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Exercise Physical Activity

Nadia Gosselin, Andrée-Ann Baril, Ricardo S Osorio, Marta Kaminska, Julie Carrier
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk factors is currently the main intervention for reducing the incidence of dementia, how obstructive sleep apnea affects brain health and whether its treatment can slow neurodegeneration are relevant questions...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Gerhard Blasche, Barbara Szabo, Michaela Wagner-Menghin, Cem Ekmekcioglu, Erwin Gollner
Research is scarce on ways to enhance the effect of rest breaks during mentally demanding tasks. The present study investigated the effectiveness of two rest-break interventions on well-being during an academic lecture. Sixty-six students (53 females, mean age 22.5 years) enrolled in two different university classes of 4-hr duration participated in the study. Two measures of well-being (fatigue and vigor) were assessed immediately before, after, and 20 minutes after the break. A control condition without a break as well as an unstructured break was compared with breaks either encompassing physical activity or a relaxation exercise...
August 16, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Jacob D Meyer, Elisa R Torres, Maggie L Grabow, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Hao Yang Teng, Christopher L Coe, Bruce P Barrett
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise training (AET) programs improve health and well-being. Exercise participation has been related to mindfulness and may be altered by MBSR training. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare 8 wk of MBSR, AET, and no-treatment control during the fall season on objectively measured physical activity in healthy adults. METHODS: Participants (n = 66) wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 d prerandomization and after 8 wk MBSR or AET interventions, or neither (control)...
September 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hallgeir Viken, Line Skarsem Reitlo, Nina Zisko, Javaid Nauman, Nils Petter Aspvik, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Ulrik Wisløff, Dorthe Stensvold
PURPOSE: Dropout from exercise programs, both in the real world and in research, is a challenge, and more information on dropout-predictors is needed for establishing strategies to increase the likelihood of maintaining participants in a prescribed exercise program. The aim of the present study was to determine the dropout rate and its predictors during a 3-year exercise program in older adults. METHODS: In total, 1514 men and women (age 72.4±1.9 years) were included in the present study...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sonia Lippke, Sarah Pomp, Lena Fleig
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: After rehabilitation, it is important to maintain adopted target behaviors such as physical activity and physical exercise. By generating detailed behavioral plans, rehabilitants may translate their intentions into actual behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Conscientiousness would further facilitate this mechanism in a way that rehabilitants who are more conscientious would be more likely to act upon their plans. Research Method/Design: The study presents secondary analyses from a larger intervention in cardiac and orthopedic rehabilitation...
August 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Barbara N Morrison, James McKinney, Saul Isserow, Daniel Lithwick, Jack Taunton, Hamed Nazzari, Astrid M De Souza, Brett Heilbron, Carlee Cater, Mackenzie MacDonald, Benjamin A Hives, Darren E R Warburton
Background: Underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) is the primary cause of sudden cardiac death in masters athletes (>35 years). Preparticipation screening may detect cardiovascular disease; however, the optimal screening method is undefined in this population. The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+) and the American Heart Association (AHA) Preparticipation Screening Questionnaire are often currently used; however, a more comprehensive risk assessment may be required...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Hao Luo, Robert U Newton, Fadi Ma'ayah, Daniel A Galvão, Dennis R Taaffe
Background: Strategies to prevent or attenuate the age-related decline in physical and physiological function and reduce chronic disease risk factors are of clinical importance. Objective: To examine the health benefits of recreational soccer in middle-aged and older adults. Design: Systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Data sources: All available records up until 9 June 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Emily L Mailey, Carrie Mershon, Jillian Joyce, Brandon C Irwin
BACKGROUND: Military spouses are integral to the health of their families, but have demonstrated elevated levels of stress, depression, and anxiety. Participating in health behaviors such as physical activity and healthy eating may have a positive impact on spouses' physical and mental health, but emerging evidence suggests spouses' participation in these behaviors is scarce. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the most frequently reported barriers to health behaviors among military spouses...
August 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Petter Andreas Ringen, Ragnhild S Falk, Bjørnar Antonsen, Ann Faerden, Asgeir Mamen, Eline B Rognli, Dag K Solberg, Egil W Martinsen, Ole A Andreassen
BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness have markedly reduced life expectancy; cardiometabolic disease is a major cause. Psychiatric hospital inpatients have elevated levels of cardiometabolic risk factors and are to a high degree dependent of the routines and facilities of the institutions. Studies of lifestyle interventions to reduce cardiometabolic risk in psychiatric inpatients are few. The current study aimed at assessing the feasibility and effects of a lifestyle intervention including Motivational Interviewing (MI) on physical activity levels, cardiometabolic risk status and mental health status in psychotic disorder inpatients...
August 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Yeela Ben Naftali, Irit Chermesh, Ido Solt, Yolanda Friedrich, Lior Lowenstein
BACKGROUND: Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) has been associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring. OBJECTIVES: To compare the achievement of recommended GWG and lifestyle factors in women with high-risk versus normal-risk pregnancies. METHODS: Pregnant women hospitalized in a gynecological and obstetrics department and pregnant women who arrived at a community clinic for a routine checkup were interviewed and completed questionnaires relating to weight gain and lifestyle factors (e...
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Andrew Mark Edwards, Lia Dutton-Challis, David Cottrell, Joshua H Guy, Florentina Johanna Hettinga
Objective: The positive effect of an audience on performance is anecdotally well known, but the impact of such social facilitation to both performance and the motivation to exercise have not been thoroughly explored. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate verbal encouragement as a means to promote positive behavioural adherence to exercise and augmented performance. Methods: Twelve untrained but active individuals (seven female), age 24±3 years participated in this study...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Charles E Matthews, Joshua N Sampson, Darren R Brenner, Steven C Moore, Kerry S Courneya, Regina G Ziegler, Christine M Friedenreich
BACKGROUND: Lowering endogenous estrogen levels is one mechanism whereby physical activity may lower postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Several prospective studies have suggested that increased 2-hydroxylation of estrogens may also reduce postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but whether or not exercise alters estrogen metabolism through this mechanism is unclear. METHODS: We measured total circulating concentrations of parent estrogens (estrone, estradiol) and 13 estrogen metabolites, including glucuronidated, sulfated, and unconjugated forms, by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 153 postmenopausal women randomized to 12-months of moderate-vigorous exercise and 153 controls...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
J Ricard, H Vlachos, M-E Dumas, J-P Praud, F-P Counil
INTRODUCTION: While the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and low physical activity has been reported in children, little information is available on the impact of SDB on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to assess exercise capacity in children with SDB in order to estimate the relevance of exercise training intervention. METHODS: Twelve young patients with suspected SDB matched with 11 presumably healthy subjects of same age range (aged 13±0...
August 11, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Marelle Heesterbeek, Eddy A Van der Zee, Marieke J G van Heuvelen
BACKGROUND: Dementia affects cognitive functioning, physical functioning, activities of daily living (ADLs), and quality of life (QOL). Pharmacological treatments to manage, cure or prevent dementia remain controversial. Therefore development of non-pharmacological approaches to prevent, or at least delay the onset and progression of dementia is urgently needed. Passive exercise is proposed to be such a non-pharmacological alternative. This study primarily aims to investigate the effects of three different forms of passive exercise on QOL and ADLs of institutionalized patients with dementia...
August 14, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Jantine van den Helder, Carliene van Dronkelaar, Michael Tieland, Sumit Mehra, Tessa Dadema, Bart Visser, Ben J A Kröse, Raoul H H Engelbert, Peter J M Weijs
BACKGROUND: Increased physical activity and dietary protein intake are promising interventions to prevent or treat the age-related decline in physical performance in older adults. There are well-controlled exercise as well as dietary intervention studies that show beneficial effects on physical performance in older adults. In practice, however, weekly group based exercise or nutritional programs may not be as effective. To optimise these exercise programs for community dwelling older adults, a digitally supported and personalised home-based exercise training program has been designed aiming to improve physical performance in older adults...
August 14, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Maria G Glezer, Vladimir A Vygodin
INTRODUCTION: Trimetazidine (TMZ) was shown to reduce angina symptoms and increase the exercise capacity in stable angina (SA) patients. A new formulation allowing a once-daily (od) dosage could improve patients' satisfaction and adherence. METHODS: ODA was a 3-month, observational, multicenter, prospective Russian study in SA patients with persistent symptoms despite therapy. Angina attack frequency, short-acting nitrate (SAN) consumption, adherence to antianginal medications, and overall efficacy and tolerability of TMZ 80 mg od were assessed in a real-world setting...
August 13, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Margaret Schneider
American adolescents overwhelmingly engage in insufficient physical activity (PA). Attention has turned to the role of affect in shaping PA, raising questions as to whether the impact of affect on PA is direct/automatic or cognitively mediated ("Type 1" or "Type 2" in the dual-process model). This study examines whether intrinsic motivation (IM) mediates the association between affect and PA. Adolescents ( N = 142, 48% Male, 20% non-Latino White, mean age = 11.04 years, mean VO2 = 37.19 ml/kg/min, mean BMI = 63...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Elżbieta Biernat, Monika Piątkowska
Purpose: This paper concerns participation of Poles aged 15+ years in leisure time and transport-related physical activity (PA) with a special focus on the life stages. The purpose of the paper was to analyze types of exercises, current and future behavior concerning PA, availability of sport and recreation facilities, and factors having the strongest relation with undertaking PA at a sufficient level according to pro-health recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO). Patients and methods: A survey was carried out on the representative sample (n=2,000)...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Sara M Powell, Kimberley S Fasczewski, Diane L Gill, Paul G Davis
Bariatric surgery is an effective obesity treatment; however, most individuals regain weight following surgery. Following a Lifestyle of Wellness (FLOW) is a psychological skills intervention with strategies designed to increase self-efficacy and promote living a healthy lifestyle including regular physical activity. Eleven participants completed FLOW. Results indicated participants enjoyed the program and intended to continue this lifestyle upon program completion. Interviews indicated FLOW was effective for improving self-perceptions, and exercise motivation...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Lilin Xiong, Jie Li, Ting Xia, Xinyue Hu, Yan Wang, Maonan Sun, Meng Tang
Aims : This study aimed to describe risk reduction behaviors regarding ambient particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 ) among outdoor exercisers and to explore potential factors influencing those behaviors in the urban area of Nanjing, China. Method : A cross-sectional convenience sample survey was conducted among 302 outdoor exercisers in May 2015. Descriptive analysis was used to describe demographics, outdoor physical activity patterns, knowledge of PM2.5 and risk reduction behaviors...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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