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Blood components

Gui-Fang Feng, Shu Liu, Zi-Feng Pi, Feng-Rui Song, Zhi-Qiang Liu
In this study, a novel analysis strategy for progressively targeted screening and characterization of drug ingredients from in vitro to in vivo was proposed based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for comprehensive characterization of in vivo metabolic profile of Polygalae radix (PR). First, an in vitro chemical profile of PR was described with the assistance of UNIFI™ software. The characteristic neutral small molecule losses were summarized to distinguish different chemical structures in the PR extract...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Lili Chen, Bin Lu, Yehong Yang, Weiwei Zhang, Xuanchun Wang, Houguang Zhou, Jie Wen, Zhen Yang, Renming Hu
OBJECTIVE: Cathepsin S is highly expressed in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Cathepsin S correlates with central obesity and contributes to the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we sought to evaluate the association of serum cathepsin S with metabolic syndrome (MS) in overweight and obese Chinese adults. METHODS: We evaluated serum cathepsin S levels in a cross-sectional sample of 781 overweight and obese Chinese adults by ELISA. Glucose, insulin, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, and adipokines were also measured...
December 14, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Javier S Perona, Jacqueline Schmidt Rio-Valle, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, María Correa-Rodríguez, Ángel Fernández-Aparicio, Emilio González-Jiménez
BACKGROUND: Waist circumference has been suggested as predictor for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents but it has not been compared with newly proposed anthropometric indexes. This study aimed to disclose the capacity of ten classic and novel anthropometric indexes to discriminate by the presence of MetS in this young population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 981 adolescents (13.2±1.2 y) randomly recruited from eighteen schools in south-east Spain...
December 14, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yousef Mohamadi, Mahboubeh Mousavi, Hashem Khanbabaei, Reza Salarinia, Sepide Javankiani, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Momeni
Ischemia-reperfusion injury refers to a temporary interruption of blood flow in a tissue. Restoration of blood flow initiates the inflammation in tissue causing ischemic damage through the activation of a multiprotein complex termed inflammasome. The complex contains a receptor, mainly a member of nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors, that receives danger signals. The receptor is oligomerized as a response to danger signals and then the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain and procaspase protein are added to the oligomerized receptors to form the inflammasome complex...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ruchika Goel, Eshan U Patel, Jodie L White, Meera R Chappidi, Paul M Ness, Melissa M Cushing, Clifford M Takemoto, Beth H Shaz, Steven M Frank, Aaron A R Tobian
BACKGROUND: Demographic and hospital-level factors associated with red blood cell (RBC), plasma, and platelet transfusions in hospitalized patients across the U.S. are not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (2014). The unit of analysis was a hospitalization; sampling weights were applied to generate nationally-representative estimates. The primary outcome was having ≥ 1 RBC transfusion procedure; plasma and platelet transfusions were similarly assessed as secondary outcomes...
December 12, 2018: Transfusion
Macy Drinkhouse, Marjory B Brooks, Darko Stefanovski, Kimberly Marryott, Mary Beth Callan
BACKGROUND: Cryoprecipitate (CRYO) is a plasma component containing high concentrations of factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor (VWF), and fibrinogen. Because Greyhounds are reported to have lower plasma VWF and fibrinogen concentrations, their plasma may not yield high potency CRYO. OBJECTIVES: To determine if plasma hemostatic protein concentration is a good predictor of CRYO potency and if a difference exists in quality of CRYO prepared from Greyhounds versus non-Greyhounds...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Cecily K Vanderspurt, Philip C Spinella, Andrew P Cap, Ronnie Hill, Sarah A Matthews, Jason B Corley, Jennifer M Gurney
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death in military and civilian traumatic injury. Blood product resuscitation improves survival. Low-titer Type O Whole Blood (LTOWB) was recently re-introduced to the combat theater as a universal resuscitation product for hemorrhagic shock. This study assessed the utilization patterns of LTOWB compared to warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) and blood component therapy (CT) in US Military Operations in Iraq/Syria and Afghanistan known as Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS) respectively...
December 11, 2018: Transfusion
Feres José Mocayar Marón, León Ferder, Fernando Daniel Saraví, Walter Manucha
Although a large number of available treatments and strategies, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases continues to grow worldwide. Emerging evidence supports the notion of counteracting stress as a critical component of a comprehensive therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular disease. Indeed, an unhealthy lifestyle is a burden to biological variables such as plasma glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure control. Recent findings identify allostatic load as a new paradigm for an integrated understanding of the importance of psychosocial stress and its impact on the development and maintenance of cardiovascular disease...
December 14, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ryuichi Ohta, Chikako Mukoyama
Objective: The traits of the inhabitants of rural areas could affect clinical improvements. In the rural areas of Japan, a feeling of competitiveness often exists between the members of a community; this competitiveness could prompt patients to exert efforts in improving their health. This study aimed to assess the effects of competitiveness on the clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes. Patients and Methods: Between December 2014 and December 2015, a pilot study was conducted among patients with diabetes to assess the effects of an intervention on improvements in self-care, quality of life (QOL), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values...
November 2018: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
Nivea F Luz, Thiago DeSouza-Vieira, Waldione De Castro, Aislan Carvalho Vivarini, Lais Pereira, Riam Rocha França, Paulo S Silveira-Mattos, Diego L Costa, Clarissa Teixeira, Claudio Meneses, Viviane S Boaventura, Camila I de Oliveira, Ulisses Gazos Lopes, Naomi Aronson, Bruno B Andrade, Claudia I Brodskyn, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Valeria M Borges
Sand flies bite mammalian hosts to obtain a blood meal, driving changes in the host inflammatory response that support the establishment of Leishmania infection. This effect is partially attributed to components of sand fly saliva, which are able to recruit and activate leukocytes. Our group has shown that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) favors Leishmania survival in infected cells by reducing inflammatory responses. Here, we show that exposure to sand fly bites is associated with induction of HO-1 in vivo . Histopathological analyses of skin specimens from human volunteers experimentally exposed to sand fly bites revealed that HO-1 and Nrf2 are produced at bite sites in the skin...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Johanna P van Geffen, Sanne L N Brouns, Joana Batista, Harriet McKinney, Carly Kempster, Magdolna Nagy, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Constance C F M J Baaten, Nikki Bourry, Mattia Frontini, Kerstin Jurk, Manuela Krause, Daniele Pillitteri, Frauke Swieringa, Remco Verdoold, Rachel Cavill, Marijke J E Kuijpers, Willem H Ouwehand, Kate Downes, Johan W M Heemskerk
In combination with microspotting, whole-blood microfluidics can provide high-throughput information on multiple platelet functions in thrombus formation. Based on assessment of the inter- and intra-subject variability in parameters of microspot-based thrombus formation, we aimed to determine the platelet factors contributing to this variation. Blood samples from 94 genotyped healthy subjects were analysed for conventional platelet phenotyping: i.e. haematological parameters, platelet glycoprotein expression levels and activation markers (24 parameters)...
December 13, 2018: Haematologica
Symielle A Gaston, Nicolle S Tulve, Tekeda F Ferguson
PURPOSE: The objectives were to use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to (1) estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors (elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, blood glucose, and low HDL cholesterol); (2) estimate the prevalence of MetS using three common definitions; and (3) compare the odds of MetS risk factors/MetS when using different measures of abdominal obesity (sagittal abdominal diameter [SAD] versus waist circumference [WC]) among U...
November 23, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Brian A Darlow, Julia Martin, L John Horwood
OBJECTIVE: To assess the physical well-being and components of the metabolic syndrome in a national cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) young adults and same age controls. STUDY DESIGN: The New Zealand VLBW Study cohort prospectively included all infants with birth weight <1500 g born in 1986, with 338 (82%) surviving to discharge home. Height and weight were measured at age 7-8 years. The VLBW cohort (n = 229; 71% alive) and term-born controls (n = 100) aged 27-29 years were clinically assessed in a single center over 2 days, including assessment for components of the metabolic syndrome...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Arturo Navarro-Martín, Isabel Linares Galiana, Miguel A Berenguer Frances, Jon Cacicedo, Rut Cañas Cortés, Silvia Comas Anton, Susana Padrones Sánchez, Santiago Bolívar Cuevas, Renate Parry, Ferran Guedea Edo
An immunophenotyping analysis was performed in peripheral blood samples from seven patients with lung cancer unfit for surgery treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The objective was to characterize the effect of SBRT on the host immune system. Four patients received 60 Gy (7.5 Gy × 8) and three 50 Gy (12.5 Gy × 4). Analyses were performed before SBRT, 72 h after SBRT, and at one, three, and six months after the end of SBRT. Of note, there was a specific increase of the immunoactive component of the immune system, with elevation of CD56+high CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells (0...
December 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tianyuan Ye, Xiangbao Meng, Ruiying Wang, Chenyang Zhang, Shuaibing He, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) suffer more risks from diabetic encephalopathy such as cognitive dysfunction and depressive-like behaviors. Numerous studies show that ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and inflammation play important roles in the development of diabetic encephalopathy. Gastrodin (Gas) , one major component of Gastrodia elata , is traditionally used in central nervous system disorders and is believed to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and other neuroprotective effects. This present study aims to explore the protective effects of Gas on diabetic encephalopathy...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amol K Bhandage, Zhe Jin, Sergiy V Korol, Atieh S Tafreshiha, Priya Gohel, Charlotte Hellgren, Daniel Espes, Per-Ola Carlsson, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Bryndis Birnir
Calcium (Ca2+) is an important ion in physiology and is found both outside and inside cells. The intracellular concentration of Ca2+ is tightly regulated as it is an intracellular signal molecule and can affect a variety of cellular processes. In immune cells Ca2+ has been shown to regulate e.g. gene transcription, cytokine secretion, proliferation and migration. Ca2+ can enter the cytoplasm either from intracellular stores or from outside the cells when Ca2+ permeable ion channels in the plasma membrane open...
2018: PloS One
Amanda M Perak, Irwin Benuck
The origins of cardiovascular disease are at the beginning of life, and national guidelines recommend evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and hypertension as part of general pediatric care. In this review, a simple plan is proposed for clear and consistent monitoring and messaging throughout childhood, based on the American Heart Association's "cardiovascular health" construct. A framework is provided for age-appropriate scoring of the cardiovascular health components, including diet, physical activity and screen time, sleep, smoking exposure, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose...
December 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Chuntida Kamalashiran, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa, Junya Pattaraarchachai, Kusuma Sriyakul
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a common medical disorder in elderly. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the process of cognitive decline in dementia. Perilla seed oil demonstrates its neuroprotective effects via anti-oxidative mechanisms against dementia. We investigate neuroprotective effects of perilla seed oil as an additional treatment in patients with mild to moderate dementia. METHOD: A double-blind, randomized-control trial (perilla seed oil versus placebo) in patients with mild to moderate dementia was conducted...
December 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Palma Manduzio
Transfusion-associated graft-versushost disease (TA-GVHD) represents a rare fatal event observed in immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent individuals. The main clinical features of this transfusion reaction are pancitopenia and multiorgan failure (skin, liver, gut). The possible pathogenesis includes donor T lymphocyte proliferation in blood, their engraftment and host tissue attack. The purpose of this narrative review was analyzing the international guidelines for irradiation of cellular blood components to prevent TA-GVHD...
November 6, 2018: Hematology Reports
Peng Xiao, Wei Song, Zhe Han
Characteristics of pulmonary infection after mitral valve repair in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its relationships with blood pressure, blood glucose and blood lipid were investigated. Clinical data of 126 patients were retrospectively analyzed, and patients were divided into infection group (n=19) and non-infection group (n=107). The differences of MS components in patients between the two groups were compared, and the distribution of pathogens and related factors of pulmonary infection were analyzed...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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