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metabolomics AND obesity

Pagona Panagiota Sfyri, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Anastasia Tzimou, Natasa Giallourou, Vassili Crispi, Ahmed Aburima, Pedro Beltran-Alvarez, Ketan Patel, Vassilis Mougios, Jonathan R Swann, Mark T Kearney, Antonios Matsakas
Obesity leading to hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis is recognised to induce morphological and metabolic changes in many tissues. However, hyperlipidaemia can occur in the absence of obesity. The impact of the latter scenario on skeletal muscle and liver is not understood sufficiently. In this regard, we used the Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- ) mouse model, an established model of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, that does not become obese when subjected to a high-fat diet, to determine the impact of Western-type diet (WD) and ApoE deficiency on skeletal muscle morphological, metabolic and biochemical properties...
October 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Natalia G Vallianou, Theodora Stratigou, Stylianos Tsagarakis
Alterations in the diversity or structure of gut microbiota known as dysbiosis, may affect metabolic activities, resulting in metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. The development of more sophisticated methods, such as metagenomics sequencing, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, microarrays and fluorescence in situ hybridization, has expanded our knowledge on gut microbiome. Dysbiosis has been related to increased plasma concentrations of gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which triggers the production of a variety of cytokines and the recruitment of inflammatory cells...
October 17, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Stephanie R Wesolowski, Christopher M Mulligan, Rachel C Janssen, Peter R Baker, Bryan C Bergman, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Kenneth N Maclean, Hua Jiang, Tyler A Dean, Diana L Takahashi, Paul Kievit, Carrie E McCurdy, Kjersti M Aagaard, Jacob E Friedman
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk begins in utero in offspring of obese mothers. A critical unmet need in this field is to understand the pathways and biomarkers underlying fetal hepatic lipotoxicity and whether maternal dietary intervention during pregnancy is an effective countermeasure. METHODS: We utilized a well-established non-human primate model of chronic, maternal, Western-style diet induced obesity (OB-WSD) compared with mothers on a healthy control diet (CON) or a subset of OB-WSD mothers switched to the CON diet (diet reversal; OB-DR) prior to and for the duration of the next pregnancy...
September 28, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Tamotsu Kato, Kyoko Yamazaki, Mayuka Nakajima, Yasuhiro Date, Jun Kikuchi, Koji Hase, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
Periodontal disease induced by periodontopathic bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis is demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Although precise mechanisms for this connection have not been elucidated, we have proposed mechanisms by which orally administered periodontopathic bacteria might induce changes in gut microbiota composition, barrier function, and immune system, resulting in an increased risk of diseases characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation...
October 17, 2018: MSphere
Francina R Baldrick, Kevin McFadden, Maria Ibars, Chris Sung, Tanya Moffatt, Kate Megarry, Keith Thomas, Peter Mitchell, Julie M W Wallace, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, Nigel G Ternan, Giulia Corona, Jeremy Spencer, Parveen Yaqoob, Sarah Hotchkiss, Ross Campbell, José Manuel Moreno-Rojas, Francisco Julián Cuevas, Gema Pereira-Caro, Ian Rowland, Chris I R Gill
Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that a diet rich in (poly)phenols has beneficial effects on many chronic diseases. Brown seaweed is a rich source of (poly)phenols. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability and effect of a brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) (poly)phenol extract on DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation in vivo. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in 80 participants aged 30-65 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥25...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Elizabeth T Cirulli, Lining Guo, Christine Leon Swisher, Naisha Shah, Lei Huang, Lori A Napier, Ewen F Kirkness, Tim D Spector, C Thomas Caskey, Bernard Thorens, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
Obesity is a heterogeneous phenotype that is crudely measured by body mass index (BMI). There is a need for a more precise yet portable method of phenotyping and categorizing risk in large numbers of people with obesity to advance clinical care and drug development. Here, we used non-targeted metabolomics and whole-genome sequencing to identify metabolic and genetic signatures of obesity. We find that obesity results in profound perturbation of the metabolome; nearly a third of the assayed metabolites associated with changes in BMI...
October 8, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Mengling Peng, Qianqian He, Shengnan Li, Longlong Li, Haitian Ma
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid [(-)-HCA] is widely used as a nutritional supplement to control body weight and fat accumulation in animals and humans, whereas the underlying biochemical mechanism is unclear. Broiler chicken was used as a model for studies of obesity due to its natural hyperglycemia and being insulin resistant. The current study aimed to obtain a systematic view of serum metabolites and hepatic proteins and well understand the mechanism of hepatic metabolic response to (-)-HCA treatment in chick embryos...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ying Liu, Jing Zheng, Hong Ping Zhang, Xin Zhang, Lei Wang, Lisa Wood, Gang Wang
PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with metabolic dysregulation, but the underlying metabolic signatures involving clinical and inflammatory profiles of obese asthma are largely unexplored. We aimed at identifying the metabolic signatures of obese asthma. METHODS: Eligible subjects with obese (n = 11) and lean (n = 22) asthma underwent body composition and clinical assessment, sputum induction, and blood sampling. Sputum supernatant was assessed for interleukin (IL)-1β, -4, -5, -6, -13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and serum was detected for leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Lei Liu, Ningning Wang, Yanan Ma, Yang Liu, Deliang Wen
Obesity is a severe public health problem worldwide. Our study aims to assess whether a saponin-enriched extract from the leaves of Boussingaultia gracilis (SBG) could attenuate obesity and its related metabolic disorders in mice and to explore the potential mechanism of this effect. Three-week old male mice were fed with a HFD for 7 weeks followed by a 10-week period in which the mice were supplemented with distilled water or SBG (250 mg per kg bodyweight). We demonstrated that SBG supplementation for 10 weeks mitigated obesity and its complications in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice, such as reducing the hepatic damage underlying steatosis, modulating lipid metabolism, enhancing adipocyte thermogenesis, restoring insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and alleviating inflammation status...
October 10, 2018: Food & Function
Kaisa Airaksinen, Jenna Jokkala, Ilmari Ahonen, Seppo Auriola, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Kati Hanhineva, Kirsti Tiihonen
SCOPE: High-fat diets are a likely cause of low-grade inflammation and obesity-related pathologies. This study measured the effects of a high-fat diet, in combination with two dietary supplements-betaine and polydextrose-on metabolism and inflammation in the adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks and compared with low-fat-diet-fed control animals (n = 10). For the last 4 weeks, the high-fat-diet-fed animals were supplemented with 1% betaine, 3...
October 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Hai-Tao Yu, Xiao-Yi Fu, Bin Xu, Li-Li Zuo, Hong-Bo Ma, Shu-Ran Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is linked to metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the metabolic disorders of uncomplicated obesity to identify early alterations in biological systems. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Metabolic differences between overweight/obese (n=36) and normal-weight (n=35) young Chinese men without known metabolic disorders were assessed. Metabolic profiling of the serum and urine was performed using ultra-performance liquidchromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Michael X Chen, San-Yuan Wang, Ching-Hua Kuo, I-Lin Tsai
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is associated with host health conditions. Many diseases have shown to have correlations with imbalanced microbiota, including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and even neurodegeneration disorders. Metabolomics studies targeting small molecule metabolites that impact the host metabolome and their biochemical functions have shown promise for studying host-gut microbiota interactions. Metabolome analysis determines the metabolites being discussed for their biological implications in host-gut microbiota interactions...
September 27, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Gabriela Torres Santiago, José Iván Serrano Contreras, María Estela Meléndez Camargo, L Gerardo Zepeda Vallejo
An untargeted NMR-based metabonomics approach was used to evaluate the effects of pure resveratrol (RSV, 50 and 250 mg/kg per os) on the urinary and faecal metabolome of normal female Wistar rats. Multivariate data analysis on both the endogenous and xenobiotic metabotype of RSV provided an insight into its metabolic fate and influence on endogenous metabolites. The xenobiotic trajectory shows that RSV is highly metabolized within the first 12 h, the period of the most significant variation of endogenous metabolites...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marius Vital, Adina Howe, Nathalie Bergeron, Ronald M Krauss, Janet K Jansson, James M Tiedje
Several studies monitoring alterations of the community structure upon resistant starch (RS) interventions are available, although comprehensive function-based analyses are lacking. Recently, a multiomics approach based on 16S rRNA gene-sequencing, metaproteomics and metabolomics on fecal samples from individuals subjected to high and low doses of type-2 RS (RS2; 48 g and 3 g/2500 kcal, respectively, daily for 2 weeks) in a cross-over intervention experiment was performed. In the present study, we did pathway-based metagenomic analyses on samples from a subset of individuals (n=12) from that study to get additional, detailed insights into the functional structure at high resolution during RS2 intervention...
September 28, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
A Feldman, S K Eder, T K Felder, B Paulweber, S Zandanell, L Stechemesser, M Schranz, G Strebinger, U Huber-Schönauer, D Niederseer, W Patsch, D Weghuber, J Tevini, C Datz, E Aigner
INTRODUCTION: As a small proportion of obese individuals do not develop metabolic complications and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), this study aimed to provide a comprehensive clinical, metabolic and genetic description of obese subjects with healthy livers. METHODS: A total of 183 subjects were stratified, according to BMI, presence of metabolic syndrome, biochemical liver tests and hepatic steatosis on ultrasound, into: (i) lean controls (n = 69); (ii) obese healthy (n = 50); and (iii)obese NAFLD (n = 62) groups...
September 26, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
P Sorrow, R Maguire, S K Murphy, S M Belcher, C Hoyo
BACKGROUND: High-throughput metabolomics has been used cross-sectionally to evaluate differential metabolic profiles associated with human obesity. OBJECTIVES: This study longitudinally assessed the cord blood metabolome to explore if metabolic signatures of obesity at age 3-5 are apparent at birth. METHODS: In a nested case-control design, metabolomics analysis was performed on umbilical cord blood of 25 children who developed obesity by age 3-5 years, compared with 25 sex-matched non-obese children enrolled as part of an ongoing birth cohort...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Jiayan Zhang, Xiang Xiao, Ying Dong, Xinghua Zhou
We have previously reported an aqueous extract of fermented barley with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) has more efficient anti-obesity effect compared with that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To further explore associated effects of LFBE on body weight and body fat distribution, and lipid profiles related metabolic outcomes, serum metabolites were analysed using LC-MS-MS and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Obese and lean groups were clearly discriminated from each other on PLS-DA score plot and major metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned as lipid metabolites (fatty acids), lipid metabolism intermediates (choline, betaine, carnitine and butyryl-carnitine), amino acids and citric acid...
September 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
D Forchelet, S Béguin, T Sajic, N Bararpour, Z Pataky, M Frias, S Grabherr, M Augsburger, Y Liu, M Charnley, J Déglon, R Aebersold, A Thomas, P Renaud
Microsample analysis is highly beneficial in blood-based testing where cutting-edge bioanalytical technologies enable the analysis of volumes down to a few tens of microliters. Despite the availability of analytical methods, the difficulty in obtaining high-quality and standardized microsamples at the point of collection remains a major limitation of the process. Here, we detail and model a blood separation principle which exploits discrete viscosity differences caused by blood particle sedimentation in a laminar flow...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rui Liu, Jing Chou, Shaoying Hou, Xiaowei Liu, Jiaying Yu, Xinshu Zhao, Ying Li, Liyan Liu, Changhao Sun
Untargeted metabolomics studies aim to extract a broad coverage of metabolites from biological samples, which largely depends on the sample preparation protocols used for metabolite extraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive sample pretreatment strategy using two-step liquid-liquid extraction to achieve broader metabolome coverage by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). We compared four protocols: (A) methanol protein precipitation, (B) Ostro 96-well plates, (C) two-step extraction protocol of CHCL3 -MeOH followed by MeOH-H2 O, and (D) two-step extraction protocol of CH2 CL2 -MeOH followed by MeOH-H2 O...
December 4, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Winifred W Yau, Brijesh K Singh, Ronny Lesmana, Jin Zhou, Rohit A Sinha, Kiraely A Wong, Yajun Wu, Boon-Huat Bay, Shigeki Sugii, Lei Sun, Paul M Yen
The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ) activates thermogenesis by uncoupling electron transport from ATP synthesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria. Although T3 can induce thermogenesis by sympathetic innervation, little is known about its cell autonomous effects on BAT mitochondria. We thus examined effects of T3 on mitochondrial activity, autophagy, and metabolism in primary brown adipocytes and BAT and found that T3 increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration as well as autophagic flux, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis...
September 13, 2018: Autophagy
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