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Blood components

Jessalyn M Hadfield, Elizabeth C Bowdridge, Ida Holásková, Ted H Elsasser, Robert A Dailey
Innate immune response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge varies among sheep breeds. How different breeds respond to bacterial infections impacts management practices of sheep producers. Hence, clinical response, acute-phase response, and gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) were examined after an LPS challenge in Dorset and Suffolk ewes. Ewes received either PBS or 2.5 µg/kg LPS (i.v.) 4 to 5 d after onset of synchronized estrus. Blood was collected via jugular venipuncture intermittently for 24 h to determine WBC counts...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Caleb O Lemley, Caitlin G Hart, Racheal L Lemire, E Heath King, Richard M Hopper, Seong B Park, Brian J Rude, Derris D Burnett
The objective was to examine uterine artery blood flow (UBF) as well as macroscopic and microscopic placentome vascular density in nutrient restricted Angus and Brahman heifers. Angus (n = 6) and Brahman (n = 6) heifers were bred to a single sire and pregnancy confirmed at 30 days post-breeding. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments consisting of 100% (control fed; CON; n = 6) or 60% (total nutrient restricted; RES; n = 6) based from net energy requirements for gestating heifers. Nutritional treatments were imposed from day 50 to 180 of gestation...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Wu Song, Lin Wei, Yanwei Du, Yimei Wang, Shuang Jiang
Though the antidiabetic effect of ginsenoside compound K (CK) has been well studied, the effect of CK on diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not clear. Whether CK would have a protective effect against DN and it could exert the protective effect by inhibiting the oxidative stress, NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB/p38 signaling pathway were investigated in this study. Here, the HFD (high fat diet)/STZ (streptozotocin)-induced DN mice model was established to assess the CK effect in vivo. Parallel experiments uncovering the molecular mechanism by which CK prevents from DN was performed in rat glomerular mesangial cell line HBZY-1 exposed to high glucose...
August 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Ching-Yang Wu, Chia-Hui Cheng, Jui-Ying Fu, Yen Chu, Ching-Feng Wu, Chien-Hung Chiu, Po-Jen Ko, Yun-Hen Liu
BACKGROUND: An intravenous port, which differs from a central venous catheter, has an injection chamber at the end of the catheter. This structural difference causes the irrigation flow pattern to be quite different from that of the central venous catheter. Furthermore, the intraluminal volume differs due to the size of the injection chamber and implanted catheter length. Hence, the ideal recommended irrigation volume varies because of differences in intraluminal volume, however, the recommended irrigation volume is 10 ml and may be a cause for reported port malfunctions...
2018: PloS One
Eisuke Sakakibara, Ryu Takizawa, Yuki Kawakubo, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Toshiaki Kono, Kasumi Hamada, Shiho Okuhata, Satoshi Eguchi, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Kiyoto Kasai
OBJECTIVE: The genetic and environmental influences on prefrontal function in childhood are underinvestigated due to the difficulty of measuring prefrontal function in young subjects, for which near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a suitable functional neuroimaging technique that facilitates the easy and noninvasive measurement of blood oxygenation in the superficial cerebral cortices. METHOD: Using a two-channel NIRS arrangement, we measured changes in bilateral prefrontal blood oxygenation during a category version of the verbal fluency task (VFT) in 27 monozygotic twin pairs and 12 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs ages 5-17 years...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Marina Arenas-Padilla, Jorge Luis Duarte-Gutiérrez, Verónica Mata-Haro
AIM: To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in interleukin-10 (IL-10) production induced by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 (Bb12) in swine immune cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood-monocytes and cells from mesenteric lymph nodes were obtained from pigs and cultured with live Bb12 for 4 and 12 h. Transcript levels of IL-10 and TLR2 were analyzed. Furthermore, TLR2 was blocked to determine its participation in IL-10 production. TLR2 blockade was achieved with neutralizing antibodies, followed by stimulation with Bb12...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jiarong Gao, Liangbing Wei, Junmei Song, Hui Jiang, Yachen Gao, Xi Wu, Shuangzhi Xu
Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is the most common form of glomerular disease; however, its associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a key mediator of B‑receptor signaling on the surface of inflammatory cells. The primary target for R406 is Syk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in a rat model of CGN induced by adriamycin (ADR) and in the rat glomerular mesangial cell line, HBZY‑1, stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Manal Elzoheiry, Akram A Da'dara, Rita Bhardwaj, Qiang Wang, Manar S Azab, El-Saeed I El-Kholy, Samar N El-Beshbishi, Patrick J Skelly
Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect the vasculature of >200 million people around the world. These long-lived parasites do not appear to provoke blood clot formation or obvious inflammation around them in vivo . Proteins expressed at the host-parasite interface (such as Schistosoma mansoni alkaline phosphatase, SmAP) are likely key to these abilities. SmAP is a glycoprotein that hydrolyses the artificial substrate p -nitrophenyl phosphate in a reaction that requires Mg2+ and at an optimal pH of 9...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sohaib Haseeb, Bryce Alexander, Ricardo Lopez Santi, Alvaro Sosa Liprandi, Adrian Baranchuk
Alcoholic beverages, specifically wine, have been consumed for many years. Wine is postulated to play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Most epidemiological studies have found sustained consumption at light-to-moderate amounts to increase HDL cholesterol, reduce platelet aggregation, and promote fibrinolysis. Wine consumption has been inversely associated with ischemic heart disease, and the alcohol-blood pressure association, in most studies, follows a J-shaped curve. These outcomes have been attributed to the molecular constituents of wine, namely ethanol and polyphenols...
June 26, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
T Yuzyuk, B Lozier, E L Schwarz, K Viau, E Kish-Trier, I De Biase
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) play key roles in mammalian cells as sources of energy, structural components and signaling molecules. Given their importance in numerous physiological processes, the roles of LCFAs in health and disease have been extensively investigated. In the majority of studies, correlations are established using a single measurement in plasma or red blood cells (RBCs). Although a few studies have reported on reproducibility of individual fatty acid measurements, the comprehensive analysis of intra-individual LCFA variability has not been performed...
August 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Marilena Vitale, Maria Masulli, Ilaria Calabrese, Angela Albarosa Rivellese, Enzo Bonora, Stefano Signorini, Gabriele Perriello, Sebastiano Squatrito, Raffaella Buzzetti, Giovanni Sartore, Anna Carla Babini, Giovanna Gregori, Carla Giordano, Gennaro Clemente, Sara Grioni, Pasquale Dolce, Gabriele Riccardi, Olga Vaccaro
This study evaluates the relation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern and its individual components with the cardiovascular risk factors profile, plasma glucose and body mass index (BMI) in people with type 2 diabetes. We studied 2568 participants at 57 diabetes clinics. Diet was assessed with the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) questionnaire, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated with the relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED). A high compared to a low score was associated with a better quality of diet and a greater adherence to the nutritional recommendations for diabetes...
August 10, 2018: Nutrients
Bruno Antonio Ferreira, Simone Ramos Deconte, Francyelle Borges Rosa de Moura, Tatiana Carla Tomiosso, Patrícia Bianca Clissa, Silvia Passos Andrade, Fernanda de Assis Araújo
Jararhagin, a metalloprotease from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, is a toxin containing the metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains; it causes acute inflammation and damage to vascular tissue. However, the actions of these domains on key components of chronic inflammation have not been determined. Our aim was to investigate the effects of jararhagin (Jar), jararhagin-C (Jar-C) and o-phenantrolin-treated jararhagin (Jar-Phe), on inflammatory response, blood vessel formation and extracellular matrix deposition in the murine sponge model...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xinwei Zhang, Petra Bachmann, Thomas M Schilling, Ewald Naumann, Hartmut Schächinger, Mauro F Larra
Frontal EEG asymmetry has been proposed as an index of emotional regulation, reflecting both state and trait components, and there is evidence that these factors influence the cortisol response to stress. Here, we asked whether cold pressor stress modulates frontal asymmetry and whether this is predictive of the neuroendocrine stress response. Twenty-four male participants underwent an automatized bilateral feet cold pressor test (bfCPT) and a warm water control procedure in counterbalanced order on two separate days, one week apart...
August 10, 2018: Biological Psychology
Manuel Algora, Gloria Grabski, Anna Liza Batac-Castro, James Gibbs, Nyaradzo Chada, Sharhabil Humieda, Shafeeq Ahmad, Peter Anderson, Priscila I Figueroa, Imran Mirza, Laila AbdelWareth
CONTEXT: - Opening a new hospital is a once in a lifetime experience and can be very inspiring for those involved in its activation. However, establishing a safe transfusion practice in a greenfield environment comes with unique challenges and opportunities. OBJECTIVE: - To highlight critical activation components such as on-boarding of new personnel, establishing clinical practices, and integrating critical laboratory software. DESIGN: - Our staff initially faced challenges in standardizing transfusion medicine clinical practice inside the laboratory...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Ciprian B Anea, Ana M Merloiu, David J R Fulton, Vijay Patel, R Dan Rudic
Aim: The circadian clock is a molecular network that controls the body physiological rhythms. In blood vessels, the circadian clock components modulate vascular remodeling, blood pressure, and signaling. The goal in this study was to determine the pattern of expression of circadian clock proteins in the endothelium, smooth muscle, and adventitia of the vasculature of human and mouse tissues. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed in frozen sections of mouse aorta, common carotid artery, femoral artery, lung, and heart at 12 AM and 12 PM for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per and other clock components...
2018: Vessel plus
Deepika Kumar, Mina L Xu
Lymphoma microenvironment is a complex system composed of stromal cells, blood vessels, immune cells as well as extracellular matrix, cytokines, exosomes, and chemokines. In this review, we describe the function, localization, and interactions between various cellular components. We also summarize their contribution to lymphoma immunity in the era of immunotherapy. Publications were identified from searching Pubmed. Primary literature was carefully evaluated for replicability before incorporating into the review...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
E I Morrison, H Reinhardt, H Leclerc, T J Devries, S J LeBlanc
The objectives were to determine the effects of a rumen-protected blend of B vitamins and choline (RPBC) on the incidence of health disorders, milk yield, and reproduction in early lactation and the effects on gene expression and liver fat infiltration. A randomized controlled trial in 3 commercial dairy herds (n = 1,346 cows with group as the experimental unit; experiment 1) and a university research herd (n = 50 cows with cow as the experimental unit; experiment 2) evaluated the use of 100 g/cow per d of commercially available proprietary RPBC supplement (Transition VB, Jefo, St...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Xiliang Du, Taiyu Shen, Heyuan Wang, Xia Qin, Dongmei Xing, Qianqian Ye, Zhen Shi, Zhiyuan Fang, Yiwei Zhu, Yuchen Yang, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Bin Lv, Xiaobing Li, Guowen Liu, Xinwei Li
The inevitable deficiency in nutrients and energy at the onset of lactation requires an optimal adaptation of the hepatic metabolism to overcome metabolic stress. Fatty liver is one of the main health disorders after parturition. Therefore, to investigate changes in hepatic lipid metabolic status and mitochondria in dairy cows with mild fatty liver, liver and blood samples were collected from healthy cows (n = 15) and cows with mild fatty liver (n = 15). To determine the effects of palmitic acids (PA), one of the major component of fatty acids, on lipid metabolism and mitochondria in vitro, calf hepatocytes were isolated from healthy calves and treated with various concentrations of PA (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Byoungjin Park, Yong-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is clinically important because of its association with increased risk of sudden cardiac death, as well as cardiovascular disease-related mortality. Data between MetS and prolonged corrected QT (QTc) intervals, a useful predictor of sudden cardiac death, are limited in apparently healthy adults. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the association between MetS and QTc interval in apparently healthy Korean men and women. METHODS: We examined the association between MetS and QTc interval in 2157 Korean adults (1317 men and 840 women) in a health examination program but excluded participants with a history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, cardiac arrhythmia, cancer, thyroid, respiratory, renal, hepatobiliary, or rheumatologic disease...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Johannes Brägelmann, Justo Lorenzo Bermejo
Technological advances and reduced costs of high-density methylation arrays have led to an increasing number of association studies on the possible relationship between human disease and epigenetic variability. DNA samples from peripheral blood or other tissue types are analyzed in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) to detect methylation differences related to a particular phenotype. Since information on the cell-type composition of the sample is generally not available and methylation profiles are cell-type specific, statistical methods have been developed for adjustment of cell-type heterogeneity in EWAS...
August 6, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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