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metabolomics AND obesity

Shigeki Nishitani, Atsunori Fukuhara, Yasutaka Jinno, Hiroyuki Kawano, Takashi Yano, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro Shimomura
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid with anti-inflammatory effects. To determine the effects of EPA on metabolic pathways in obese adipose tissues and liver, mice were fed normal chow diet (NCD), high-fat diet (HFD), or 3% EPA-containing high fat diet (HFD+EPA) for 8 weeks. Metabolomic analysis was performed using epididymal adipose tissues (epi WAT) and liver. Metabolites that were specifically elevated in HFD+EPA, were assessed for their anti-inflammatory properties using RAW264.7 macrophage cells...
December 10, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Reem T Attia, Yousra Abdel-Mottaleb, Dalaal M Abdallah, Hanan S El-Abhar, Nabila N El-Maraghy
AIM: Obesity is a continually growing pandemic leading to many diseases that affect the overall quality of life. The widely marketed Garcinia cambogia (GC) and Raspberry ketone (RK) were used in this study. Despite their known dietetic effect, however, the metabolomic/signaling pathways involved in this effect are not fully elucidated. Hence, our study comprehends the possible trajectories of their combination against obesity and insulin resistance in addition to exploring their combination merit...
December 6, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Genevieve M Forster, Jonathan Stockman, Noelle Noyes, Adam L Heuberger, Corey D Broeckling, Collin M Bantle, Elizabeth P Ryan
The aim of this study was to compare fecal microbiome, plasma, fecal and urine metabolomes, and serum biochemistry of adult companion dogs according to body condition scores. Blood, serum/plasma, urine, and fecal samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy, adult companion dogs of either normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), or obese dogs (OB). analyses included fecal microbiome analyses via 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon; sequencing, nontargeted plasma, fecal, and urine metabolomics using liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass; spectrometry, and serum biochemistry for each dog...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Thomas J Jönsson, Hans-Ludwig Schäfer, Andreas W Herling, Mark Brönstrup
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease associated with alterations in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. In order to characterize the biochemical phenotype of the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, the most common animal model for the study of T2D, and the impact of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone, a global, mass spectrometry-based analysis of the metabolome was conducted. Overall, 420 metabolites in serum, 443 in the liver and 603 in the intestine were identified at study end. In comparison to two control groups, obese diabetic ZDF rats showed characteristic metabolic signatures that included hyperglycemia, elevated β-oxidation, dyslipidemia-featured by an increase in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and a decrease of medium chain and of polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum-and decreased amino acid levels, consistent with their utilization in hepatic gluconeogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Paulina Samczuk, Hady Razak Hady, Edyta Adamska-Patruno, Anna Citko, Jacek Dadan, Coral Barbas, Adam Kretowski, Michal Ciborowski
Different kinds of gastrointestinal tract modulations known as "bariatric surgery" are actually the most effective treatment for obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The potential causes of those effects have yet to be explained. In our study, we focused on molecular changes evoked by laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy leading to T2DM remission. Two complementary metabolomics techniques, namely, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were used to study those effects in a group of 20 obese patients with T2DM selected from a cohort of 372 obese individuals who underwent bariatric surgery and did not receive anti-diabetic treatment afterward...
November 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roel Tans, Lars Verschuren, Hans J C T Wessels, Stephan J L Bakker, Cees J Tack, Jolein Gloerich, Alain J van Gool
The onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is strongly associated with obesity and subsequent perturbations in immuno-metabolic responses. To understand the complexity of these systemic changes and better monitor the health status of people at risk, validated clinical biomarkers are needed. Omics technologies are increasingly applied to measure the interplay of genes, proteins and metabolites in biological systems, which is imperative in understanding molecular mechanisms of disease and selecting the best possible molecular biomarkers for clinical use...
November 23, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Ina Maltais-Payette, Marie-Michèle Boulet, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, André Tchernof
Background: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area is a strong predictor of obesity-related cardiometabolic alterations, but its measurement is costly, time consuming and, in some cases, involves radiation exposure. Glutamate, a by-product of branched-chain-amino-acid (BCAA) catabolism, has been shown to be increased in visceral obese individuals. In this follow-up data analysis, we aimed to investigate the ability of plasma glutamate to identify individuals with visceral obesity and concomitant metabolic alterations...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Kiran Javed, Qi Cheng, Adam J Carroll, Thy T Truong, Stefan Bröer
Recent studies have established that dietary protein restriction improves metabolic health and glucose homeostasis. SLC6A19 (B⁰AT1) is the major neutral amino acid transporter in the intestine and carries out the bulk of amino acid absorption from the diet. Mice lacking SLC6A19 show signs of protein restriction, have improved glucose tolerance, and are protected from diet-induced obesity. Pharmacological blockage of this transporter could be used to induce protein restriction and to treat metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes...
November 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dustin D Heeney, Zhengyuan Zhai, Zach Bendiks, Javad Barouei, Alice Martinic, Carolyn Slupsky, Maria L Marco
We investigated the Lactobacillus plantarum bacteriocin plantaricin EF (PlnEF) system for its contributions to L. plantarum mediated benefits in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were administered a rifampicin resistant mutant of L. plantarum NCMIB8826 (NICMB8826-R) or an isogenic ΔplnEFI mutant strain, LM0419, every 48 h for nine weeks. Mice fed wild-type L. plantarum, but not LM0419, reduced their consumption of the HFD starting three weeks into the study and exhibited an overall 10% reduction in weight gain...
November 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
Amanda P Pedroso, Ana P S Dornellas, Adriana P de Souza, Josias F Pagotto, Lila M Oyama, Cláudia M O Nascimento, Jelena Klawitter, Uwe Christians, Alexandre K Tashima, Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro
PURPOSE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been shown to induce the programming of metabolic disturbances and obesity, associated with hypothalamic derangements. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of IUGR on the protein and metabolite profiles of the hypothalamus of adult female rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were mated and either had ad libitum access to food (control group) or received only 50% of the control intake (restricted group) during the whole pregnancy...
November 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Lulu Sun, Cen Xie, Guang Wang, Yue Wu, Qing Wu, Xuemei Wang, Jia Liu, Yangyang Deng, Jialin Xia, Bo Chen, Songyang Zhang, Chuyu Yun, Guan Lian, Xiujuan Zhang, Heng Zhang, William H Bisson, Jingmin Shi, Xiaoxia Gao, Pupu Ge, Cuihua Liu, Kristopher W Krausz, Robert G Nichols, Jingwei Cai, Bipin Rimal, Andrew D Patterson, Xian Wang, Frank J Gonzalez, Changtao Jiang
The anti-hyperglycemic effect of metformin is believed to be caused by its direct action on signaling processes in hepatocytes, leading to lower hepatic gluconeogenesis. Recently, metformin was reported to alter the gut microbiota community in humans, suggesting that the hyperglycemia-lowering action of the drug could be the result of modulating the population of gut microbiota. However, the critical microbial signaling metabolites and the host targets associated with the metabolic benefits of metformin remained elusive...
November 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
Jan Kučera, Zdeněk Spáčil, David Friedecký, Jan Novák, Matěj Pekař, Julie Bienertová-Vašků
OBJECTIVE: Interest in metabolites produced by adipose tissue has increased substantially in the past several decades. Previously regarded as an inert energy storage depot, adipose tissue is now viewed as a complex metabolically active organ with considerable impact on human health. The emerging field of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics presents a powerful tool for the study of processes in complex biological matrices including adipose tissue. RESULTS: A large number of structurally distinct metabolites can be analyzed to facilitate the investigation of differences between physiological and pathophysiological metabolic profiles associated with adipose tissue...
December 2018: Obesity
Mihai V Curtasu, Knud Erik B Knudsen, Henrik Callesen, Stig Purup, Jan Stagsted, Mette S Hedemann
Miniature-pig models for human metabolic disorders such as obesity and metabolic syndrome are gaining popularity. However, in-depth knowledge on the phenotypic and metabolic effects of metabolic dysregulation is lacking, and ad libitum feeding is not well-characterized in these pig breeds. Therefore, an investigation was performed into the metabolome of Yucatan minipigs fed ad libitum or restricted diets. Furthermore, we used cloned and conventional minipigs to assess if cloning reflects a presumably lowered variation between subjects...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Thomas Sonnweber, Alex Pizzini, Manfred Nairz, Günter Weiss, Ivan Tancevski
Lipid and immune pathways are crucial in the pathophysiology of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Arachidonic acid (AA) and its derivatives link nutrient metabolism to immunity and inflammation, thus holding a key role in the emergence and progression of frequent diseases such as obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. We herein present a synopsis of AA metabolism in human health, tissue homeostasis, and immunity, and explore the role of the AA metabolome in diverse pathophysiological conditions and diseases...
October 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Franca Fabiana Kirchberg, Veit Grote, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Piotr Socha, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo, Joaquin Escribano, Elvira Verduci, Benedetta Mariani, Jean-Paul Langhendries, Pascale Poncelet, Berthold Koletzko, Christian Hellmuth
OBJECTIVES: Fetal and early life represent a period of developmental plasticity during which metabolic pathways are modified by environmental and nutritional cues. Little is known on the pathways underlying this multifactorial complex. We explored whether 6 months old breastfed infants could be clustered into metabolically similar groups and that those metabotypes could be used to predict later obesity risk. METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from 183 breastfed infants aged 6-months participating in the European multicenter Childhood Obesity Project study...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jacob E Friedman
Childhood obesity and its comorbidities continue to accelerate across the globe. Two-thirds of pregnant women are obese/overweight, as are 20% of preschoolers. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is escalating, affecting up to 1 in 5 pregnant women. The field of developmental origins of health and disease has begun to move beyond associations to potential causal mechanisms for developmental programming. Evidence across species compellingly demonstrates that maternal obesity, diabetes, and Western-style diets create a long-lasting signature on multiple systems, including infant stem cells, the early immune system, and gut microbiota...
November 2018: Diabetes
Pagona Panagiota Sfyri, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Anastasia Tzimou, Natasa Giallourou, Vassili Crispi, Ahmed Aburima, Pedro Beltran-Alvarez, Ketan Patel, Vassilis Mougios, Jonathan R Swann, Mark T Kearney, Antonios Matsakas
Obesity leading to hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis is recognised to induce morphological and metabolic changes in many tissues. However, hyperlipidaemia can occur in the absence of obesity. The impact of the latter scenario on skeletal muscle and liver is not understood sufficiently. In this regard, we used the Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- ) mouse model, an established model of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, that does not become obese when subjected to a high-fat diet, to determine the impact of Western-type diet (WD) and ApoE deficiency on skeletal muscle morphological, metabolic and biochemical properties...
October 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Natalia G Vallianou, Theodora Stratigou, Stylianos Tsagarakis
Alterations in the diversity or structure of gut microbiota known as dysbiosis, may affect metabolic activities, resulting in metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. The development of more sophisticated methods, such as metagenomics sequencing, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, microarrays and fluorescence in situ hybridization, has expanded our knowledge on gut microbiome. Dysbiosis has been related to increased plasma concentrations of gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which triggers the production of a variety of cytokines and the recruitment of inflammatory cells...
October 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Christopher M Mulligan, Rachel C Janssen, Peter R Baker, Bryan C Bergman, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Kenneth N Maclean, Hua Jiang, Tyler A Dean, Diana L Takahashi, Paul Kievit, Carrie E McCurdy, Kjersti M Aagaard, Jacob E Friedman
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk begins in utero in offspring of obese mothers. A critical unmet need in this field is to understand the pathways and biomarkers underlying fetal hepatic lipotoxicity and whether maternal dietary intervention during pregnancy is an effective countermeasure. METHODS: We utilized a well-established non-human primate model of chronic, maternal, Western-style diet induced obesity (OB-WSD) compared with mothers on a healthy control diet (CON) or a subset of OB-WSD mothers switched to the CON diet (diet reversal; OB-DR) prior to and for the duration of the next pregnancy...
December 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Tamotsu Kato, Kyoko Yamazaki, Mayuka Nakajima, Yasuhiro Date, Jun Kikuchi, Koji Hase, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
Periodontal disease induced by periodontopathic bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis is demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Although precise mechanisms for this connection have not been elucidated, we have proposed mechanisms by which orally administered periodontopathic bacteria might induce changes in gut microbiota composition, barrier function, and immune system, resulting in an increased risk of diseases characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation...
October 17, 2018: MSphere
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