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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537625/in-vitro-profiling-of-volatile-organic-compounds-released-by-simpson-golabi-behmel-syndrome-adipocytes
#1
Paweł Mochalski, Eva Diem, Karl Unterkofler, Axel Mündlein, Heinz Drexel, Chris A Mayhew, Andreas Leiherer
Breath analysis offers a non-invasive and rapid diagnostic method for detecting various volatile organic compounds that could be indicators for different diseases, particularly metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus. The development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely linked to metabolic dysfunction of adipose tissue and adipocytes. However, the VOC profile of human adipocytes has not yet been investigated. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection and head-space needle trap extraction (two-bed Carbopack X/Carboxen 1000 needle traps) were applied to profile VOCs produced and metabolised by human Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome adipocytes...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536377/loss-of-lgr4-inhibits-differentiation-migration-and-apoptosis-and-promotes-proliferation-in-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Peng Sun, Kunhang Jia, Chunbing Zheng, Xinlei Zhu, Jing Li, Liang He, Stefan Siwko, Feng Xue, Mingyao Liu, Jian Luo
The key signaling networks regulating bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are poorly defined. Lgr4, which belongs to the leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor (LGR) family, is widely expressed in multiple tissues from early embryogenesis to adulthood. We investigated whether Lgr4 functions in BMSCs and in osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and skeletal myoblasts, using mice with a β-geo gene trap inserted into the Lgr4 gene. Abundant Lgr4 expression was detected in skeletal, adipose and muscular tissue of Lgr4+/- mice at E16...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30533985/gentle-is-better-the-original-gentle-technique-for-fat-placement-in-breast-lipofilling
#3
Pietro Gentile, Barbara De Angelis, Verdiana Di Pietro, Vittoria Amorosi, Maria G Scioli, Augusto Orlandi, Valerio Cervelli
Context: Breast lipofilling usually involves three different stages (harvesting, processing, and placement), and in each of these phases, adipocyte cells can be damaged. Our technique of fat placement is quite different from the others as we focus our attention on the last stage of fat graft procedure, which could explain the better results in graft survival. Aims: Our method is focused on eliminating any unnecessary manipulation of the graft so as to optimize graft retention and clinical outcomes: Controlled movement and slow rate of fat injection are the cornerstone of our technique and guarantee a nontraumatic fat transfer and a greater survival rate of adipocytes...
July 2018: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532989/the-impact-of-hepatic-hsp72-on-insulin-signaling
#4
Sayaka Kitano, Tatsuya Kondo, Rina Matsuyama, Kaoru Ono, Rieko Goto, Yuki Takaki, Satoko Hanatani, Masaji Sakaguchi, Motoyuki Igata, Junji Kawashima, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Takeshi Matsumura, Hirofumi Kai, Eiichi Araki
Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is a major inducible molecule in the heat shock response that enhances intracellular stress tolerance. Decreased expression of HSP72 is observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D), which may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. We used HSP72 knockout (HSP72KO) mice to investigate the impact of HSP72 on glucose metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, particularly in the liver. Under a high fat diet (HFD) condition, HSP72KO mice showed glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and enhanced hepatic gluconeogenic activity...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531792/chromatin-accessibility-identifies-diversity-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-different-tissue-origins
#5
Yen-Ting Ho, Takashi Shimbo, Edward Wijaya, Yuya Ouchi, Eiichi Takaki, Ryoma Yamamoto, Yasushi Kikuchi, Yasufumi Kaneda, Katsuto Tamai
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into tri-lineage (osteoblast, adipocyte, and chondrocyte) and suppress inflammation, are promising tools for regenerative medicine. MSCs are phenotypically diverse based on their tissue origins. However, the mechanisms underlying cell-type-specific gene expression patterns are not fully understood due to the lack of suitable strategy to identify the diversity. In this study, we investigated gene expression programs and chromatin accessibilities of MSCs by whole-transcriptome RNA-seq analysis and an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq)...
December 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30531000/a-paracrine-role-for-white-thermogenic-adipocytes-in-innervation-an-evidence-based-hypothesis
#6
REVIEW
Aejin Lee, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy and also plays an important endocrine role in producing adipokines for communication with the peripheral and central nervous system. WAT consists of the major lipogenic unilocular adipocytes and the minor populations of beige and brite multilocular adipocytes. These multilocular adipocytes express thermogenic genes and have phenotypic similarity with thermogenic brown adipose tissue. According to a current paradigm, multilocular adipocytes have a thermogenic function in WAT...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530479/developmental-and-functional-heterogeneity-of-white-adipocytes-within-a-single-fat-depot
#7
Kevin Y Lee, Quyen Luong, Rita Sharma, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Siegfried Ussar, C Ronald Kahn
Recent studies suggest that, even within a single adipose depot, there may be distinct subpopulations of adipocytes. To investigate this cellular heterogeneity, we have developed multiple conditionally immortalized clonal preadipocyte lines from white adipose tissue of mice. Analysis of these clones reveals at least three white adipocyte subpopulations. These subpopulations have differences in metabolism and differentially respond to inflammatory cytokines, insulin, and growth hormones. These also have distinct gene expression profiles and can be tracked by differential expression of three marker genes: Wilms' tumor 1, transgelin, and myxovirus 1...
December 10, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529845/3d-qsar-assisted-identification-of-fabp4-inhibitors-an-effective-scaffold-hopping-analysis-qsar-evaluation
#8
Giuseppe Floresta, Agostino Cilibrizzi, Vincenzo Abbate, Ambra Spampinato, Chiara Zagni, Antonio Rescifina
Following on the recent publication of pharmacologically relevant effects, small molecule inhibitors of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) have attracted high interest. FABP4 is mainly expressed in macrophages and adipose tissue, where it regulates fatty acid storage and lipolysis, being also an important mediator of inflammation. In this regard, FABP4 recently demonstrated an interesting molecular target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, other metabolic diseases and some type of cancers. In the past years, hundreds of effective FABP4 inhibitors have been synthesized...
November 29, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528280/preadipocytes-of-obese-humans-display-gender-specific-bioenergetic-responses-to-glucose-and-insulin
#9
Michaela Keuper, Lucia Berti, Bernhard Raedle, Stephan Sachs, Anja Böhm, Louise Fritsche, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Martin Jastroch, Susanna M Hofmann, Harald Staiger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although the prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders is increasing in both sexes, the clinical phenotype differs between men and women, highlighting the need for individual treatment options. Mitochondrial dysfunction in various tissues, including white adipose tissue (WAT), has been accepted as a key factor for obesity-associated comorbidities such as diabetes. Given higher expression of mitochondria-related genes in the WAT of women, we hypothesized that gender differences in the bioenergetic profile of white (pre-) adipocytes from obese (age- and BMI-matched) donors must exist...
November 26, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525767/lipid-metabolism-in-cancer-cachexia
#10
Shalini Dalal
Cancer cachexia, characterized by losses in muscle and adipose tissue (AT), is associated with poor quality of life and prognosis, and lacks effective therapies. Both tumor- and host- derived factors disrupt normal metabolism and are vital to the catabolic drive in cancer cachexia. While muscle loss has long dominated cachexia research, recent work conducted predominantly in rodent models has begun to recognize the significance of AT lipid metabolism alterations in the development and progression of cancer cachexia...
October 30, 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524294/different-statistical-approaches-to-characterization-of-adipocyte-size-in-offspring-of-obese-rats-effects-of-maternal-or-offspring-exercise-intervention
#11
Carlos A Ibáñez, Magaly Vázquez-Martínez, J Carlos León-Contreras, Luis A Reyes-Castro, Guadalupe L Rodríguez-González, Claudia J Bautista, Peter W Nathanielsz, Elena Zambrano
Adipocyte size (AS) shows asymmetric distribution related to current metabolic state, e.g., adipogenesis or lipolysis. We profiled AS distribution using different statistical approaches in offspring (F1) of control (C) and obese (MO) mothers (F0) with and without F0 or F1 exercise. Offspring from F0 exercise were designated CF0ex and MOF0ex. Exercised F1 of sedentary mothers were designated CF1ex and MOF1ex. F1 retroperitoneal fat cross-sectional AS was measured by median, cumulative distributions, data dispersion and extreme values based on gamma distribution modeling...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30522122/microbial-intervention-as-a-novel-target-in-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression
#12
Youlian Zhou, Tiying Zheng, Huiting Chen, Yongqiang Li, Hongli Huang, Wenji Chen, Yanlei Du, Jie He, Yuyuan Li, Jie Cao, Yuqiang Nie, Yongjian Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests a close link between gut microbiota and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gut microbiota and the DNA methylation of adiponectin (an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine) in rats, following diet-induced NAFLD. METHODS: 50 male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups with or without a high fat diet (HFD), antibiotics, and probiotics, in order to establish an imbalanced gut microbiota and probiotic treatment model in NAFLD rats...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516559/influence-of-recipient-site-on-the-function-and-survival-of-fat-grafts
#13
Xi Chen, Yaohao Wu, Guangpeng Liu
BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafting has become an increasingly common procedure for soft tissue augmentation throughout the body. However, the long-term outcome is always unpredictable because of inconsistent graft survival. Based on the "law of use and disuse," we speculate that the volume loss of fat grafts will occur when transferred into a site where there is less fat. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cause of high resorption rate from the perspective of fat function after transplantation...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516329/garcinol-reduces-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-modulating-gut-microbiota-composition
#14
Pei-Sheng Lee, Chia-Yi Teng, Nagabhushanam Kalyanam, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
SCOPE: Obesity has become a major health problem worldwide and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. This study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative isolated from the fruit rind of Garcinia indica. We sought to delineate how garcinol protects against obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice and determine whether its anti-obesity effects are related to gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: The results showed that garcinol reduced HFD-fed mice body weight gain and relative visceral adipose tissue fat weight in a dose-dependent manner...
December 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513740/pistachio-consumption-prevents-and-improves-lipid-dysmetabolism-by-reducing-the-lipid-metabolizing-gene-expression-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#15
Simona Terzo, Gaetano Felice Caldara, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Roberto Puleio, Giovanni Cassata, Flavia Mulè, Antonella Amato
Pistachios contain beneficial substances such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, and polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated if pistachio consumption is able to prevent or to revert hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue morphological alterations caused by high fat diet (HFD) in the mouse. Moreover, the impact of pistachio intake on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ( PPAR-γ ), fatty acid transport proteins ( FAT-P ), fatty acid synthase ( FAS ), stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD1 ), and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c ( SREBP-1c ) in liver and adipose tissue was also analyzed...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513342/cellular-prion-protein-regulates-the-differentiation-and-function-of-adipocytes-through-autophagy-flux
#16
Jae-Kyo Jeong, Ju-Hee Lee, Sung-Wook Kim, Jeong-Min Hong, Jae-Won Seol, Sang-Youel Park
The role of autophagy modulation in adipogenic differentiation and the possible autophagy modulators targeting adipogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether normal cellular prion protein (PrP<C>) is involved in the modulation of autophagy and affects adipogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Surprisingly, autophagy flux signals were activated in the adipose tissue of prion protein-deficient mice and PrP<C>-deleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The activation of autophagy flux mediated by PrP<C> deletion was confirmed in the adipose tissue via transmission electron microscopy...
December 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512991/the-e3-ligase-march5-is-a-ppar%C3%AE-target-gene-that-regulates-mitochondria-and-metabolism-in-adipocytes
#17
Simon T Bond, Sarah C Moody, Yingying Liu, Mete Civelek, Claudio J Villanueva, Paul Gregorevic, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Andrea L Hevener, Aldons J Lusis, Darren C Henstridge, Anna C Calkin, Brian G Drew
Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the constant remodelling of mitochondrial populations by multiple cellular pathways which help maintain mitochondrial health and function. Disruptions to mitochondrial dynamics often leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is frequently associated with disease in rodents and humans. Consistent with this, obesity is associated with reduced mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue, partly via alterations in mitochondrial dynamics. Several proteins are known to regulate mitochondrial dynamics including the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5; however, the role of these proteins in adipocytes has been poorly studied...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512227/-all-e-and-5z-lycopene-display-similar-biological-effects-on-adipocytes
#18
Soumia Fenni, Julien Astier, Lauriane Bonnet, Esma Karkeni, Erwan Gouranton, Lourdes Mounien, Charlene Couturier, Franck Tourniaire, Volker Böhm, Habib Hammou, Jean-François Landrier
SCOPE: Although about 90% of lycopene in dietary sources occurs in the linear all-trans conformation, a large proportion of the lycopene found in human tissues is of the cis-isomer type, notably (5Z)-lycopene. The biological effects of this (5Z) isomer have been under-researched. The aim of this study was to evaluate some biological functions of (5Z)-lycopene in adipocytes and to compare them with those of (all-E)-lycopene. METHODS AND RESULTS: (all-E)- and (5Z)-Lycopene displayed strong similarities in global gene expression profile and biological pathways impacted...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511960/peroxisome-derived-lipids-regulate-adipose-thermogenesis-by-mediating-cold-induced-mitochondrial-fission
#19
Hongsuk Park, Anyuan He, Min Tan, Jordan M Johnson, John M Dean, Terri A Pietka, Yali Chen, Xiangyu Zhang, Fong-Fu Hsu, Babak Razani, Katsuhiko Funai, Irfan J Lodhi
Peroxisomes perform essential functions in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis. Here, we describe a role for peroxisomal lipid metabolism in mitochondrial dynamics in brown and beige adipocytes. Adipose tissue peroxisomal biogenesis was induced in response to cold exposure through activation of the thermogenic co-regulator PRDM16. Adipose-specific knockout of the peroxisomal biogenesis factor Pex16 (Pex16-AKO) in mice impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and increased diet-induced obesity...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510798/-smallanthus-sonchifolius-yacon-flour-improves-visceral-adiposity-and-metabolic-parameters-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#20
Stella Maris Honoré, Maria Virginia Grande, Jorge Gomez Rojas, Sara Serafina Sánchez
Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), a native plant of South America, was observed to improve lipid profile in rodents and humans. This study aimed to investigate the antiobesity properties of yacon roots in a high-fat-diet (HFD) model and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 30 Wistar male rats were divided into five groups ( n =6): the standard chow diet (SD) group was fed a SD; the HFD group was fed a HFD; and the HFD Y340 and HFD Y680 groups were fed a HFD plus yacon flour (340 and 680 mg FOS/kg b. w./day, respectively)...
2018: Journal of Obesity
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