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Th1 And Th2 And Vaccine Effects

Adi Sharbi-Yunger, Mareike Grees, Cafri Gal, David Bassan, Stefan B Eichmüller, Esther Tzehoval, Jochen Utikal, Viktor Umansky, Lea Eisenbach
For many years, clinicians and scientists attempt to develop methods to stimulate the immune system to target malignant cells. Recent data suggest that effective cancer vaccination requires combination immunotherapies to overcome tumor immune evasion. Through presentation of both MHC-I and II molecules, DCs based vaccine platforms are effective in generating detectable CD4 and CD8 T cell responses against tumor associated antigens. Several platforms include DC transfection with mRNA of the desired tumor antigen...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rajesh Mani, Manish Gupta, Anshu Malik, Ravi Tandon, Rajendra Prasad, Rakesh Bhatnagar, Nirupama Banerjee
Novel adjuvants are in demand for improving the efficacy of human vaccines. The immunomodulatory properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cell wall components have been highlighted in the formulation of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). We have explored the adjuvant potential of poly-α-L-glutamine (PLG), a lesser-known constituent of pathogenic mycobacterial cell wall. Immune parameters indicated that the adjuvant potency of PLG was statistically comparable to CFA and better than alum in the context of H1 antigen (Ag85B and ESAT-6 fusion)...
August 13, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Aravind Shekar, Shylaja Ramlal, Joseph Kingston Jeyabalaji, Murali Harishchandra Sripathy
Ruminants are the major reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its fecal shedding mainly act as a source of entry of this pathogen into the human food chain. In humans, E. coli O157:H7 infection causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intimate adherence of E. coli O157:H7 is mediated by Translocated intimin receptor (Tir) to which intimin binds in the host cell. Since E. coli O157:H7 colonizes intestinal epithelium, the mucosal vaccine has a potential to prevent its colonization...
August 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Jing Wei Jin, Shun Qing Tang, Min Zhi Rong, Ming Qiu Zhang
Presently, clinically approved adjuvants (such as aluminum salts) fail to induce cellular immune responses, which is crucial to defend against intracellular pathogens (including HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and Ebola) and cancer. However, Freund's complete adjuvant potently stimulates both humoral and cellular immune responses, accompanying by high toxicity and severe side reactions. Here in this work, a CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-OND) crosslinked aminated β-glucan-Ovalbumin dual targeting nanoparticle (CpG-OND-AG-OVA) is prepared through a simple and mild ionic complexation method...
August 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xinan Jiao, Zhiming Pan
Influenza A (H7N9) viruses have caused severe human infections and deaths every year in China since 2013. To reduce the risk of human infection and prevent a new influenza pandemic, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is an organic polycation used extensively as a transfection reagent for decades. Although the adjuvant potential of PEI is well studied in mammals, its applicability and immune characteristics to avian species are still very rare...
August 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Guiqiang Zhang, Peiyuan Jia, Hongtao Liu, Tao Hu, Yuguang Du
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have led to huge economic losses in pig industry. Our laboratory previously found that conjugation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) enhanced the immunogenicity of PCV2 vaccine against infectious pathogens. In this study, an effective adjuvant system was developed by covalent conjugation of COS via a carrier protein (Ovalbumin, OVA) to further increase the immunogenicity of vaccine. Its effect on dendritic cells maturation was assessed in vitro and its immunogenicity was investigated in mice...
July 26, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Edna Soares, Sandra Jesus, Olga Borges
The development of new vaccine adjuvants is urgently needed not only to enable new routes of vaccine administration but mostly to go beyond protective humoral immunity, often insufficient to fight infectious diseases. The association of two or more immunopotentiators or mimicking pathogen physicochemical properties are strategies that can favor powerful and more balanced Th1/Th2 immune responses. Therefore, the present work aimed to combine both chitosan and β-glucan biopolymers in the same particle, preferably with surface β-glucan localization to simulate the cell wall of some pathogens and to stimulate the immune cells expressing the Dectin-1 receptor...
July 23, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Godfrey A Dzhivhuho, Samantha A Rehrl, Hlumani Ndlovu, William G C Horsnell, Frank Brombacher, Anna-Lise Williamson, Gerald K Chege
Future HIV vaccines are expected to induce effective Th1 cell-mediated and Env-specific antibody responses that are necessary to offer protective immunity to HIV infection. However, HIV infections are highly prevalent in helminth endemic areas. Helminth infections induce polarised Th2 responses that may impair HIV vaccine-generated Th1 responses. In this study, we tested if Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) infection altered immune responses to SAAVI candidate HIV vaccines (DNA and MVA) and an HIV-1 gp140 Env protein vaccine (gp140) and whether parasite elimination by chemotherapy or the presence of Sm eggs (SmE) in the absence of active infection influenced the immunogenicity of these vaccines...
July 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Xia Peng, Yuting Liang, Yue Yin, Huanjin Liao, Li Li
Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only specific therapeutic way for house dust mite (HDM) allergy. To improve the efficacy of SIT, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) were used as vehicles for HDM allergen. The HMSNs were prepared and characterized. The major HDM allergen (Der f2) was loaded onto HMSNs, and the drug loading capacity and release profile were determined. Then the Der f2 loaded HMSNs were injected subcutaneously to mouse model of Der f2 induced allergic asthma and the preventive effects were evaluated...
July 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Aline F Teixeira, Luis G V Fernandes, Antonio Souza Filho, Gisele O Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Ana L T O Nascimento
Leptospirosis is a neglected tropical disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. The lack of an effective vaccine favors the increase of the disease. Currently, surface-exposed proteins are the main targets for the search of vaccine candidates. In this study, we examined whether the surface Lsa46 and Lsa77 proteins, previously identified as laminin and plasminogen binding proteins, have the capacity of inducing protection and sterilizing immunity against challenge with virulent Leptospira in hamster model...
2018: BioMed Research International
Manh-Cuong Vo, Sung-Hoon Jung, Tan-Huy Chu, Hyun-Ju Lee, Thangaraj Jaya Lakshmi, Hye-Seong Park, Hyeoung-Joon Kim, Joon Haeng Rhee, Je-Jung Lee
The therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy may be potentiated in combination with other anticancer therapies that enhance DC function by modulating immune responses and the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of DC vaccination in combination with lenalidomide and programmed death (PD)-1 blockade in a model of murine myeloma. MOPC-315 cell lines were injected subcutaneously to establish myeloma-bearing mice and the following five test groups were established: PBS control, DCs, DCs + lenalidomide, DCs + PD-1 blockade, and DCs + lenalidomide + PD-1 blockade...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Harpreet Kaur, Ankita Thakur, Sukhbir Kaur
Background: Currently, there is no vaccine available for any form of leishmaniasis for human use, including visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The treatment relies on drugs associated with severe toxic side effects and increased parasite drug resistance. At present, there is a strong need to develop and implement a successful vaccine against this disease. Therefore, we evaluated immunoprophylactic potential of a cocktail of low molecular weight antigens along with various adjuvants. Methods: The three antigens (2015, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh), 31kDa, 36 kDa and 51 kDa of L...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Mariana Babor, Chelsea Carpenter, Natalie Khalil, Mario Cortese, Alexander J Mentzer, Grégory Seumois, Christopher D Petro, Lisa A Purcell, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Shane Crotty, Bali Pulendran, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette
In the mid-1990s, whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines were associated with local and systemic adverse events that prompted their replacement with acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in many high-income countries. In the past decade, rates of pertussis disease have increased in children receiving only aP vaccines. We compared the immune responses to aP boosters in individuals who received their initial doses with either wP or aP vaccines using activation-induced marker (AIM) assays. Specifically, we examined pertussis-specific memory CD4+ T cell responses ex vivo, highlighting a type 2/Th2 versus type 1/Th1 and Th17 differential polarization as a function of childhood vaccination...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Rakesh K Singh, Sreenivas Gannavaram, Nevien Ismail, Amit Kaul, Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda, Hira L Nakhasi
The protozoan parasite Leishmania has evolved several strategies to undermine host defense mechanisms by inducing Th2-type adaptive immunity and suppressing effector functions of Th1 phenotype. In our earlier studies, using centrin gene-deleted Leishmania (LdCen-/- ) parasites as an immunogen, we have shown induction of an effective Th1-type immunity and robust memory responses that mediate protection against virulent challenge. However, role of inhibitory signals in Leishmania vaccine induced immunity in general, and LdCen-/- in particular has not been studied...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiao Zhao, Juan Long, Fei Liang, Nan Liu, Yuying Sun, Yongzhi Xi
Antigen-specific tolerizing DNA vaccines are one of the most promising strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. They act by inducing potent immune tolerance instead of generalized immunosuppression. Recently, we developed a novel antigen-specific tolerizing DNA vaccine pcDNA-CCOL2A1 coding for chicken type II collagen (CCII) and confirmed its potent therapeutic efficacy in an established rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Here we report the prophylactic vaccination efficacy of a single 300 μg/kg dose of pcDNA-CCOL2A1 against CIA incidence, severity, and onset...
July 24, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Rosario Guadalupe Labastida-Conde, Oscar Ramírez-Pliego, Mercedes Peleteiro-Olmedo, Delia Vanessa Lopez-Guerrero, Oscar Daniel Badillo-Godinez, María de Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl, Gabriela Rosas-Salgado, África González-Fernández, Fernando R Esquivel-Guadarrama, M Angélica Santana
Neonates have an increased susceptibility to infections, particularly those caused by intracellular pathogens, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. This is partly because of a poor response of neonatal CD4+ T cells, leading to deficient antibody production and a low production of IFN-γ, resulting in deficient elimination of intracellular pathogens. The poor memory response of human neonates has underpinned the need for improving vaccine formulations. Molecular adjuvants that improve the response of neonatal lymphocytes, such as the ligands of toll-like receptors (TLRs), are attractive candidates...
July 5, 2018: Vaccine
Hao Gu, Yaling Liao, Jin Zhang, Ying Wang, Zhiyong Liu, Ping Cheng, Xingyong Wang, Quanming Zou, Jiang Gu
Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) K1 causes meningitis and remains an unsolved problem in neonates, despite the application of antibiotics and supportive care. The cross-reactivity of bacterial capsular polysaccharides with human antigens hinders their application as vaccine candidates. Thus, protein antigens could be an alternative strategy for the development of an E. coli K1 vaccine. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli K1 is a potential vaccine candidate because of its predominant contribution to bacterial pathogenesis and sub-cellular localization...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Paula Martins, Daisy Machado, Thais Holtz Theizen, João Paulo Oliveira Guarnieri, Bruno Gaia Bernardes, Gabriel Piccirillo Gomide, Marcus Alexandre Finzi Corat, Camilla Abbehausen, José Luiz Proença Módena, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues Melo, Karen Noda Morishita, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Clarice Weis Arns, Marcelo Lancellotti
The increase of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Brazil in the last two years leaves a prophylactic measures on alert for this new and emerging pathogen. Concerning of our positive experience, we developed a new prototype using Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicles (OMV) on ZIKV cell growth in a fusion of OMV in the envelope of virus particles. The fusion of nanoparticles resulting from outer membrane vesicles of N. meningitidis with infected C6/36 cells line were analyzed by Nano tracking analysis (NTA), zeta potential, differential light scattering (DLS), scan and scanning transmission eletronic microscopy (SEM and STEM) and high resolution mass spectometry (HRMS) for nanostructure characterization...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rabia Bhardwaj, Ramneek Verma, Dipak Deka, P P Dubey, J S Arora, R S Sethi, T C Tolenkhomba, C S Mukhopadhyay
Background and Aim: Newcastle disease (ND) is considered one of the most important poultry diseases with chicken morbidity and mortality rates up to 100%. Current vaccination programs allow the use of live attenuated vaccines in the field to protect against the disease, which alone is inefficient and requires repeat booster doses. Toll-like receptor agonists (e.g., lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) as adjuvants are the ones, most extensively studied and have shown to be very promising in delivering a robust balanced immune response...
April 2018: Veterinary World
Megan B Vogt, Anismrita Lahon, Ravi P Arya, Alexander R Kneubehl, Jennifer L Spencer Clinton, Silke Paust, Rebecca Rico-Hesse
Mosquito saliva is a very complex concoction of >100 proteins, many of which have unknown functions. The effects of mosquito saliva proteins injected into our skin during blood feeding have been studied mainly in mouse models of injection or biting, with many of these systems producing results that may not be relevant to human disease. Here, we describe the numerous effects that mosquito bites have on human immune cells in mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells. We used flow cytometry and multiplex cytokine bead array assays, with detailed statistical analyses, to detect small but significant variations in immune cell functions after 4 mosquitoes fed on humanized mice footpads...
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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