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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536053/laryngeal-temperature-simulations-during-carbon-dioxide-laser-irradiation-delivered-by-a-scanning-micromanipulator
#1
Lou Reinisch, C Gaelyn Garrett
We use scatter-limited phototherapy techniques to calculate the time-dependent temperature profiles of incisions made with a commercial carbon dioxide laser being used to make a 1-mm incision under computer control using the Digital Acublade™ and with incisions made with the same laser under manual control. The goal is to understand the differences in the amount of lateral thermal damage that is likely from the computer-controlled incisions versus the manually controlled incisions. The temperature profiles are calculated from the absorption and scatter of light in a homogeneous material...
December 7, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30534369/neuronal-photoactivation-through-second-harmonic-near-infrared-absorption-by-gold-nanoparticles
#2
Wieteke D A M de Boer, Jan J Hirtz, Antonio Capretti, Tom Gregorkiewicz, Mercè Izquierdo-Serra, Shuting Han, Christophe Dupre, Yuriy Shymkiv, Rafael Yuste
Optical activation of neurons requires genetic manipulation or the use of chemical photoactivators with undesirable side effects. As a solution to these disadvantages, here, we demonstrate optically evoked neuronal activity in mouse cortical neurons in acute slices and in vivo by nonlinear excitation of gold nanoparticles. In addition, we use this approach to stimulate individual epitheliomuscular cells and evoke body contractions in Hydra vulgaris . To achieve this, we use a low-power pulsed near-infrared excitation at the double-wavelength of the plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles, which enables optical sectioning and allows for high spatial precision and large penetration depth...
2018: Light, Science & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529883/effects-of-regular-high-cocoa-chocolate-intake-on-arterial-stiffness-and-metabolic-characteristics-during-exercise
#3
Masato Nishiwaki, Yuri Nakano, Naoyuki Matsumoto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of regular high-cocoa chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness and fat oxidation during light- to moderate-intensity exercise. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, parallel-group intervention study included 32 Japanese college students (mean age, 20.7 ± 0.3 y; men, n = 24; women, n = 8) who were assigned to either control or intervention groups (n = 16 each). The control group did not alter their habitual diet or physical activity throughout the study period...
October 5, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30527386/effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-on-the-primary-motor-cortex-insights-from-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-studies
#4
REVIEW
Zhen Ni, Kaviraja Udupa, Mark Hallett, Robert Chen
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) implanted in different basal ganglia nuclei regulates the dysfunctional neuronal circuits and improves symptoms in movement disorders. However, the understanding of the neurophysiological mechanism of DBS is at an early stage. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used safely in movement disorder patients with DBS, and can shed light on how DBS works. DBS at a therapeutic setting normalizes the abnormal motor cortical excitability measured with motor evoked potentials (MEP) produced by primary motor cortical TMS...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517797/multispectral-management-of-the-photon-orbital-angular-momentum
#5
Mikaël Ghadimi Nassiri, Etienne Brasselet
We report on a programmable liquid crystal spatial light modulator enabling independent orbital angular momentum state control on multiple spectral channels. This is done by using electrically controllable "topological pixels" that independently behave as geometric phase micro-optical elements relying on self-engineered liquid crystal defects. These results open interesting opportunities in optical manipulation, sensing, imaging, and communications, as well as information processing. In particular, spectral vortex modulation allows considering singular spatiotemporal shaping of ultrashort pulses which may find applications in many areas such as material processing, spectroscopy, or elementary particles acceleration...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517160/quantitative-study-of-the-somatosensory-sensitization-underlying-cross-modal-plasticity
#6
Kenta Abe, Hiromu Yawo
Loss of one sensory modality can cause other types to become more perceptive (cross-modal plasticity). To test the hypothesis that the loss of vision changes the perceptual threshold in the somatosensory system, we applied optogenetics to directly manipulate the afferent inputs involved in the whisker-barrel system using a transgenic rat (W-TChR2V4) that expresses channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in the large mechanoreceptive neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and their peripheral nerve terminals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515140/sublethal-injury-and-viable-but-non-culturable-vbnc-state-in-microorganisms-during-preservation-of-food-and-biological-materials-by-non-thermal-processes
#7
REVIEW
Felix Schottroff, Antje Fröhling, Marija Zunabovic-Pichler, Anna Krottenthaler, Oliver Schlüter, Henry Jäger
The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, as well as sublethal injury of microorganisms pose a distinct threat to food safety, as the use of traditional, culture-based microbiological analyses might lead to an underestimation or a misinterpretation of the product's microbial status and recovery phenomena of microorganisms may occur. For thermal treatments, a large amount of data and experience is available and processes are designed accordingly. In case of innovative inactivation treatments, however, there are still several open points with relevance for the investigation of inactivation mechanisms as well as for the application and validation of the preservation processes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514941/light-pulses-prod-artificial-muscle-into-action
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514116/intense-regulated-pulse-light-for-the-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#9
Emine Esra Karaca, Özlem Evren Kemer, Dilay Özek
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of intense regulated pulse light (E-Eye; E-Swin, France) on the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. SETTING: Health Sciences University, Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology. METHODS: A total of 26 patients underwent intense pulsed light treatment (E-Eye; E-Swin), with homogeneously sequenced five light pulses delivered to one eye at 1, 15, and 45 days following baseline evaluation...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513667/design-and-implementation-of-respiration-rate-measurement-system-using-an-information-filter-on-an-embedded-device
#10
Radius Bhayu Prasetiyo, Kyu-Sang Choi, Gi-Hun Yang
In this work, an algorithm was developed to measure respiration rate for an embedded device that can be used by a field robot for relief operations. With this algorithm, the rate measurement was calculated based on direct influences of respiratory-induced intensity variation (RIIV) on blood flow in cardiovascular pathways. For this, a photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor was used to determine changes in heartbeat frequencies. The PPG sensor readings were filtered using an Information Filter and a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to determine the state of RIIV...
November 30, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513651/suitable-combination-of-direct-intensity-modulation-and-spreading-sequence-for-lidar-with-pulse-coding
#11
Gunzung Kim, Yongwan Park
In the coded pulse scanning light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, the number of laser pulses used at a given measurement point changes depending on the modulation and the method of spreading used in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA). The number of laser pulses determines the pulse width, output power, and duration of the pulse transmission of a measurement point. These parameters determine the maximum measurement distance of the LIDAR and the number of measurement points that can be employed per second...
November 30, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510899/a-photoacoustic-sensing-probe-using-optical-fiber-acoustic-delay-line
#12
Arif Kivanc Ustun, Jun Zou
In this paper, we report a new photoacoustic sensing probe design consisting of two optical fibers. One optical fiber is used for delivering the excitation light pulses. The other one serves as an acoustic delay line to relay the generated PA signal from the target to an outside ultrasound transducer. With the addition of suitable time delay, the original PA signal can be easily separated from the interference signals. To demonstrate this new design, a prototype probe was designed, fabricated and tested. The PA sensing performance was characterized with different concentration of black and red dye solutions...
March 2019: Photoacoustics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510694/probing-the-upper-band-gap-of-atomic-rhenium-disulfide-layers
#13
Krishna P Dhakal, Hyunmin Kim, Seonwoo Lee, Youngjae Kim, JaeDong Lee, Jong-Hyun Ahn
Here, we investigate the ultrafast carrier dynamics and electronic states of exfoliated ReS2 films using time-resolved second harmonic generation (TSHG) microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of layers with various thicknesses is probed using a 1.19-eV beam. Up to ~13 nm, a gradual increment is observed, followed by a decrease caused by bulk interferometric light absorption. The addition of a pump pulse tuned to the exciton band gap (1.57 eV) creates a decay-to-rise TSHG profile as a function of the probe delay...
2018: Light, Science & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510690/watt-scale-super-octave-mid-infrared-intrapulse-difference-frequency-generation
#14
Christian Gaida, Martin Gebhardt, Tobias Heuermann, Fabian Stutzki, Cesar Jauregui, Jose Antonio-Lopez, Axel Schülzgen, Rodrigo Amezcua-Correa, Andreas Tünnermann, Ioachim Pupeza, Jens Limpert
The development of high-power, broadband sources of coherent mid-infrared radiation is currently the subject of intense research that is driven by a substantial number of existing and continuously emerging applications in medical diagnostics, spectroscopy, microscopy, and fundamental science. One of the major, long-standing challenges in improving the performance of these applications has been the construction of compact, broadband mid-infrared radiation sources, which unify the properties of high brightness and spatial and temporal coherence...
2018: Light, Science & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509382/effect-of-pulse-width-modulation-controlled-led-light-on-the-polymerization-of-dental-composites
#15
Chang-Ha Lee, Jack Ferracane, In-Bog Lee
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of radiant emittance and cure time of pulse width modulation (PWM)-controlled LED light on polymerization shrinkage/stress kinetics and surface hardness of dental composites. METHODS: A conventional (Filtek Z250) and a bulk-fill (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior; BFP) composite were investigated. The duty ratio (% of time the light is on) and cure time of the LED light were controlled using an Arduino UNO microcontroller (PWM) as follows: 10%/100s, 20%/50s, 30%/33...
December 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501296/a-soft-x-ray-ultraviolet-suv-beamline-and-diffractometer-for-resonant-elastic-scattering-and-ultraviolet-vacuum-ultraviolet-reflectance-at-the-singapore-synchrotron-light-source
#16
X J Yu, C Z Diao, T Venkatesan, M B H Breese, A Rusydi
A new beamline and a six-circle UHV diffractometer have been constructed at the Singapore Synchrotron Light Source with a broad energy coverage from 3.5 to 1500 eV. The beamline is optimized for ultraviolet-vacuum-ultraviolet optical reflectivity and resonant soft X-ray scattering with medium energy resolution over a broad energy range, achieved by using a self-focusing monochromator consisting of a plane mirror and three variable line spacing gratings. The unique character of the diffractometer comprises 4-circles in the vertical plane and 2-circles in the horizontal plane...
November 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500137/post-filler-ecchymosis-resolution-with-intense-pulsed-light
#17
Vic Narurkar
Bruising after dermal filler and neuromodulator injections is a common side effect and can have durations of 1 to 2 weeks. While it ultimately resolves, faster resolution can produce better outcomes for patients and also make patients more likely to return for future treatments. We report the successful reduction in bruising following injections of fillers with an intense pulsed light source. We also documented the onset of action of bruising resolution with serial photographs. Resolution started within the first hour of treatment and continued rapidly over 48 hours...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499483/-the-application-of-combined-low-intensity-laser-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-the-patients-presenting-with-trophic-ulcers-associated-with-chronic-venous-insufficiency-of-the-lower-extremities
#18
E V Askhadulin, T V Konchugova, S V Moskvin
AIM: The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the effectiveness of the combined treatment of the patients presenting with trophic ulcers associated with chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities of venous etiology with the application of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) at different wavelengths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included the patients presenting with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) (class C6 in accordance with the CEAP clinical classification)...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499262/laser-induced-tissue-remodeling-within-the-tympanic-membrane
#19
Sophie A L Schacht, Patricia Stahn, Marius Hinsberger, Bernhard Schick, Gentiana I Wenzel
The tympanic membrane (TM) separates the outer ear from the tympanic cavity. Repeated pathologies can permanently decrease its tension, inducing conductive hearing loss and adhesive processes up to cholesteatoma. The current main therapy is its surgical reconstruction. Even though lasers have been proposed to tighten atrophic TMs, details of this effect, specifically histological analyses, are missing. We therefore used laser pulses to induce TM collagen remodeling in an animal model to compare the histological and electrophysiological effects of different applied laser intensities before entering clinical studies...
November 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30495926/broadly-tunable-plasmons-in-doped-oxide-nanoparticles-for-ultrafast-and-broadband-mid-infrared-all-optical-switching
#20
Qiangbing Guo, Zhipeng Qin, Zhuan Wang, Yu-Xiang Weng, Xiaofeng Liu, Guoqiang Xie, Jianrong Qiu
Plasmons in conducting nanostructures offer the means to efficiently manipulate light at the nanoscale with subpicosecond speed in an all-optical operation fashion, thus allowing for constructing high performance all-optical signal-processing devices. Here, by exploiting the ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of broadly tunable mid-infrared (MIR) plasmons in solution-processed, degenerately doped oxide nanoparticles, we demonstrate ultrafast all-optical switching in the MIR region, which features with subpicosecond response speed (with recovery time constant of ‹400 fs) as well as ultrabroadband response spectral range (covering 3...
November 29, 2018: ACS Nano
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