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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318987/elucidating-the-role-of-lkb1-and-mtor-in-adipose-tissue
#1
Ziye Xu, Wenjing You, Fengqin Wang, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues, function as energy metabolism and endocrine organ, are closely associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism and cell growth in adipose tissue. Our recent study generated an adipocyte-specific Lkb1 and mTOR double knockout (DKO) mouse model and found that DKO of Lkb1 and mTOR caused reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) mass but increase of liver mass...
October 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318338/protein-kinase-c-epsilon-deletion-in-adipose-tissue-but-not-in-liver-improves-glucose-tolerance
#2
Amanda E Brandon, Bing M Liao, Barbara Diakanastasis, Benjamin L Parker, Katy Raddatz, Sophie A McManus, Liam O'Reilly, Erica Kimber, A Gabrielle van der Kraan, Dale Hancock, Darren C Henstridge, Peter J Meikle, Gregory J Cooney, David E James, Saskia Reibe, Mark A Febbraio, Trevor J Biden, Carsten Schmitz-Peiffer
Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) activation in the liver is proposed to inhibit insulin action through phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Here, however, we demonstrated that global, but not liver-specific, deletion of PKCɛ in mice protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, PKCɛ-dependent alterations in insulin receptor phosphorylation were not detected. Adipose-tissue-specific knockout mice did exhibit improved glucose tolerance, but phosphoproteomics revealed no PKCɛ-dependent effect on the activation of insulin signaling pathways...
October 8, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317615/insulin-resistance-review-of-the-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Habib Yaribeygi, Farin Rashid Farrokhi, Alexandra E Butler, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Most human cells utilize glucose as the primary substrate, cellular uptake requiring insulin. Insulin signaling is therefore critical for these tissues. However, decrease in insulin sensitivity due to the disruption of various molecular pathways causes insulin resistance (IR). IR underpins many metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, impairments in insulin signaling disrupting entry of glucose into the adipocytes, and skeletal muscle cells. Although the exact underlying cause of IR has not been fully elucidated, a number of major mechanisms, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin receptor mutations, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suggested...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317185/cytokines-promote-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-through-induction-of-nadph-oxidase-3-expression-and-superoxide-production
#4
Nahla Issa, Gabriel Lachance, Kerstin Bellmann, Mathieu Laplante, Krisztian Stadler, Andre Marette
NADPH oxidase enzymes (NOX) are one of the major superoxide-generating systems in cells. NOX-generated superoxide has been suggested to promote insulin resistance in liver. However, the role of NOX enzymes in mediating metabolic dysfunction in other insulin target tissues remains unclear. Here we show that NADPH oxidase 3 (NOX3) expression is induced in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes upon treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Superoxide production increased concurrently with NOX3 protein expression in cytokine-treated adipocytes, which was inhibited by the NOX inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316815/ppar%C3%AE-is-a-major-regulator-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-blood-levels-and-catabolism-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissues
#5
Pierre-Gilles Blanchard, Rafael J Moreira, Érique de Castro, Alexandre Caron, Marie Côté, Maynara L Andrade, Tiago E Oliveira, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Albert S Peixoto, France Anne Dias, Yves Gélinas, Renata Guerra-Sá, Yves Deshaies, William T Festuccia
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether PPARγ modulates adipose tissue BCAA metabolism, and whether this mediates the attenuation of obesity-associated insulin resistance induced by pharmacological PPARγ activation. METHODS: Mice with adipocyte deletion of one or two PPARγ copies fed a chow diet and rats fed either chow, or high fat (HF) or HF supplemented with BCAA (HF/BCAA) diets treated with rosiglitazone (30 or 15 mg/kg/day, 14 days) were evaluated for glucose and BCAA homeostasis...
October 11, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315998/findings-as-a-starting-point-to-unravel-the-underlying-mechanisms-of-in-vivo-interactions-involving-wnt10a-in-bone-fat-and-muscle
#6
Manabu Tsukamoto, Ke-Yong Wang, Takashi Tasaki, Yoichi Murata, Yasuaki Okada, Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Eiichiro Nakamura, Sohsuke Yamada, Hiroto Izumi, Qian Zhou, Kagaku Azuma, Yasuyuki Sasaguri, Kimitoshi Kohno, Akinori Sakai
Wnt10a is a member of the WNT family. Although deficiency of this gene causes symptoms related to teeth, hair, nails, and skin, we recently demonstrated a new phenotype of Wnt10a knockout (KO) mice involving bone and fat. The in vivo effect of the Wnt10a gene on bone and fat is unclear, and the relationship between bone/fat and muscle in Wnt10a signaling is also interesting. We aimed to evaluate the tissue changes in Wnt10a KO mice compared to wild-type mice and show the findings as a starting point to unravel the underlying mechanisms of in vivo interactions involving Wnt10a in bone, fat and muscle...
October 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315279/cytometric-analysis-of-adipose-tissue-reveals-increments-of-adipocyte-progenitor-cells-after-weight-loss-induced-by-bariatric-surgery
#7
Jesús García-Rubio, Josefa León, Anaïs Redruello-Romero, Esther Pavón, Antonio Cozar, Francisco Tamayo, Mercedes Caba-Molina, Javier Salmerón, Ángel Carazo
Obesity-related comorbidities are, in large part, originated from the dysfunction of adipose tissue. Most of them revert after the normalization of body mass. Adipose tissue is essentially occupied by adipocytes. However, different populations of immunological cells and adipocyte precursor cells (AdPCs) are the main cellular components of tissue. During obesity, body fat depots acquire a low-level chronic inflammation and adipocytes increase in number and volume. Conversely, weight loss improves the inflammatory phenotype of adipose tissue immune cells and reduces the volume of adipocytes...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312736/metabolic-memory-of-dietary-restriction-ameliorates-dna-damage-and-adipocyte-size-in-mouse-visceral-adipose-tissue
#8
Abbas Ishaq, Damien Dufour, Kerry Cameron, Thomas von Zglinicki, Gabriele Saretzki
Dietary restriction (DR) is thought to exert its beneficial effects on healthspan at least partially by a senolytic and senostatic action, i.e. by reducing frequencies of cells with markers of DNA damage and senescence in multiple tissues. Due to its importance in metabolic and inflammation regulation, fat is a prime tissue for health span determination as well as a prime target for DR. We aimed to determine here whether the beneficial effects of DR would be retained over a subsequent period of ad libitum (AL) feeding...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312659/interleukin-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes-in-focus
#9
REVIEW
Zsuzsa Jenei-Lanzl, Andrea Meurer, Frank Zaucke
Osteoarthritis (OA) can be regarded as a chronic, painful and degenerative disease that affects all tissues of a joint and one of the major endpoints being loss of articular cartilage. In most cases, OA is associated with a variable degree of synovial inflammation. A variety of different cell types including chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, adipocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts as well as stem and immune cells are involved in catabolic and inflammatory processes but also in attempts to counteract the cartilage loss...
October 9, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311245/early-adipose-deposits-in-sheep-comparative-analysis-of-the-perirenal-fat-transcriptome-of-assaf-and-churra-suckling-lambs
#10
A Suárez-Vega, J J Arranz, V Pérez, L F de la Fuente, J Mateo, B Gutiérrez-Gil
Adipose deposits influence the quality of ruminant carcasses, and in suckling lambs, internal types of adipose deposits represent a notable proportion of total fat. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the perirenal fat transcriptomes of suckling lambs from two breeds with different growth and carcass characteristics. The perirenal fat tissue from 14 suckling lambs (Assaf, n = 8; Churra, n = 6) was used for the RNA-seq analysis. The functional enrichment analysis of the 670 highly expressed genes (>150 fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) in the perirenal fat transcriptome of both breeds revealed that the majority of these genes were involved in energy processes...
October 12, 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310815/glucocorticoid-receptor-and-adipocyte-biology
#11
Rebecca A Lee, Charles A Harris, Jen-Chywan Wang
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that play a key role in metabolic adaptations during stress, such as fasting and starvation, in order to maintain plasma glucose levels. Excess and chronic glucocorticoid exposure, however, causes metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Studies in animal models of metabolic disorders frequently demonstrate that suppressing glucocorticoid signaling improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles. Glucocorticoids convey their signals through an intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is a transcriptional regulator...
2018: Nuclear Receptor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309776/glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-define-adipocyte-transcriptional-programs-in-human-obesity
#12
R Gerlini, L Berti, J Darr, M Lassi, S Brandmaier, L Fritsche, F Scheid, A Böhm, A Königsrainer, H Grallert, H U Häring, M Hrabě de Angelis, H Staiger, R Teperino
OBJECTIVE: Although debated, metabolic health characterizes 10-25% of obese individuals and reduces risk of developing life-threatening co-morbidities. Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ important for the maintenance of whole-body metabolic health. Adipocyte transcriptional signatures of healthy and unhealthy obesity are largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we used a small cohort of highly characterized obese individuals discordant for metabolic health, characterized their adipocytes transcriptional signatures, and cross-referenced them to mouse phenotypic and human GWAs databases...
September 19, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309656/obesity-in-yap-transgenic-mice-is-associated-with-taz-downregulation
#13
Keiichiro Kamura, Jihoon Shin, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Takaya Abe, Go Shioi, Atsunori Fukuhara, Hiroshi Sasaki
Obesity is characterized by an expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, which mainly consists of adipocytes. During the commitment and differentiation of adipocytes, PPARγ functions as a key transcriptional factor for adipogenesis, and is associated with its suppressive coregulator, TAZ. Previous studies have shown the importance of TAZ in adipogenesis using an in vitro model; however, the understanding of its role in adipogenesis in vivo remains limited. Here, we report a unique obese mouse model that is associated with TAZ downregulation, which arose from the overexpression of Yap, a Taz paralog...
October 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307164/lipocalin-2-regulates-retinoic-acid-induced-activation-of-beige-adipocytes
#14
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for LCN2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or ‘beige’ adipocytes. We found LCN2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2 −/− mice...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307154/impact-of-mr-on-mature-adipocytes-in-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-induced-obesity
#15
Tomoaki Hayakawa, Tomomi Minemura, Toshiharu Onodera, Jihoon Shin, Yosuke Okuno, Atsunori Fukuhara, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro Shimomura
Active glucocorticoid levels are elevated in the adipose tissue of obesity due to the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. Glucocorticoids can bind and activate both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and pharmacological blockades of MR prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. To determine the significance of MR in adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific MR-knockout mice (AdipoMR-KO) and fed them high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found that adipocyte-specific deletion of MR did not affect the body weight, fat weight, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306830/generation-of-functional-human-adipose-tissue-in-mice-from-primed-progenitor-cells
#16
Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany DeSouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice Lalikos, Silvia Corvera
Adipose tissue is used extensively in reconstructive and regenerative therapies, but transplanted fat often undergoes cell death, leading to inflammation, calcification and requirement for further revision surgery. Previously we have found that mesenchymal progenitor cells within human adipose tissue can proliferate in 3-dimensional culture under pro-angiogenic conditions. These cells (Primed ADipose progenitor cells=PADS) robustly differentiate into adipocytes in-vitro (ad-PADS). The goal of the present study is to determine whether ad-PADS can form structured adipose tissue in-vivo, with potential for use in surgical applications...
October 11, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305668/mir-494-3p-regulates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-thermogenesis-through-pgc1-%C3%AE-signalling-in-beige-adipocytes
#17
Mengistu Lemecha, Katsutaro Morino, Takeshi Imamura, Hirotaka Iwasaki, Natsuko Ohashi, Shogo Ida, Daisuke Sato, Osamu Sekine, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
Mitochondria are critical in heat generation in brown and beige adipocytes. Mitochondrial number and function are regulated in response to external stimuli, such as cold exposure and β3 adrenergic receptor agonist. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial biogenesis during browning, especially by microRNAs, remain unknown. We investigated the role of miR-494-3p in mitochondrial biogenesis during adipogenesis and browning. Intermittent mild cold exposure of mice induced PPARγ coactivator1-α (PGC1-α) and mitochondrial TFAM, PDH, and ANT1/2 expression along with uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT)...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305242/spexin-a-novel-regulator-of-adipogenesis-and-fat-tissue-metabolism
#18
Pawel A Kolodziejski, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Maciej Micker, Marek Skrzypski, Tatiana Wojciechowicz, Patryk Szwarckopf, Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Krzysztof W Nowak, Mathias Z Strowski
Spexin (SPX, NPQ) is a novel peptide involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. SPX inhibits food intake and reduces body weight. In obese humans, SPX is the most down-regulated gene in fat. Therefore, SPX might be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Here, we study the effects of SPX on lipolysis, lipogenesis, glucose uptake, adipogenesis, cell proliferation and survival in isolated human adipocytes or murine 3T3-L1 cells. SPX and its receptors, GALR2 and GALR3, are present at mRNA and protein levels in murine 3T3-L1 cells and human adipocytes...
October 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304787/effect-of-low-fat-diet-in-obese-mice-lacking-toll-like-receptors
#19
Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Shao-Chun Wu, Tsu-Hsiang Lu, Yi-Chan Wu, Chia-Jung Wu, Peng-Chen Chien, Pao-Jen Kuo, Chia-Wei Lin, Chia-Wen Tsai, Ching-Hua Hsieh
Background: This study aimed at assessing the effect of a low-fat diet (LFD) in obese mice lacking toll⁻like receptors (Tlr) and understanding the expression and regulation of microRNAs during weight reduction. Methods: C57BL/6, Tlr5-/- , Tlr2-/- and Tlr4-/- mice were used in this study. A group of mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) (58% kcal) for 12 weeks to induce obesity (diet-induced obesity, DIO). Another group that had been fed with HFD for eight weeks (obese mice) were switched to a low-fat diet (LFD) (10...
October 9, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304638/aerobic-training-reduces-immune-cell-recruitment-and-cytokine-levels-in-adipose-tissue-in-obese-mice
#20
Débora Romualdo Lacerda, Michele Macedo Moraes, Albená Nunes-Silva, Katiá Anunciação Costa, Débora Fernandes Rodrigues, Josiana Lopes Sabino, Letícia Maria de Souza Cordeiro, Vanessa Pinho, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Samuel Penna Wanner, Danusa Dias Soares, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira
Obesity is associated with an energy imbalance that results from excessive energy intake, low diet quality and a sedentary lifestyle. In this regard, the increased consumption of a high-refined carbohydrate diet (HC) is strongly related to higher adiposity and low-grade inflammation. Aerobic training is a well-known non-pharmacological intervention to treat obesity and metabolic disturbances. However, the mechanisms through which aerobic training ameliorates the low-grade inflammation induced by the HC diet need to be further investigated...
October 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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