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lifestyle AND obesity

Fariba Kolahdooz, Forouz Nader, Maryam Daemi, Se Lim Jang, Nora Johnston, Sangita Sharma
OBJECTIVES: The Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK) is a validated, evidence-based, self-administered tool to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiethnic Canadian adults. Identifying individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes allows early intervention that improves modifiable risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for type 2 diabetes in multiethnic urban youth in Edmonton, Alberta. METHODS: An interviewer-administered questionnaire was developed based on CANRISK variables, such as age, gender, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, medical history of high blood sugar or high blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, physical activity and dietary intake...
October 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Donatella Paoli, Giulia Pecora, Francesco Pallotti, Fabiana Faja, Marianna Pelloni, Andrea Lenzi, Francesco Lombardo
STUDY QUESTION: Is ageing associated with a decline in semen quality and molecular changes to human sperm? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen quality declines with advancing age and characteristic molecular changes take place during the ageing process, including increased sperm DNA damage, altered sperm protamination and altered seminal plasma miRNA profile. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: During ageing, the reproductive system is exposed to physiological changes and potentially damaging factors that may impair testicular function...
December 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
Sophie Michel, Roxana Raab, Theresa Drabsch, Julia Günther, Lynne Stecher, Hans Hauner
Reducing postpartum weight retention is a promising strategy for addressing the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in women. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored whether lifestyle interventions during pregnancy have the potential to reduce weight retention at 4 months postpartum and beyond. A search of five electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of weight-related lifestyle interventions beginning in pregnancy on postpartum weight retention to standard prenatal care groups was performed...
December 12, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Soulmaz Shorakae, Eveline Jona, Barbora de Courten, Gavin W Lambert, Elisabeth A Lambert, Sarah E Phillips, Iain J Clarke, Helena J Teede, Belinda A Henry
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased obesity with a greater propensity to weight gain and a lack of sustainable lifestyle interventions. Altered brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is a potential contributor to obesity in PCOS. BAT activity and modulation has not been studied in PCOS. This observational study explored BAT thermogenesis and its associations in women with and without PCOS. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Cutaneous temperature was recorded from supraclavicular (indicator of BAT activity) and upper arm regions using Dataloggers (SubCue, Calgary, Canada) in a cross sectional sub-study, nested within a randomized control trial, of community recruited pre-menopausal women with (n=47, Rotterdam diagnostic criteria) and without (n=11) PCOS...
December 12, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
S Moossavi, F Bishehsari
The rapid decrease in infectious diseases globally has coincided with an increase in the prevalence of obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is a common feature of metabolic syndrome and can be influenced by genetic and non-genetic/environmental factors. The emergence of metabolic syndrome epidemics over only a few decades suggests a more prominent role of the latter. Changes in our environment and lifestyle have indeed paralleled the rise in metabolic syndrome. Gastrointestinal tract microbiota, the composition of which plays a significant role in host physiology, including metabolism and energy homeostasis, are distinctly different within the context of metabolic syndrome...
December 11, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mark S Nash, James L J Bilzon
Purpose of Review: Persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) commonly experience individual risks and coalesced health hazards of the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). This review will examinethe role of exercise and nutritional intervention as countermeasures to these disease risks. Recent Findings: The CMS hazards of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with physical deconditioning and are common after SCI...
2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Elin Salemonsen, Britt Sætre Hansen, Georg Førland, Anne Lise Holm
Background: Overweight and obesity are complex conditions, associated with a wide range of serious health issues. In contemporary society, body size is an important part of a person's self-representation. Lifestyle changes are difficult and long-term weight management is associated with a high risk of failure. In primary health care in Norway, lifestyle interventions are offered by Healthy Life Centres (HLCs) to those seeking help with weight management. The aim of this study was to explore HLC participants' experiences of living with overweight or obesity and perceptions of seeking help to change dietary and activity habits...
2018: BMC Obesity
Shelby Sullivan, James Swain, George Woodman, Steven Edmundowicz, Tarek Hassanein, Vafa Shayani, John C Fang, Mark Noar, George Eid, Wayne J English, Nabil Tariq, Michael Larsen, Sreenivasa S Jonnalagadda, Dennis S Riff, Jaime Ponce, Dayna Early, Eric Volckmann, Anna R Ibele, Matthew D Spann, Kumar Krishnan, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Aurora Pryor
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a significant health problem and additional therapies are needed to improve obesity treatment. OBJECTIVE: Determine the efficacy and safety of a 6-month swallowable gas-filled intragastric balloon system for weight loss. SETTING: Fifteen academic and private practice centers in the United States. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized sham-controlled trial of the swallowable gas-filled intragastric balloon system plus lifestyle therapy compared with lifestyle therapy alone for weight loss at 6 months in participants aged 22 to 60 years with body mass index 30 to 40 kg/m2 , across 15 sites in the United States...
December 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Noraidatulakma Abdullah, Nor Azian Abdul Murad, John Attia, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mohd Arman Kamaruddin, Nazihah Abd Jalal, Norliza Ismail, Rahman Jamal, Rodney J Scott, Elizabeth G Holliday
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is escalating rapidly in Asian countries, with the rapid increase likely attributable to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Recent research suggests that common genetic risk variants contribute minimally to the rapidly rising prevalence. Rather, recent changes in dietary patterns and physical activity may be more important. This nested case-control study assessed the association and predictive utility of type 2 diabetes lifestyle risk factors in participants from Malaysia, an understudied Asian population with comparatively high disease prevalence...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tessa M Van Elten, Mireille N M Van Poppel, Reinoud J B J Gemke, Henk Groen, Annemieke Hoek, Ben W Mol, Tessa J Roseboom
The degree to which individuals change their lifestyle in response to interventions differs and this variation could affect cardiometabolic health. We examined if changes in dietary intake, physical activity and weight of obese infertile women during the first six months of the LIFEstyle trial were associated with cardiometabolic health 3⁻8 years later ( N = 50⁻78). Lifestyle was assessed using questionnaires and weight was measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months after randomization. BMI, blood pressure, body composition, pulse wave velocity, glycemic parameters and lipid profile were assessed 3⁻8 years after randomization...
December 10, 2018: Nutrients
Stephan Lüders, Bastian Schrader, Jörg Bäsecke, Hermann Haller, Albrecht Elsässer, Michael Koziolek, Joachim Schrader
BACKGROUND:  For the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) there are numerous recommendations of professional societies, which relate to the personal way of life of individuals (for example nutrition/diet, physical activity, stress reduction etc.). The implementation of these recommendations is so far poor. In the ELITE study, data on RF, nutritional behavior, physical activity and quality of life in the Oldenburger Münsterland region are to be collected prospectively and improved by individual information...
December 13, 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Debora Matossian
The prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension in children and adolescents has increased over the past decade. This trend is most likely related to increases in primary hypertension associated with increasing obesity rates in children. Lifestyle as well as genetics play a significant role in the development of primary hypertension. Hypertension in children and adolescents is under-recognized and undertreated. The 2017 Revised Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents aimed to create new normative blood pressure tables using data from healthy weight children, meaning between the 5th and 85th percentile per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
December 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Sean D Connolly, Kendra M Ward
Lifestyle changes such as exercise and dietary change are recommended first-line therapy for children with dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Although most clinicians recommend exercise, specific exercise prescriptions are not usually provided. The optimal type, duration, and intensity of activity to achieve a meaningful outcome is not definitively defined. As the pediatric population becomes more sedentary and morbidity accumulates from this lifestyle, understanding how targeted exercise prescriptions can benefit patients will be critical to effectively manage this group of patients...
December 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Claudia K Fox, Aaron S Kelly
There is a gap in treatment modalities for pediatric patients with obesity for whom lifestyle modification therapy, on the one hand, may be insufficient to meaningfully reduce BMI, and bariatric surgery, which on the other hand, may not be indicated, available or desired. Although pharmacotherapy may help fill this treatment void, there is a paucity of FDA-approved medications indicated for pediatric obesity and further, most are single agents with only modest mean treatment effects. In contrast, combination pharmacotherapy, such as phentermine/topiramate, appears to offer greater weight loss efficacy in adults and may prove to be superior to monotherapy for pediatric patients as well...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Francis Houde, Sarah Laroche, Veronique Thivierge, Marylie Martel, Marie-Philippe Harvey, Frederique Daigle, Ailin Olivares-Marchant, Louis-David Beaulieu, Guillaume Leonard
Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to evaluate cortical function and corticospinal pathway in normal and pathological aging. Yet, the metrologic properties of TMS-related measurements is still limited in the aging population. Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to document the reliability and smallest detectable change of TMS measurements among community-dwelling seniors. A secondary objective was to test if TMS measurements differ between elders based on lifestyle, medical and socio-demographic factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Nithya Sukumar, Helen Dallosso, Ponnusamy Saravanan, Tom Yates, Carol Telling, Karen Shorthose, Alison Northern, Sally Schreder, Christopher Brough, Laura J Gray, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti
BACKGROUND: A diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with an over sevenfold increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), while among parous women with T2D, up to 30% have a history of GDM. Lifestyle interventions have been shown to reduce the risk of incident T2D in adults with impaired glucose tolerance, including in women with a history of GDM. The aim of this study is to establish whether a group self-management education programme, supported by a mobile web application, can improve levels of physical activity at 12 months in women who have had GDM...
December 12, 2018: Trials
Hubert Kolb, Michael Stumvoll, Werner Kramer, Kerstin Kempf, Stephan Martin
Lifestyle factors conferring increased diabetes risk are associated with elevated basal insulin levels (hyperinsulinaemia). The latter predicts later obesity in children and adolescents.A causal role of hyperinsulinaemia for adipose tissue growth is probable because pharmacological reduction of insulin secretion lowers body weight in people who are obese. Genetic inactivation of insulin gene alleles in mice also lowers their systemic insulin levels and prevents or ameliorates high-fat diet-induced obesity. Hyperinsulinaemia causes weight gain because of a physiological property of insulin...
December 13, 2018: BMC Medicine
Naif S Al-Barha, Khalid S Aljaloud
There are few studies investigating the role of Ramadan fasting on body composition and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome, especially in hot environments. The main aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition and the characteristics of metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy men. In a randomized design, 44 college students aged 27.6 ± 5.8 years were selected to participate in the present study. Lifestyle was assessed by a developed questionnaire, body composition was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and blood parameters were evaluated by taking a vein blood sample (10 ml) after fasting 10 hr...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Stefan Z Lutz, Anita M Hennige, Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Charisis Totsikas, Jürgen Machann, Stefan M Kröber, Bianca Sperl, Erwin Schleicher, Fritz Schick, Martin Heni, Axel Ullrich, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
Context: The effect of a lifestyle intervention to reduce liver fat content in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans is influenced by genetics. We hypothesized that the functionally active amino acid exchange in humans Gly388Arg (mouse homologue: Gly385Arg) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), which regulates bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism, may determine the dynamics of hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in humans. Mechanisms of this substitution were studied in mice under normal chow and high-fat diet...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jai Chand Patel, Pankaj Khurana, Yogendra Kumar Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Sugadev Ragumani
Seasonal and human physiological changes are important factors in the development of many diseases. But, the study of genuine seasonal impact on these diseases is difficult to measure due to many other environment and lifestyle factors which directly affect these diseases. However, several clinical studies have been conducted in different parts of the world, and it has clearly indicated that certain groups of population are highly subjected to seasonal changes, and their maladaptation can possibly lead to several disorders/diseases...
2018: PloS One
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