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Th1 And Th2 And Vaccine Effects

Binnian Zhu, Tianyu He, Xiangyun Gao, Minghua Shi, Hongxiang Sun
PURPOSE: The purified fraction of Albizia julibrissin saponins (AJSAF) was evaluated and characterized for the adjuvant activity on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine. METHODS: The effects of AJSAF on serum PRRSV N protein-specific antibody titers, splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, mRNA expression of cytokines and transcription factors, secretion of cytokines, T cells response in splenocytes, as well as delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in the mice immunized PRRSV vaccine were determined by ELISA, MTT assay, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 16, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Michael A Collier, Robert D Junkins, Matthew D Gallovic, Brandon M Johnson, Monica Marie Johnson, Andrew N Macintyre, Gregory D Sempowski, Eric M Bachelder, Jenny P-Y Ting, Kristy M Ainslie
Vaccines are the most effective tool for preventing infectious diseases; however, subunit vaccines, considered the safest type, suffer from poor immunogenicity and require adjuvants to create a strong and sustained immune response. As adjuvants, pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) offer potent immunostimulatory properties and defined mechanisms of action through their cognate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Their activity can be further enhanced through combining two or more PAMPs, particularly those that activate multiple immune signaling pathways...
October 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Rolf Billeskov, Babak Beikzadeh, Jay A Berzofsky
During the past 3-4 decades, an increasing amount of evidence has pointed to the complex role of the antigen dose or T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation strength on the subsequent type, duration and "flavor" or quality of the response. Antigen dose was initially shown to impact Th1/Th2 bias, and later also shown to differentially affect development and induction of Tregs, Th17, T-follicular helper (Tfh), cells, and others. In recent years the quality of both CD4/8 T cells during infections, cancer and/or autoimmunity has turned out to be critical for subsequent disease outcome...
October 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Woo Sik Kim, Jong-Seok Kim, Hong Min Kim, Kee Woong Kwon, Seok-Yong Eum, Sung Jae Shin
Antigens (Ags) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that are constitutively expressed, overexpressed during growth, essential for survival, and highly conserved may be good vaccine targets if they induce the appropriate anti-Mtb Th1 immune response. In this context, stress response-related antigens of Mtb might serve as attractive targets for vaccine development as they are rapidly expressed and are up-regulated during Mtb infection in vivo. Our group recently demonstrated that GrpE, encoded by rv0351 as a cofactor of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the DnaK operon, is a novel immune activator that interacts with DCs to generate Th1-biased memory T cells in an antigen-specific manner...
September 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Flagellin, a major structural component of bacteria flagella, is responsible for facilitating motility and invading host cells. The binding capacity of flagellin to toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and its trigger action for innate immunity make it an attractive vaccine adjuvant. In this work, we explored the efficacy of F18+ STEC flagellin as an adjuvant in a ghost vaccine candidate against porcine edema disease (ED). TLR5-stimulating activity and IL-8 cytokine expression produced via downstream signaling following ligand exposure was detected in HEK-Blue™-hTLR5 cells stimulated with flagellin expressed in the Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) ghost, JOL1485...
June 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Yewande O Fasina, Hyun S Lillehoj
Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB)-producing Clostridium perfringens (CP) type A is the etiological agent of necrotic enteritis (NE) - an economically significant disease in broiler chickens. Understanding the immune response to CP infection in broiler chickens is becoming important to develop effective vaccines against NE. An experiment was conducted to determine the expression levels of selected cytokine genes in the intestine and cecal tonsil of CP-challenged broiler chickens. In a floor-pen housing, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to the following treatment groups: 1) bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD)-free control diet with no CP challenge (CX), 2) BMD-supplemented diet with no CP challenge (CM), 3) BMD-free control diet with CP challenge (PCX), or 4) BMD-supplemented diet with CP challenge (PCM)...
September 17, 2018: Poultry Science
Robert F Kelly, Rebecca Callaby, Nkongho F Egbe, Diana J L Williams, Ngu Ngwa Victor, Vincent N Tanya, Melissa Sander, Lucy Ndip, Richard Ngandolo, Kenton L Morgan, Ian G Handel, Stella Mazeri, Adrian Muwonge, Barend M de C Bronsvoort
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis , remains a major livestock and public health problem in both high and low-income countries. With the current absence of an effective vaccine, control in cattle populations is reliant on regular testing and removal of positive animals. However, surveillance and control are hampered by imperfect diagnostic tests that have poorly described properties in naturally infected populations. Recent research in cattle co-infected with the temperate liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica , has raised concerns about the performance of the intradermal skin test in high fluke incidence areas...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Lin Zhang, Dongmei Lin, Haiyan Li, Sen Yu, Junping Bai, Zhiyong Ding, Jiaqiang Wu
Vaccination is an important approach for the control of avian viral diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune-potentiating effect of oral administration of Inonotus obliquus fermentation products (IOFP) at vaccination in chickens. In total, 120 one-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were randomly assigned to six groups: groups 1 to 3 were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota live vaccine via intranasal and eye-dropped route at seven days of age, and boosted two weeks later...
October 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Zehua Zhang, Feifan Chen, Jianhua Li, Fei Luo, Tianyong Hou, Jianzhong Xu, Dong Sun
1,25(OH)2 D3 is an immune modulation hormone with beneficial effects on T cell- mediated autoimmune diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the direct effects of vitamin D on Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)-infected CD4+ T cells in both VDR-deficient (VDR-/-) mice and wild type (WT) mice. Specifically, we aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on Th1 cells and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. Naïve CD4 T cells were purified from VDR-/- mice and WT mice to induce Th1 cells and were activated by BCG...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Aravind Shekar, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston Jeyabalaji, Murali Harishchandra Sripathy
Escherichia coli O157:H7 with its traits such as intestinal colonization and fecal-oral route of transmission demands mucosal vaccine development. E. coli secreted protein B (EspB) is one of the key type III secretory system (TTSS) targets for mucosal candidate vaccine due to its indispensable role in the pathogenesis of E. coli O157:H7. However, mucosally administered recombinant proteins have low immunogenicity which could be overcome by the use of mucosal adjuvants. The quest for safe, potent mucosal adjuvant has recognized ΔG fragment of Zonula occludens toxin of Vibrio cholerae with such properties...
September 12, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Ki-Hye Kim, Young-Man Kwon, Young-Tae Lee, Hye Suk Hwang, Min-Chul Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Bao-Zhong Wang, Fu-Shi Quan, Sang-Moo Kang
Current licensed adjuvants including aluminum hydroxide (alum) bias immune responses toward T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses. We tested whether virus-like particles presenting flagellin (Flag VLP) exhibit adjuvant effects on eliciting Th1 type immune responses and improving the efficacy of poor immunogenic tandem repeat M2e (M2e5x) protein vaccine against influenza virus. Co-immunization of mice with Flag VLP and M2e5x protein vaccine induced significantly higher levels of IgG2a isotype (Th1) antibodies in sera and mucosal sites, effector CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ and granzyme B, and more effective lung viral clearance and protection compared to alum adjuvant...
November 2018: Virology
Reham Sabry, Zakia Abu Zahab Mohamed, Amany M Abdallah
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination leads to both humoral and cellular immune responses and results in protecting levels of specific antibodies. The immune response to the vaccine and production of T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines vary among the individuals. Thus we aimed to investigate the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine serum levels and antibody production after HBV vaccination, hoping to improve the effectiveness of vaccination. A total of 90 health care workers had been vaccinated with triple doses of HB vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months intervals...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Mona Roozbehani, Reza Falak, Mohsen Mohammadi, Andrew Hemphill, Elham Razmjou, Ahmad Reza Meamar, Leila Masoori, Majid Khoshmirsafa, Maryam Moradi, Mohammad Javad Gharavi
No effective human vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) has yet been developed; however, a protective vaccine using immunogenic peptides in a safe delivery vehicle system offers promise. Here, we employed bioinformatics to design a multimeric recombinant T. gondii vaccine using predicted T and B cell epitopes of SAG1, AMA1, ROP2, and GRA4 proteins based on their binding capabilities to common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Furthermore, we encapsulated the expressed protein in poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle and also used alum as an adjuvant to determine the vaccine potency of this multimeric antigen...
October 1, 2018: Vaccine
Yixue Sun, Jing Qian, Xiaohong Xu, Yubo Tang, Wenzhang Xu, Wentao Yang, Yanlong Jiang, Guilian Yang, Zhuang Ding, Yanlong Cong, Chunfeng Wang
H9N2 avian influenza viruses are of significance in poultry and public health for the past two decades. Vaccination plays an important role in preventing the infection in domestic poultry. Current H9N2 vaccines have not yet offered ideal protection and eliminated shedding of G57 genotype viruses responsible for H9N2 outbreaks during 2010-2013. Targeted vaccination is a promising strategy to improve vaccine effectiveness. Such a vaccine strategy can be achieved if it is targeted to dendritic cells (DCs) that directly elicit mucosal and adaptive immune responses against microbe challenge...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Cong Zhang, Jiangfei Zhou, Zhixin Liu, Yongqing Liu, Kairui Cai, Tengfei Shen, Chengshui Liao, Chen Wang
The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is the central humoral immune organ unique to birds. The bursal peptide BPs (BP-I, BP-II, BP-III, BP-IV) were isolated and identified from BF. In this study, the immunoadjuvant activities of BP-(I-IV) were examined in mice immunized with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines. The results suggested that BP-I effectively enhanced cell-mediated immune responses, increased the secretion of Th1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and Th2 (IL-4)-type cytokines, and induced a better cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to the H9N2 virus...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Xue-Chun Li, Xiao-Hong Su
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), as a pathogen of gonorrhea, is strictly limited to growth on the human host. In case of gonococcal infection, the body may recruit such inflammatory cells as neutrophils to resist the invasion of NG or initiate its adaptive immune response by antigen presentation to eliminate the pathogen. However, a series of immune escape mechanisms of NG make it difficult to clear up the infection. In the innate immune system, NG can not only secrete thermonuclease to degrade neutrophile granulocytes, inhibit respiratory burst to resist killing by neutrophils, activate NLRP3 to prompt the pyronecrosis of inflammatory cells, but also regulate the differentiation of macrophages to reduce the inflammatory response, combine with factor H to evade complement-mediated killing...
May 2018: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Soumya Paul, Bhavani V Peddayelachagiri, Sowmya Nagaraj, Balakrishna Konduru, Harsh V Batra
Brucella as intracellular pathogen requires a coordinate interaction between Th1 subset of gamma interferon-secreting CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells for optimal protective immunity. It was previously recognized that L7/L12 as T cell-reactive antigen from the pathogen. On other hand, Omp25 was found as another antigen to provide protection against the Brucella infection by eliciting both Th1 and Th2 type of immune responses in mice. Here, we analyzed the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of a divalent fusion protein (rL7/L12-Omp25) comprising these two promising immunogens of Brucella in the presence of murine IFN-gamma in mice against B...
October 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Adi Sharbi-Yunger, Mareike Grees, Cafri Gal, David Bassan, Stefan B Eichmüller, Esther Tzehoval, Jochen Utikal, Viktor Umansky, Lea Eisenbach
For many years, clinicians and scientists attempt to develop methods to stimulate the immune system to target malignant cells. Recent data suggest that effective cancer vaccination requires combination immunotherapies to overcome tumor immune evasion. Through presentation of both MHC-I and II molecules, DCs based vaccine platforms are effective in generating detectable CD4 and CD8 T cell responses against tumor associated antigens. Several platforms include DC transfection with mRNA of the desired tumor antigen...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rajesh Mani, Manish Gupta, Anshu Malik, Ravi Tandon, Rajendra Prasad, Rakesh Bhatnagar, Nirupama Banerjee
Novel adjuvants are in demand for improving the efficacy of human vaccines. The immunomodulatory properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall components have been highlighted in the formulation of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). We have explored the adjuvant potential of poly-α-L-glutamine (PLG), a lesser-known constituent of pathogenic mycobacterial cell wall. Immune parameters indicated that the adjuvant potency of PLG was statistically comparable to CFA and better than alum in the context of H1 antigen (Ag85B and ESAT-6 fusion)...
August 13, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Aravind Shekar, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston Jeyabalaji, Murali Harishchandra Sripathy
Ruminants are the major reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its fecal shedding mainly act as a source of entry of this pathogen into the human food chain. In humans, E. coli O157:H7 infection causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intimate adherence of E. coli O157:H7 is mediated by Translocated intimin receptor (Tir) to which intimin binds in the host cell. Since E. coli O157:H7 colonizes intestinal epithelium, the mucosal vaccine has a potential to prevent its colonization...
October 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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