anna Daskalaki, Konstantinos Samitas
Colonic metastasis from lung cancer is rare, generally asymptomatic and usually develop at advanced cancer stages. Here, we report a case with a resected stage IA lung adenocarcinoma in a 51yo male patient that presented two years later with mild abdominal pain due to intestinal obstruction caused by a metastatic colon tumor. The patient underwent colonoscopy followed by surgical resection and the pathologic report was adenocarcinoma which was the same as that from a lung nodule that was excised two years earlier...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Arkadiusz P Wysocki, Skyle Murphy, Ingrid Baade
Introduction Expert opinion recommends that surgeons perform a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in a standardized manner by dissecting the hepatobiliary triangle lateral to the cystic artery lymph node (LN) to minimize the rate of a major bile duct injury. Methods To determine whether surgeons performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a standardized manner, the study assessed the variability in the frequency of an LN excision. All LCs that were performed at a single hospital were identified from a prospective dataset...
June 7, 2018: Curēus
Cara Clure, Colleen Rivard
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common sexually transmitted infection. Although primary HSV typically presents with ulcerations, atypical presentations are possible. Only one other case report of HSV manifesting as a cervical mass exists. A 35-year-old immunocompetent female with dysuria was found to have a cervical mass concerning for cancer. She had a history of abnormal pap smears and a loop electrosurgical excision procedure   (LEEP) with poor follow-up. The patient was taken to the operating room for biopsies and staging and was found to have new vulvar ulcers...
June 6, 2018: Curēus
Michael Karanikas, Konstantinia Kofina, Markos Markou, Damianos Doukas, Eleni Effraemidou, Nikolaos Lyratzopoulos, Alexandros Polychronidis
Metastatic tumors of the appendix is a rare entity, whereas only limited data involving metastasis arising from gastric cancer has been reported. Herein, the case of gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis presenting as acute appendicitis is reported. A 53-year-old male, with a history of subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric adenocarcinoma 3 years before, was referred to the Emergency Department with symptoms of acute appendicitis. While this condition was confirmed intraoperatively, histology examination and comparison with the previously excised gastric specimen indicated that metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the appendix was present...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Raelina S Howell, James A Rice, Kristin Sticco, Virginia Donovan, Michael Castellano, Brian Gillette, Scott Gorenstein
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive carcinoma that usually arises in sun-exposed regions. MCC is a primary neuroendocrine tumor that arises in the skin. This report describes an unusual case of MCC on the buttocks that was treated with excision, radiation and chemotherapy. Physicians should consider MCC as a differential diagnosis when encountering a rapidly growing, painless lesion. Early diagnosis and treatment may improve patient survival rates.
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
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