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Intestinal And Transplantation

Saisai Cheng, Xin Ma, Shijie Geng, Xuemei Jiang, Yuan Li, Luansha Hu, Jianrong Li, Yizhen Wang, Xinyan Han
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is one of the most effective ways to regulate the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated the effect of exogenous fecal microbiota on gut function from the perspective of analysis of the mucosal proteomes in a piglet model. A total of 289 differentially expressed proteins were annotated with 4,068 gene ontology (GO) function entries in the intestinal mucosa, and the levels of autophagy-related proteins in the forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling pathway were increased whereas the levels of proteins related to inflammation response were decreased in the recipient...
September 2018: MSystems
Xiaofei Qi, Xuewei Li, Ye Zhao, Xiaojin Wu, Feng Chen, Xiao Ma, Faming Zhang, Depei Wu
Patients with steroid refractory gastrointestinal (GI) tract graft- vs.-host disease (GvHD) face a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. To accurately assess the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating steroid refractory GI tract GvHD, we conducted a pilot study involving eight patients. Having received FMTs, all patients' clinical symptoms relieved, bacteria enriched, and microbiota composition reconstructed. Compared to those who did not receive FMT, these eight patients achieved a higher progression-free survival...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jacob D de Boer, Joris J Blok, Hein Putter, Jacob J E Koopman, Bart van Hoek, Undine Samuel, Marieke van Rosmalen, Herold J Metselaar, Ian P J Alwayn, Markus Guba, Andries E Braat
BACKGROUND: Acceptance criteria for liver allografts are ever more expanding because of a persisting waiting list mortality. Older livers are therefore offered and used more frequently for transplantation. This study aims to analyze the use and long-term outcome of these transplantations. METHODS: Data was included on 17,811 first liver transplantations and information on livers that were reported for allocation but not transplanted from 2000-2015 in the Eurotransplant region...
October 13, 2018: Liver Transplantation
S Xing, X Zhang, J H Liu, X Huang, P Zhou
Recent experimental strategies to reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have focused largely on modifying innate immunity. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-driven myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)-dependent signalling pathways that initiate adaptive immune function are also critical for the pathogenesis of GVHD. This study aimed to delineate the role of host MyD88 in the development of acute GVHD following fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT)...
October 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
A Hünerwadel, S Fagagnini, G Rogler, C Lutz, S U Jaeger, C Mamie, B Weder, P A Ruiz, M Hausmann
Intestinal fibrosis is thought to be a consequence of excessive tissue repair, and constitutes a common problem in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). While fibrosis seems to require inflammation as a prerequisite it is unclear whether the severity or persistence of inflammation influences the degree of fibrosis. Our aim was to investigate the role of sustained inflammation in fibrogenesis. For the initiation of fibrosis in vivo the models of Il10-/- spontaneous colitis, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced chronic colitis and heterotopic transplantation were used...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carlos R Camara-Lemarroy, Luanne M Metz, V Wee Yong
The brain-gut axis serves as the bidirectional connection between the gut microbiome, the intestinal barrier and the immune system that might be relevant for the pathophysiology of inflammatory demyelinating diseases. People with multiple sclerosis have been shown to have an altered microbiome, increased intestinal permeability and changes in bile acid metabolism. Experimental evidence suggests that these changes can lead to profound alterations of peripheral and central nervous system immune regulation. Besides being of pathophysiological interest, the brain-gut axis could also open new avenues of therapeutic targets...
October 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Cheng-Yung Lin, Hung-Chieh Lee, Ju-Hui Wu, Huai-Jen Tsai
Improving the quality of a siRNA-knockdown cloning vector requires simpler, shorter, and more effective flanking sequences. In this study, we designed such flanking sequences based on those found in zebrafish pre-miR3906, namely, internal element (IE) 1 and IE2. We engineered a vegf-shRNA fragment flanked by an 80-bp IE1/IE2 and then inserted into the 3' UTR of GFP reporter cDNA driven by a cytomegalovirus promoter to obtain a plasmid containing gfp-IE-vegf-shRNA-polA. Upon microinjection of this plasmid into zebrafish embryos, we found that IE flanking sequences could effectively induce the production of vegf-shRNA fragment, which was then processed into a functional siRNA to silence the target vegf121 gene...
October 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Irene Pierantonelli, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a growing cause of chronic liver injury, especially in Western Countries, where it is becoming the most frequent indication for liver transplantation (OLTx). NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of diseases that from simple steatosis (pure NAFLD) can progress to Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the mechanisms behind its progression to NASH have been extensively studied. However, while the processes that determine fat accumulation are mostly clear, the mechanisms associated with the progression of the disease are not fully characterized...
October 8, 2018: Transplantation
Marinela Ingilizova, Shara Epstein, Dong Heun Lee, Neal Patel, Shraddha Patel Babariya, Ricardo Morgenstern, Nikolay Popnikolov, Dagan Coppock
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) colitis is a rare complication of immunosuppression in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Here we describe a case of disseminated MAC infection with colitis following renal transplantation. Despite common pathways of immunosuppression, SOT recipients and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients differ in their typical presentations of MAC infection. Intestinal infections have been more commonly reported in HIV-infected patients than in SOT recipients. The explanation for this difference may be related to HIV's targeted effects on the CD4+ T cell reservoir in gut associated lymphoid tissue...
October 8, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Josef Finsterer, Stephan Iglseder, Julia Wanschitz, Raffi Topakian, Wolfgang N Löscher, Wolfgang Grisold
Hereditary transthyretin(TTR)-related amyloidosis (ATTRm amyloidosis) is an endemic/non-endemic, autosomal-dominant, early- and late-onset, rare, progressive disorder, predominantly manifesting as length-dependent, small-fiber dominant, axonal polyneuropathy and frequently associated with cardiac disorders and other multisystem diseases. ATTRm amyloidosis is due to variants in the TTR gene, with the substitution Val30Met as the most frequent mutation. TTR mutations lead to destabilisation and dissociation of TTR tetramers into variant TTR monomers, and formation of amyloid fibrils, which are consecutively deposited extra-cellularly in various tissues, such as nerves, heart, brain, eyes, intestines, kidneys...
October 8, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Espen Nordheim, Monica Olafsson Storrø, Ane Kristine Natvik, Grete Birkeland Kro, Karsten Midtvedt, Anna Varberg Reisaeter, Morten Hagness, Børre Fevang, Frank O Pettersen
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal helminth which in humans can cause asymptomatic chronic infection maintained for decades through its autoinfective cycle. During solid organ transplantation recipients may unintentionally receive an organ infected with strongyloides. This is a very rare complication but may have deadly outcome if not detected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 8, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Barbara Lattanzi, Silvia Baroncelli, Adriano De Santis, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Gianluca Mennini, Zuleika Michelini, Marinella Lupo, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Massimo Rossi, Lucia Palmisano, Manuela Merli
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation from the gut lumen has been involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage in hepatitis C virus infection. AIM: To investigate the impact of direct-acting antiviral treatment on microbial translocation and T-cell activation, in patients with hepatitis C-related liver disease. METHODS: We enrolled two groups of HCV patients undergoing direct-acting antiviral treatment: patients with fibrosis ≥F3 according to Metavir (Group ≥F3); patients with hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation and Metavir ≥F2 (Group Liver Transplantation + ≥F2)...
October 8, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
T M Chen, Z J Deng, B Hu, H L Hu, H Y Chen, S Y Li, G Liu
Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics, virological and histopathological features, clinical outcome of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disease (EBV(+)LPD) in children. Methods: The clinical and follow-up data of 13 children histopathologically diagnosed as EBV(+)LPD in the Department of Infectious Disease of Beijing Children's Hospital between January 2011 and December 2016 were summarized. Results: Of the 13 patients, 5 were males and 8 females. The median age of disease onset was 6...
October 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Wenting Wen, Haibo Zhang, Junlong Shen, Luxia Wei, Shunong Shen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel disease characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. Many patients with IBS have a poor quality of life due to abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, constipation, and the presence of other diseases. At present, intestinal motility inhibitors, adsorbents, astringents, intestinal mucosal protective agents, and antidepressants have been combined to treat IBS, but the treatment process is long, which results in a large economic burden to patients...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fozia Noor, Anne Kaysen, Paul Wilmes, Jochen G Schneider
The human gut microbiota gained tremendous importance in the last decade as next-generation technologies of sequencing and multiomics analyses linked the role of the microbial communities to host physiology and pathophysiology. A growing number of human pathologies and diseases are linked to the gut microbiota. One of the main mechanisms by which the microbiota influences the host is through its interactions with the host immune system. These interactions with both innate and adaptive host intestinal and extraintestinal immunity, although usually commensalistic even mutualistic with the host, in some cases lead to serious health effects...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Xiang Li, Zhengchao Li, Yuxiao Chang, Fengyi Hou, Zongyu Huang, Han Ni, Ruifu Yang, Yujing Bi
Microbiota-driven variations in the inflammatory response are predicted to regulate host responses to infection. Increasing evidence indicates that the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts have an intimate relationship with each other. Gut microbiota can influence lung immunity whereby gut-derived injurious factors can reach the lungs and systemic circulation via the intestinal lymphatics. The intestinal microbiota's ability to resist colonization can be extended to systemic infections or to pathogens infecting distant sites such as the lungs...
2018: PeerJ
Dulce C Macias-Ceja, Dolores Ortiz-Masiá, Pedro Salvador, Laura Gisbert-Ferrándiz, Carlos Hernández, Martin Hausmann, Gerhard Rogler, Juan V Esplugues, Joaquín Hinojosa, Rafael Alós, Francisco Navarro, Jesus Cosin-Roger, Sara Calatayud, María D Barrachina
Succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is accumulated in inflamed areas and its signaling through succinate receptor (SUCNR1) regulates immune function. We analyze SUCNR1 expression in the intestine of Crohn's disease patients and its role in murine intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. We show that both serum and intestinal succinate levels and SUCNR1 expression in intestinal surgical resections were higher in CD patients than in controls. SUCNR1 co-localized with CD86, CD206, and α-SMA+ cells in human intestine and we found a positive and significant correlation between SUCNR1 and α-SMA expression...
October 2, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Yasuhiro Maruya, Nobuo Kanai, Shinichiro Kobayashi, Kurodo Koshino, Teruo Okano, Susumu Eguchi, Masayuki Yamato
Objective: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are capable of multiple differentiation pathways, imparting immunomodulatory effects, and secreting factors that are important for wound healing. These characteristics can be exploited to decrease the incidence of anastomotic leakage. Methods: In order to delay local wound healing at the anastomotic site, we induced ischemia in a portion of porcine small intestine by ligating vessels. Then, we injected mitomycin C into the serosa of the small intestine above the ligated vessels...
December 2017: Regenerative Therapy
Amandeep K Dhillon, Martin Kummen, Marius Trøseid, Sissel Åkra, Evaggelia Liaskou, Bjørn Moum, Mette Vesterhus, Tom H Karlsen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Johannes R Hov
BACKGROUND & AIMS: One important hypothesis in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) pathophysiology suggests that bacterial products from an inflamed leaky gut leads to biliary inflammation. We aimed to investigate whether circulating markers of bacterial translocation were associated with survival in a Norwegian PSC cohort. METHODS: Serum levels of zonulin, intestinal fatty acid binding protein, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein (LBP) were measured in 166 PSC patients and 100 healthy controls (HC)...
September 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Lei Ye, Lei X Sun, Min H Wu, Jin Wang, Xin Ding, Hui Shi, Sheng L Lu, Lin Wu, Juan Wei, Liang Li, Yu F Wang
Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, and intestinal stem cell (ISC) transplantation may be an optional treatment for patients. However, it is complicated and inefficient to isolate ISCs from the intestine, which hampers its wide application in clinic. We developed a two-step protocol in which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were first induced into Sox17- or Foxa2-positive definitive endoderm cells by activin A treatment and then into Lgr5-positive ISC-like cells by miR-17 and FGF2 treatment...
August 24, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
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