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lifestyle AND obesity

Donald A Williamson
Prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is important to reduce suffering and health care costs. A precursor to T2D is impaired glucose regulation (IGR), a condition of elevated plasma glucose that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Prevention of T2D is determined by preservation of pancreatic β cell function which can be achieved by the use of anti-hyperglycemic medications or intensive lifestyle interventions (ILIs) to modify dietary and physical activity habits that induce modest weight loss (≥5%)...
October 12, 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
M Roman, A Monaghan, G F Serraino, D Miller, S Pathak, F Lai, F Zaccardi, A Ghanchi, K Khunti, M J Davies, G J Murphy
BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate whether preoperative weight loss results in improved clinical outcomes in surgical patients with clinically significant obesity. METHODS: This was a systematic review and aggregate data meta-analysis of RCTs and cohort studies. PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL Plus databases were searched from inception to February 2018. Eligibility criteria were: studies assessing the effect of weight loss interventions (low-energy diets with or without an exercise component) on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing any surgical procedure...
October 17, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Su Yon Jung, Nick Mancuso, Herbert Yu, Jeanette Papp, Eric M Sobel, Zuo-Feng Zhang
Insulin-resistance (IR)-related genetic variants are possibly associated with breast cancer, and the gene-phenotype-cancer association could be modified by lifestyle factors including obesity, physical inactivity, and high-fat diet. Using data from postmenopausal women, a population highly susceptible to obesity, IR, and increased risk of breast cancer, we implemented a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2 steps: 1) GWAS meta-analysis of gene-environmental (i.e., behavioral) interaction (G*E) for IR phenotypes (hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance); and 2) after the G*E GWAS meta-analysis, the identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for their associations with breast cancer risk in overall or subgroup population, where the SNPs were identified at genome-wide significance...
October 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Daniel König, Jenny Hörmann, Hans-Georg Predel, Aloys Berg
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effects of a 12-month interdisciplinary standardized lifestyle program addressing physical activity and changes in dietary and lifestyle behavior in 2,227 obese prediabetic participants. METHODS: Measures of obesity (BMI, waist circumference), cardiopulmonary fitness, and metabolic parameters were determined before and after the intervention period. RESULTS: From the 2,227 participants who were initially prediabetic, 839 participants (-37...
October 17, 2018: Obesity Facts
Hollie A Raynor, J Graham Thomas, Chelsi C Cardoso, Alexis C Wojtanowski, Gary D Foster
Maintaining dietary self-monitoring during obesity treatment may improve outcomes. As dietary variety is associated with energy intake, understanding the pattern of when new foods and beverages are consumed may assist with identifying when self-monitoring should occur. This study examined dietary variety (total number of differing foods and beverages consumed) from the first 40 days of self-monitoring records reporting ≥ 3 eating occasions and >600 kcal/day from 60 adults (55.9 ± 9.1 yrs, 35...
October 13, 2018: Appetite
David P Fisher, Eric Johnson, Sebastien Haneuse, David Arterburn, Karen J Coleman, Patrick J O'Connor, Rebecca O'Brien, Andy Bogart, Mary Kay Theis, Jane Anau, Emily B Schroeder, Stephen Sidney
Importance: Macrovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes, and medical management, including lifestyle changes, may not be successful at lowering risk. Objective: To investigate the relationship between bariatric surgery and incident macrovascular (coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular diseases) events in patients with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective, matched cohort study, patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥35) aged 19 to 79 years with diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2011 in 4 integrated health systems in the United States (n = 5301) were matched to 14 934 control patients on site, age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, observed diabetes duration, and prior health care utilization, with follow-up through September 2015...
October 16, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Po-Hong Liu, Kana Wu, Kimmie Ng, Ann G Zauber, Long H Nguyen, Mingyang Song, Xiaosheng He, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Yin Cao
Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset CRC) are increasing. The reasons for such increases are largely unknown, although the increasing prevalence of obesity may be partially responsible. Objective: To investigate prospectively the association between obesity and weight gain since early adulthood with the risk of early-onset CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective, ongoing cohort study of US female nurses aged 25 to 42 years at study enrollment (1989)...
October 11, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Tara Rendo-Urteaga, Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes, Francisco Leonardo Torres-Leal, Yannis Manios, Frederic Gottand, Michael Sjöström, Anthony Kafatos, Kurt Widhalm, Stefaan De Henauw, Dénes Molnár, Ascensión Marcos, Marcela González-Gross, Marika Ferrari, Heráclito B Carvalho, Luis A Moreno
Background Adolescents having early puberty (EP) are more likely to have obesity and increased cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis risk. We aimed to assess the indirect and mediated effects of leptin and adiposity on the relation between EP and cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in European adolescents. Methods A sample of 511 adolescents with EP (12.5-17.5 years) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study was studied. To assess whether leptin levels and adiposity mediate the relation between EP and several biomarkers, linear regression models for mediation analyses were performed...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Hanna Xu, Michael C Verre
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents has increased worldwide over the past three decades. This increase has coincided with the obesity epidemic, and minority groups are disproportionately affected. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for type 2 diabetes beginning at 10 years of age or the onset of puberty in children who are overweight or obese and have two additional risk factors. Diagnostic criteria include a fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg per dL or greater, a two-hour plasma glucose level of 200 mg per dL or greater during an oral glucose tolerance test, an A1C level of 6...
November 1, 2018: American Family Physician
Effimia V Grigoriou, George Trovas, Nikolaos Papaioannou, Polyzois Makras, Panagiotis Kokkoris, Ismene Dontas, Konstantinos Makris, Symeon Tournis, George V Dedoussis
Vitamin D deficiency and quantitative ultrasound measurements are associated with bone fragility. We assessed these parameters and their correlates. 87.7% of the population has vitamin D inadequacy and this correlated with lifestyle factors. These results contribute to epidemiological data needed for population guidelines for bone health. PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters are among the most important clinical risk factors of bone fragility. Few data are available for Greek population...
October 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Soo Jin Lee, Ho Kyung Ryu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Urbanization and lifestyle changes have resulted in nutrition transition. Over-nutrition causes obesity increase, although malnutrition still exists. This phenomenon is called a double burden of malnutrition (DBM). This study was conducted to confirm the existence of DBM and to investigate the dietary factors related to DBM in Indonesian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data for the subjects (51 men and 89 women) who are the adults resided in Malang, Indonesia were collected between July 17 and August 14, 2017, by using questionnaire...
October 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Erik Beune, Pythia Nieuwkerk, Karien Stronks, Karlijn Meeks, Matthias B Schulze, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Ina Danquah, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Peter Agyei-Baffour, Joachim Spranger, Juliet Addo, Liam Smeeth, Charles Agyemang
Large differences in blood pressure (BP) control rates have been observed between sub-Saharan African migrant populations in Europe compared to their counterparts living in Africa. Our main objective was to investigate whether inter-geographical differences in BP control rates can be explained by differences in medication non-adherence. Additionally, we studied the prevalence of medication non-adherence and associations between medication non-adherence, socio-demographic-related, clinical/treatment-related, lifestyle factors, and experienced stress on the one hand and BP control on the other hand...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Konstantinos D Tambalis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Glyceria Psarra, Labros S Sidossis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of fast-food consumption and the association between fast food and lifestyle factors in a representative sample of children and adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. Fast-food consumption and dietary habits were evaluated using questionnaires (KIDMED index). Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were obtained by trained investigators. Physical activity (PA) status, sedentary activities and sleeping habits were assessed through self-completed questionnaires...
October 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Ana Ojeda-Rodríguez, Itziar Zazpe, Lydia Morell-Azanza, María J Chueca, Maria Cristina Azcona-Sanjulian, Amelia Marti
High rates of childhood obesity require integral treatment with lifestyle modifications that achieve weight loss. We evaluated a lifestyle intervention on nutrient adequacy and diet quality in children and adolescents with abdominal obesity. A randomized controlled trial was performed on 107 participants, assigned either to a usual care group or to an intensive care group that followed a moderate hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and received nutritional education. Intake adequacy was evaluated using Dietary Reference Intakes and diet quality through the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A), the Healthy Lifestyle Diet-Index (HLD-I) and the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED)...
October 13, 2018: Nutrients
Susana Cardoso, Paula I Moreira
The last decades have been marked by an increased prevalence in non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as by population aging and age-related (brain) diseases. The current notion that the brain and the body are interrelated units is gaining the attention of the scientific and medical community. Growing evidence demonstrates that there is a significant overlap in risk, comorbidity, and pathophysiological mechanisms across obesity, T2D and brain disturbances; settings that seem to be worsened when both obesity and T2D occur simultaneously, the so-called diabesity...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Konstantinos D Tambalis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Glykeria Psarra, Labros S Sidossis
The study examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness levels and lifestyle factors, in a representative sample of Greek schoolchildren. A health survey carried out in 2015 on 177 091 participants aged 8 to 17 years old. Dietary habits, sleeping hours, physical activity (PA), and sedentary activities were assessed through self-completed questionnaires. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was evaluated with the20m shuttle run test. Insufficient dietary habits were greater in boys and girls classified with low CRF than their peers with healthy CRF...
October 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Andrew K G Tan, Steven T Yen, Xiangming Fang, Fu-Sung Chiang
Background: This study examined the factors associated with body mass index (BMI) categories of Malaysian adolescents by physical activity (PA) status. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey. Generalized ordered logit regression analysis was conducted on 24 339 adolescents by PA status. Results: Early- (ages 11-13) and middle-stage (ages 14-16) adolescents were associated with higher overweight and obesity risks than their older peers (ages 17-18)...
October 15, 2018: International Health
Nathalie J Farpour-Lambert, Louisa J Ells, Begoña Martinez de Tejada, Courtney Scott
Background: Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and post-partum weight retention (PPWR) constitute new public health challenges, due to the association with negative short- and long-term maternal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this evidence review was to identify effective lifestyle interventions to manage weight and improve maternal and infant outcomes during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: A review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions on GWG or PPWR was conducted (Jan 2009-2018) via electronic searches in the databases Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library using all keywords related to obesity/weight gain/loss, pregnancy or postpartum and lifestyle interventions;15 relevant reviews were selected...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jitendra K Meena, Rajesh Kumar, G S Meena
Introduction: At the time of selection, police personnel undergo various health and fitness tests but subsequently health assessments are not done regularly. Unhealthy lifestyle and challenging work environment predispose them to various somatic sequelae, including cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and psychological disorders, etc., There is limited epidemiological data on the morbidity profile among police personnel in India. Aim: To study the morbidity profile and the treatment-seeking behavior among police personnel in National Capital Region (NCR), India...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
S Toselli, E Gualdi-Russo, F Campa
BACKGROUND: The present study compared the prevalence of obesity, fat distribution, body image perception and lifestyle among diabetic African and Albanian immigrants living in Italy, as well as diabetic Italians, aiming to identify health risks and their possible causes. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 200 diabetic subjects living in Italy. A questionnaire regarding socio-demographic and lifestyle information was administered to participants, and anthropometric measurements and body image perception were assessed...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
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