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Glycogen Storage Disorder

Lara Kohler, Rosa Puertollano, Nina Raben
Pompe disease is a rare and deadly muscle disorder. As a clinical entity, the disease has been known for over 75 years. While an optimist might be excited about the advances made during this time, a pessimist would note that we have yet to find a cure. However, both sides would agree that many findings in basic science-such as the Nobel prize-winning discoveries of glycogen metabolism, the lysosome, and autophagy-have become the foundation of our understanding of Pompe disease. The disease is a glycogen storage disorder, a lysosomal disorder, and an autophagic myopathy...
August 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Mohammad Arif Hossain, Takashi Miyajima, Keiko Akiyama, Yoshikatsu Eto
BACKGROUND: Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive glycogen storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing enzyme acid α-glucosidase. The adult-onset form, late-onset Pompe disease, has been characterized by glycogen accumulation, primarily in skeletal and smooth muscles, causing weakness of the proximal limb girdle and respiratory compromises. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with acute cerebral stroke at the age of 57 years...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Serena Pagliarani, Sabrina Lucchiari, Gianna Ulzi, Michela Ripolone, Raffaella Violano, Francesco Fortunato, Andreina Bordoni, Stefania Corti, Maurizio Moggio, Nereo Bresolin, Giacomo P Comi
Glycogen disease type III (GSDIII), a rare incurable autosomal recessive disorder due to glycogen debranching enzyme deficiency, presents with liver, heart and skeletal muscle impairment, hepatomegaly and ketotic hypoglycemia. Muscle weakness usually worsens to fixed myopathy and cardiac involvement may present in about half of the patients during disease. Management relies on careful follow-up of symptoms and diet. No common agreement was reached on sugar restriction and treatment in adulthood. We administered two dietary regimens differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, high-protein (HPD) and high-protein/glucose-free (GFD), to our mouse model of GSDIII, starting at one month of age...
August 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zuzana Novosadová, Lenka Polidarová, Martin Sládek, Alena Sumová
The physiological function of the pancreas is controlled by the circadian clock. The aim of this study was to determine whether aging-induced changes in glucose homeostasis affect properties of the circadian clock in the pancreas and/or its sensitivity to disturbances in environmental lighting conditions. mPer2Luc mice aged 24-26 months developed hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia, which was likely due to the Pclo-mediated insulin hyper-secretion and Slc2a2-mediated glucose transport impairment in the pancreas, and due to the alterations in Pp1r3c-related glycogen storage and Sgk1-related glucose transport in the liver...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Deotima Sarkar, Arijit Chakraborty, Adipa Saha, Amar K Chandra
Background Iodine is a nonpareil constituent of thyroid hormones (THs) and a prime regulator of thyroid gland functioning. Although essential at recommended levels for the prevention of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), exposure to excess iodine reportedly causes hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and several other emerging deleterious impacts. The objective of the present study is to explore the influence of excess iodide exposure on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism along with the histoarchitecture of certain associated organs such as the pancreas, liver, kidney, and skeletal and cardiac muscle because information on those aspects was found to be scanty...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Nurulamin Abu Bakar, Nicol C Voermans, Thorsten Marquardt, Christian Thiel, Mirian C H Janssen, Hana Hansikova, Ellen Crushell, Jolanta Sykut-Cegielska, Francis Bowling, Lars MØrkrid, John Vissing, Eva Morava, Monique van Scherpenzeel, Dirk J Lefeber
Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency results in a mixed phenotype of a Glycogen Storage Disorder and a Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (CDG). Screening for abnormal glycosylation has identified more than 40 patients, manifesting with a broad clinical and biochemical spectrum which complicates diagnosis. Together with the availability of D-galactose as dietary therapy, there is an urgent need for specific glycomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We performed glycomics profiling by high-resolution QTOF mass spectrometry in a series of 19 PGM1-CDG patients, covering a broad range of biochemical and clinical severity...
May 10, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Thorsten Hornemann, Irina Alecu, Niels Hagenbuch, Assem Zhakupova, Alessio Cremonesi, Matthias Gautschi, Hans H Jung, Fabian Meienberg, Stefan Bilz, Emanuel Christ, Matthias R Baumgartner, Michel Hochuli
BACKGROUND: 1-Deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs) are atypical sphingolipids. They are formed during sphingolipid de novo synthesis by the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase, due to the alternate use of alanine over its canonical substrate serine. Pathologically elevated 1-deoxySL are involved in several neurological and metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of 1-deoxySL in glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI). METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal observational study (median follow-up 1...
July 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Thomas A H Steunenberg, Fabian Peeks, Irene J Hoogeveen, John J Mitchell, Helen Mundy, Foekje de Boer, Charlotte M A Lubout, Carolina F de Souza, David A Weinstein, Terry G J Derks
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are a group of inherited disorders of carbohydrate metabolism for which dietary management is the cornerstone. Safety and acute complications associated with dietary management have been poorly documented. We hypothesized that safety issues and complications associated with dietary management are prevalent amongst patients with these ultra-rare disorders. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 40 questions and was distributed via eight GSD patient organizations from multiple countries...
July 18, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Ashwin S Akki, Sun M Chung, Bryan J Rudolph, Michelle R Ewart
Background: We describe the differential diagnosis of an obese 12-year-old boy of Mexican origin who presented with a 6-year history of abnormal lipid profile and elevated liver transaminase levels. Methods: The patient underwent routine clinical testing, an abdominal ultrasound and, ultimately, a liver biopsy. Based on the histologic findings, a serum leukocyte lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) assay and DNA sequencing of the lipase A (LIPA) gene were performed. Results: Liver biopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis with clusters of foamy histiocytes in the lobules and portal areas...
July 4, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Federica Raggi, Anna Livia Pissavino, Roberta Resaz, Daniela Segalerba, Andrea Puglisi, Cristina Vanni, Francesca Antonini, Genny Del Zotto, Alessandra Gamberucci, Paola Marcolongo, Maria Carla Bosco, Federica Grillo, Luca Mastracci, Alessandra Eva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD1b) is a rare metabolic and immune disorder caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) and characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis, myeloid dysfunction, and long-term risk of hepatocellular adenomas. Despite maximal therapy, based on a strict diet and on granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment, long-term severe complications still develop. Understanding the pathophysiology of GSD1b is a prerequisite to develop new therapeutic strategies and depends on the availability of animal models...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Allison M Keeler, Marina Zieger, Sophia H Todeasa, Angela L McCall, Jennifer C Gifford, Samantha Birsak, Sourav R Choudhury, Barry J Byrne, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Mai K ElMallah
Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive glycogen storage disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). GAA deficiency results in systemic lysosomal glycogen accumulation and cellular disruption in muscle and the central nervous system (CNS). Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy is ideal for Pompe disease, since a single systemic injection may correct both muscle and CNS pathologies. Using the Pompe mouse (B6;129-GaaTm1Rabn /J), this study sought to explore if AAVB1, a newly engineered vector with a high affinity for muscle and CNS, reduces systemic weakness and improves survival in adult mice...
July 25, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Sara S Ellingwood, Alan Cheng
The synthesis of glycogen represents a key pathway for the disposal of excess glucose while its degradation is crucial for providing energy during exercise and times of need. The importance of glycogen metabolism is also highlighted by human genetic disorders that are caused by mutations in the enzymes involved. In this review, we provide a basic summary on glycogen metabolism and some of the clinical aspects of the classical glycogen storage diseases. Disruptions in glycogen metabolism usually result in some level of dysfunction in the liver, muscle, heart, kidney and/or brain...
September 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Monika Gjorgjieva, Laure Monteillet, Julien Calderaro, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas
Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is a rare genetic pathology characterized by glucose-6 phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency, translating in hypoglycemia during short fasts. Besides metabolic perturbations, GSDI patients develop long-term complications, especially chronic kidney disease (CKD). In GSDI patients, CKD is characterized by an accumulation of glycogen and lipids in kidneys, leading to a gradual decline in renal function. At a molecular level, the activation of the renin-angiotensin system is responsible for the development of renal fibrosis, eventually leading to renal failure...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Jeong-A Lim, Baodong Sun, Rosa Puertollano, Nina Raben
The complexity of the pathogenic cascade in lysosomal storage disorders suggests that combination therapy will be needed to target various aspects of pathogenesis. The standard of care for Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II), a deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha glucosidase, is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Many patients have poor outcomes due to limited efficacy of the drug in clearing muscle glycogen stores. The resistance to therapy is linked to massive autophagic buildup in the diseased muscle...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Mrudu Herbert, Surekha Pendyal, Mugdha Rairikar, Carine Halaby, Robert W Benjamin, Priya S Kishnani
Management of liver glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) primarily involves maintaining normoglycemia through dietary modifications and regular glucose monitoring. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is typically done 3-6 times per day, and may not sufficiently capture periods of asymptomatic hypoglycemia, particularly during sleep. Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) provide 24-h continuous glucose data and have been used effectively in diabetes mellitus to monitor metabolic control and optimize treatment...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Young Mok Lee, Thomas J Conlon, Andrew Specht, Kirsten E Coleman, Laurie M Brown, Ana M Estrella, Monika Dambska, Kathryn R Dahlberg, David A Weinstein
BACKGROUND: Viral mediated gene therapy has progressed after overcoming early failures, and gene therapy has now been approved for several conditions in Europe and the USA. Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type Ia, caused by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α, has been viewed as an outstanding candidate for gene therapy. This follow-up report describes the long-term outcome for the naturally occurring GSD-Ia dogs treated with rAAV-GPE-hG6PC-mediated gene therapy. METHODS: A total of seven dogs were treated with rAAV-GPE-hG6PC-mediated gene therapy...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Ferdos Nazari, Farnaz Sinaei, Yalda Nilipour, François Petit, Shahram Oveisgharan, Mohsen Nassiri-Toosi, Maryam Razzaghy-Azar, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Shahriar Nafissi
OBJECTIVES: Glycogen storage disease type 3 (GSD-III) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by glycogen debranching enzyme deficiency. Various pathogenic mutations of the AGL gene lead to abnormal accumulation of glycogen in liver, skeletal, and cardiac muscles. Here, we report distinct clinical and genetic data of Iranian patients with GSD-III. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data of 5 patients with GSD-III were recorded. Genetic investigation was performed to identify the causative mutations...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Natalie Pursell, Jessica Gierut, Wei Zhou, Michael Dills, Rohan Diwanji, Monika Gjorgjieva, Utsav Saxena, Jr-Shiuan Yang, Anee Shah, Nandini Venkat, Rachel Storr, Boyoung Kim, Weimin Wang, Marc Abrams, Margaux Raffin, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Henryk Dudek, Bob D Brown, Chengjung Lai
Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) of the liver are devastating disorders presenting with fasting hypoglycemia as well as hepatic glycogen and lipid accumulation, which could lead to long-term liver damage. Diet control is frequently utilized to manage the potentially dangerous hypoglycemia, but there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment for preventing hepatomegaly and concurrent liver metabolic abnormalities, which could lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of glycogen synthesis using an RNAi approach to silence hepatic Gys2 expression effectively prevents glycogen synthesis, glycogen accumulation, hepatomegaly, fibrosis, and nodule development in a mouse model of GSD III...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Elisa Vittonatto, Silvia Boschi, Loredana CHIADò-Piat, Valentina Ponzalino, Sara Bortolani, Chiara Brusa, Innocenzo Rainero, Federica Ricci, Liliana Vercelli, Tiziana Mongini
Intrafibral vacuoles are the morphological hallmark in a wide variety of human skeletal muscle disorders with different etiology. In most cases, differential diagnosis is feasible with a routine histochemical work up of muscle biopsy. Ultrastructural analysis is an important confirmatory tool, but it is not widely available. Immunohistochemical stainings for p62, LAMP2 and LC3 are commonly available as tissutal marker for autophagy. We compared the immunohistochemical patterns for autophagic markers p62, LC3 and LAMP2 with routine histochemical markers in 39 biopsies from patients with definite diagnoses of glycogen storage disease type 2 (LOPD or Pompe disease, PD), sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), oculo-pharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) and necrotizing myopathy (NM)...
December 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
Hossein Moravej, Anis Amirhakimi, Alireza Showraki, Hamid Amoozgar, Zahra Hadipour, Ghasem Nikfar
Pompe disease (PD), also known as "glycogen storage disease type II (OMIM # 232300)" is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive glycogen accumulation in cellular lysosomes. It ultimately leads to cellular damage. Infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) is the most severe type of this disease and is characterized by severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and generalized hypotonia. Mutations in the acid alpha-glucosidase ( GAA ) gene, located at locus 17q25.3, are responsible for the disease leading to reduced activity of the acid alpha-glucosidase enzyme...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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