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adipocyte tissue

Eric M Desjardins, Gregory R Steinberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is escalating at alarming rates, demanding the development of additional classes of therapeutics to further reduce the burden of disease. Recent studies have indicated that increasing the metabolic activity of brown and beige adipose tissue may represent a novel means to reduce circulating glucose and lipids in people with T2D. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor that has recently been demonstrated to be important in potentially regulating the metabolic activity of brown and beige adipose tissue...
August 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Huiling Xue, Zhe Wang, Yongjie Hua, Shanshan Ke, Yao Wang, Junpeng Zhang, Yi-Hsuan Pan, Wenjie Huang, David M Irwin, Shuyi Zhang
Beige adipocytes can be induced from white adipocytes and precursors upon stimulation by cold temperatures and act like brown adipocytes to increase energy expenditure. Most in vivo studies examining the mechanisms for the induction of beige adipocytes have focused on subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT; benign fat) in the mouse. How intra-abdominal WAT (aWAT; malignant fat) develops into beige adipocytes remains obscure, largely because there is a lack of a good animal model for the induction of beige adipocytes from aWAT...
July 2018: Science Advances
David Bradley, Joey Liu, Alecia Blaszczak, Valerie Wright, Anahita Jalilvand, Bradley Needleman, Sabrena Noria, David Renton, Willa Hsueh
Deiodinase type II (D2), encoded by DIO2 , catalyzes the conversion of T4 to bioactive T3. T3 not only stimulates adaptive thermogenesis but also affects adipose tissue (AT) lipid accumulation, mitochondrial function, inflammation, and potentially systemic metabolism. Although better defined in brown AT, the precise role of DIO2 expression in white AT remains largely unknown, with data derived only from whole fat. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipocyte-specific gene expression of DIO2 differs between obese and lean patients and whether these differences relate to alterations in mitochondrial function, fatty acid flux, inflammatory cytokines/adipokines, and ultimately insulin sensitivity...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Francisco O'Valle, Juan G de Buitrago, Pedro Hernández-Cortés, Miguel Padial-Molina, Vicente Crespo-Lora, Marien Cobo, David Aguilar, Pablo Galindo-Moreno
This study aimed to analyze the expression of Musashi-1 (MSI1) in maxillary native bone and grafted bone after maxillary sinus floor elevation. To do so, fifty-seven bone biopsies from 45 participants were studied. Eighteen samples were collected from native bone while 39 were obtained 6 months after maxillary sinus grafting procedures. Musashi-1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. MSI1 was detected in osteoblasts and osteocytes in 97.4% (38/39) of grafted areas. In native bone, MSI1 was detected in only 66...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Albert Gibert-Ramos, Anna Crescenti, M Josepa Salvadó
The aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of cherry out of its normal harvest photoperiod affects adipose tissue, increasing the risk of obesity. Fischer 344 rats were held over a long day (LD) or a short day (SD), fed a standard diet (STD), and treated with a cherry lyophilizate (CH) or vehicle (VH) ( n = 6). Biometric measurements, serum parameters, gene expression in white (RWAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues, and RWAT histology were analysed. A second experiment with similar conditions was performed ( n = 10) but with a cafeteria diet (CAF)...
August 16, 2018: Nutrients
Kazuyo Ando, Ryo Kunimatsu, Tetsuya Awada, Yuki Yoshimi, Yuji Tsuka, Keisuke Sumi, Kayo Horie, Takaharu Abe, Kengo Nakajima, Kotaro Tanimoto
Amelogenins are enamel matrix proteins that play crucial roles in enamel formation. Previous studies have indicated that amelogenin and amelogenin C-terminal peptide have cell-signaling functions. Recently, adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have received attention as a potential source of stem cells for use in regeneration therapy. In this study, we examined the effects of human full-length amelogenin (rh174) and amelogenin C-terminal peptide (amgCP) on the proliferation of ADSCs. ADSCs were cultured in the presence of amgCP or rh174...
August 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Fang Yuan, Jian Ma, Xinxin Xiang, He Lan, Yanhui Xu, Jing Zhao, Yin Li, Weizhen Zhang
Purpose: Adipose tissue inflammation is the key linking obesity to insulin resistance. Over 50% of the interstitial cells in adipose tissue are macrophages, which produce inflammatory cytokines and therefore play an important role in the progression of insulin resistance. Within this classification view, macrophage biology is driven by two polarization phenotypes, M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory). The unique functional receptor of ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is a classic seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that is linked to multiple intracellular signaling pathways...
2018: BioMed Research International
Tomoya Yamada, Mituru Kamiya, Mikito Higuchi, Naoto Nakanishi
Obesity is associated with the chronic inflammation and senescence of adipose tissues. Macrophage is a key mediator of chronic inflammation that infiltrates obese adipose tissue and stimulates metabolic disorders. However, the fat depot-specific differences of macrophage infiltration and senescence, especially the influence on intramuscular adipose tissue, have remained unclear. We investigated the fat depot-specific differences of macrophage infiltration and senescence in obese bovine adipose tissue from three different anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Young-Sil Lee, Seung-Hyung Kim, Heung Joo Yuk, Geung-Joo Lee, Dong-Seon Kim
Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze, called New Zealand spinach (NZS), is an edible plant used in salad in Western countries and has been used to treat gastrointestinal diseases in traditional medicine. We examined the anti-obesity and anti-hyperuricemic effects of NZS and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a normal-fat diet (NFD); high-fat diet (HFD); HFD with 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg NZS extract; or 245 mg/kg Garcinia cambogia (GC) extract. NZS decreased body weight gain, total white adipose tissue (WAT), liver weight, and size of adipocytes and improved hepatic and plasma lipid profiles...
August 14, 2018: Nutrients
Carly M Knuth, Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Paula M Miotto, Anders Gudiksen, David C Wright
KEY POINTS: Mammals defend against cold-induced reductions in body temperature through both shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. The activation of non-shivering thermogenesis is primarily driven by uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue and to a lesser degree by the browning of white adipose tissue. Endurance exercise has also been shown to increase markers of white adipose tissue browning. This study aimed to determine whether prior exercise training would alter the response to a cold challenge and if this would be associated with differences in indices of non-shivering thermogenesis...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Thaís F Araujo, André V Cordeiro, Diogo A A Vasconcelos, Kaio F Vitzel, Vagner R R Silva
White adipose tissue (WAT) regulates energy homeostasis by releasing adipokines and modulating cell maintenance. Nutrient excess affects adipocyte hypertrophy directly in WAT by increasing excessively the activity of autophagy systems, generating proinflammatory markers and increasing infiltration of macrophages, causing metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Evidences suggest that cathepsin B (CTSB), a papain-like cysteine peptidase protein, can modulate autophagy processes in adipocytes. This review will focus on the role of CTSB in autophagy under conditions of obesity...
August 11, 2018: Life Sciences
Kálmán Bódis, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance occurs in obesity, but also in lipodystrophy. Although adipose tissue controls metabolic fluxes and participates in inter-organ crosstalk, the role of energy metabolism within white adipose tissue for insulin resistance is less clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Medline search identified in vivo studies in humans on energy and lipid metabolism in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies in adipocyte cultures and transgenic animal models were included for the better understanding of the link between abnormal energy metabolism in adipose tissue and insulin resistance...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xin Li, Yuhong Cheng, Xiuli Zhong, Bing Zhang, Zhiwei Bao, Yi Zhang, Zhigang Wang
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with suppressed lipolytic response in adipocytes/adipose tissue, however, the underlying mechanism remains to be extensively studied. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcriptional factor regulating antioxidant generation, has been recently reported to mediate lipid metabolism. Employing both fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and male C57BL/6 mice, in the present study, we investigated the potential involvement of Nrf2 activation in HHcy-mediated lipolytic suppression...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Joshua M Boucher, Michael Robich, S Spencer Scott, Xuehui Yang, Larisa Ryzhova, Jacqueline E Turner, Ilka Pinz, Lucy Liaw
PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds blood vessels and regulates vascular tone through paracrine secretion of cytokines. During conditions promoting cardiometabolic dysfunction, such as obesity, cytokine secretion is altered towards a proinflammatory and proatherogenic profile. Despite the clinical implications for cardiovascular disease, studies addressing the biology of human PVAT remain limited. We are interested in characterizing the resident adipose progenitor cells (APCs) because of their potential role in PVAT expansion during obesity...
August 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Min-Kyung Shin, Bongkun Choi, Eun-Young Kim, Ji-Eun Park, Eui Seung Hwang, Hyang Ju Lee, Min Kyung Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Seong Who Kim, Eun-Ju Chang
Obesity is accompanied by chronic systemic inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration of obese tissues, an elevated plasma level of inflammatory substances, and excessive accumulation of lipids. The pro-inflammatory factor pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is also elevated in obese tissues, suggesting its potential role in adipogenesis. We found by analyzing murine preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells, and human adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells, which locally elevated PTX3 in obese adipose tissue augments adipocyte differentiation and subsequent lipid accumulation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gabriela Vazquez Rodriguez, Annelie Abrahamsson, Lasse Dahl Ejby Jensen, Charlotta Dabrosin
Fat is a major tissue component in human breast cancer (BC). Whether breast adipocytes (BAd) affect early stages of BC metastasis is yet unknown. BC progression is dependent on angiogenesis and inflammation, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key regulators of these events. Here, we show that BAd increased the dissemination of estrogen receptor positive BC cells (BCC) in vivo in the zebrafish model of metastasis, while dissemination of the more aggressive and metastatic BCC such as estrogen receptor negative was unaffected...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Simon Lecoutre, Paul Petrus, Mikael Rydén, Christophe Breton
An adverse nutritional environment during the perinatal period increases the risk of adult-onset metabolic diseases, such as obesity, which may persist across generations. Adipose tissue (AT) from offspring of malnourished dams has been shown to display altered adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and adipokine expression, impaired thermogenesis, and low-grade inflammation. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these alterations remain unclear, epigenetic processes are believed to have an important role. In this review, we focus on epigenetic mechanisms in AT that may account for transgenerational dysregulation of adipocyte formation and adipose function...
August 10, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Caiyun Ma, Yu Guo, Hebao Wen, Yanjie Zheng, Leiqi Tan, Xiangchen Li, Chunjing Wang, Weijun Guan, Changqing Liu
Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) play a crucial role in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue repair for its own unique features. However, up to date, the isolation and characterizations of multidifferentiation potentials of goose ADSCs are still uncertain. In this study, we successfully isolated ADSCs from goose inguinal groove in vitro for the first time and also attempted to unravel its fundamental differentiation potentials and genetic characteristics. The results showed that isolated ADSCs exhibited a typical fibroblast-like morphology and high proliferative potential, could be passaged for at least 40 passages and maintained high hereditary stability with more than 92...
August 13, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Jingyi Chi, Audrey Crane, Zhuhao Wu, Paul Cohen
Adipose tissue plays a central role in energy homeostasis and thermoregulation. It is composed of different types of adipocytes, as well as adipocyte precursors, immune cells, fibroblasts, blood vessels, and nerve projections. Although the molecular control of cell type specification and how these cells interact have been increasingly delineated, a more comprehensive understanding of these adipose-resident cells can be achieved by visualizing their distribution and architecture throughout the whole tissue. Existing immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence approaches to analyze adipose histology rely on thin paraffin-embedded sections...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Daorong Feng, Dulguun Amgalan, Rajat Singh, Jianwen Wei, Jennifer Wen, Tszki Peter Wei, Timothy E McGraw, Richard N Kitsis, Jeffrey E Pessin
The t-SNARE protein SNAP23 conventionally functions as a component of the cellular machinery required for intracellular transport vesicle fusion with target membranes and has been implicated in the regulation of fasting glucose levels, BMI, and type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, we observed that adipocyte-specific KO of SNAP23 in mice resulted in a temporal development of severe generalized lipodystrophy associated with adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, liver steatosis, and early death...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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