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Glycogen Storage Disorder

Tavleen Sandhu, Michelle Polan, Zhongxin Yu, Rufei Lu, Abhishek Makkar
Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD-IV), or Andersen disease, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results from the deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE). This in turn results in accumulation of abnormal glycogen molecules that have longer outer chains and fewer branch points. GSD-IV manifests in a wide spectrum, with variable phenotypes depending on the degree and type of tissues in which this abnormal glycogen accumulates. Typically, GSD-IV presents with rapidly progressive liver cirrhosis and death in early childhood...
October 12, 2018: JIMD Reports
Periyasamy Radhakrishnan, Amita Moirangthem, Shalini S Nayak, Anju Shukla, Mary Mathew, Katta M Girisha
Glycogen storage disease IV (GSD IV), caused by a defect in GBE1, is a clinically heterogeneous disorder. A classical hepatic form and a neuromuscular form have been described. The severe neuromuscular form presents as a fetal akinesia deformation sequence or a congenital subtype. We ascertained three unrelated families with fetuses/neonates who presented with fetal akinesia deformation sequence to our clinic for genetic counseling. We performed a detailed clinical evaluation, exome sequencing, and histopathology examination of two fetuses and two neonates from three unrelated families presenting with these perinatally lethal neuromuscular forms of GSD IV...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Dysmorphology
Anna Ambrosini, Daniela Calabrese, Francesco Maria Avato, Felice Catania, Guido Cavaletti, Maria Carmela Pera, Antonio Toscano, Giuseppe Vita, Lucia Monaco, Davide Pareyson
BACKGROUND: The worldwide landscape of patient registries in the neuromuscular disease (NMD) field has significantly changed in the last 10 years, with the international TREAT-NMD network acting as strong driver. At the same time, the European Medicines Agency and the large federations of rare disease patient organizations (POs), such as EURORDIS, contributed to a great cultural change, by promoting a paradigm shift from product-registries to patient-centred registries. In Italy, several NMD POs and Fondazione Telethon undertook the development of a TREAT-NMD linked patient registry in 2009, with the referring clinical network providing input and support to this initiative through the years...
October 4, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Rui Ma, Fardad Moein Vaziri, Gregory J Sabino, Nima D Sarmast, Steven M Zove, Vincent J Iacono, Julio A Carrion
Background : Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are genetic disorders that result from defects in the processing of glycogen synthesis or breakdown within muscles, liver, and other cell types. It also manifests with impaired neutrophil chemotaxis and neutropenic episodes which results in severe destruction of the supporting dental tissues, namely the periodontium. Although GSD Type Ib cannot be cured, associated symptoms and debilitating oral manifestations of the disease can be managed through collaborative medical and dental care where early detection and intervention is of key importance...
October 3, 2018: Dentistry journal
Chenia Caldeira Martinez, Tássia Tonon, Tatiéle Nalin, Lilia Farret Refosco, Carolina Fischinger Moura de Souza, Ida Vanessa Doederlein Schwartz
Hepatic glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are inborn errors of metabolism whose dietary treatment involves uncooked cornstarch administration and restriction of simple carbohydrate intake. The prevalence of feeding difficulties (FDs) and orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMDs) in these patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of FDs and OMDs in GSD. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, prospective study of 36 patients (19 males; median age, 12...
September 22, 2018: JIMD Reports
Emanuela Ponzi, Arianna Maiorana, Francesca Romana Lepri, Mafalda Mucciolo, Michela Semeraro, Roberta Taurisano, Giorgia Olivieri, Antonio Novelli, Carlo Dionisi-Vici
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of next generation sequencing in genetic diagnosis of pediatric patients with persistent hypoglycemia. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-four patients investigated through an extensive workup were divided in 3 diagnostic classes based on the likelihood of a genetic diagnosis: (1) single candidate gene (9/64); (2) multiple candidate genes (43/64); and (3) no candidate gene (12/64). Subsequently, patients were tested through a custom gene panel of 65 targeted genes, which included 5 disease categories: (1) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, (2) fatty acid-oxidation defects and ketogenesis defects, (3) ketolysis defects, (4) glycogen storage diseases and other disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, and (5) mitochondrial disorders...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Francesco Menzella, Luca Codeluppi, Mirco Lusuardi, Carla Galeone, Franco Valzania, Nicola Facciolongo
Background: Acute respiratory failure can be triggered by several causes, either of pulmonary or extra-pulmonary origin. Pompe disease, or type II glycogen storage disease, is a serious and often fatal disorder, due to a pathological accumulation of glycogen caused by a defective activiy of acid α-glucosidase (acid maltase), a lysosomal enzyme involved in glycogen degradation. The prevalence of the disease is estimated between 1 in 40,000 to 1 in 300,000 subjects. Case presentation: This case report describes a difficult diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) in a 52 year old Caucasian woman with acute respiratory failure requiring orotracheal intubation and subsequent tracheostomy for long-term mechanical ventilation 24 h/day...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Zoë J Williams, Megan Bertels, Stephanie J Valberg
Type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM1) is a glycogen storage disorder of known cause whereas the basis for type 2 PSSM (PSSM2) is unknown. The same diet and exercise regime prescribed for PSSM1 is recommended for PSSM2; however, the benefit of these recommendations for PSSM2 is undocumented. The objectives of this study were to determine traits of PSSM2 Warmblood horses (WB), determine the changes in exercise responses that occur with a recommended low-starch/fat-supplemented diet and exercise regime, and determine if glycogen concentrations correspond to the severity of signs...
2018: PloS One
Kyle M Stiers, Lesa J Beamer
Human phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) plays a central role in cellular glucose homeostasis, catalyzing the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate. Recently, missense variants of this enzyme were identified as causing an inborn error of metabolism, PGM1 deficiency, with features of a glycogen storage disease and a congenital disorder of glycosylation. Previous studies of selected PGM1 variants have revealed various mechanisms for enzyme dysfunction, including regions of structural disorder and side-chain rearrangements within the active site...
October 2, 2018: Structure
Lara Kohler, Rosa Puertollano, Nina Raben
Pompe disease is a rare and deadly muscle disorder. As a clinical entity, the disease has been known for over 75 years. While an optimist might be excited about the advances made during this time, a pessimist would note that we have yet to find a cure. However, both sides would agree that many findings in basic science-such as the Nobel prize-winning discoveries of glycogen metabolism, the lysosome, and autophagy-have become the foundation of our understanding of Pompe disease. The disease is a glycogen storage disorder, a lysosomal disorder, and an autophagic myopathy...
August 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Mohammad Arif Hossain, Takashi Miyajima, Keiko Akiyama, Yoshikatsu Eto
BACKGROUND: Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive glycogen storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing enzyme acid α-glucosidase. The adult-onset form, late-onset Pompe disease, has been characterized by glycogen accumulation, primarily in skeletal and smooth muscles, causing weakness of the proximal limb girdle and respiratory compromises. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with acute cerebral stroke at the age of 57 years...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Serena Pagliarani, Sabrina Lucchiari, Gianna Ulzi, Michela Ripolone, Raffaella Violano, Francesco Fortunato, Andreina Bordoni, Stefania Corti, Maurizio Moggio, Nereo Bresolin, Giacomo P Comi
Glycogen disease type III (GSDIII), a rare incurable autosomal recessive disorder due to glycogen debranching enzyme deficiency, presents with liver, heart and skeletal muscle impairment, hepatomegaly and ketotic hypoglycemia. Muscle weakness usually worsens to fixed myopathy and cardiac involvement may present in about half of the patients during disease. Management relies on careful follow-up of symptoms and diet. No common agreement was reached on sugar restriction and treatment in adulthood. We administered two dietary regimens differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, high-protein (HPD) and high-protein/glucose-free (GFD), to our mouse model of GSDIII, starting at one month of age...
October 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Zuzana Novosadová, Lenka Polidarová, Martin Sládek, Alena Sumová
The physiological function of the pancreas is controlled by the circadian clock. The aim of this study was to determine whether aging-induced changes in glucose homeostasis affect properties of the circadian clock in the pancreas and/or its sensitivity to disturbances in environmental lighting conditions. mPer2Luc mice aged 24-26 months developed hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia, which was likely due to the Pclo-mediated insulin hyper-secretion and Slc2a2-mediated glucose transport impairment in the pancreas, and due to the alterations in Pp1r3c-related glycogen storage and Sgk1-related glucose transport in the liver...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Deotima Sarkar, Arijit Chakraborty, Adipa Saha, Amar K Chandra
Background Iodine is a nonpareil constituent of thyroid hormones (THs) and a prime regulator of thyroid gland functioning. Although essential at recommended levels for the prevention of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), exposure to excess iodine reportedly causes hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and several other emerging deleterious impacts. The objective of the present study is to explore the influence of excess iodide exposure on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism along with the histoarchitecture of certain associated organs such as the pancreas, liver, kidney, and skeletal and cardiac muscle because information on those aspects was found to be scanty...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Nurulamin Abu Bakar, Nicol C Voermans, Thorsten Marquardt, Christian Thiel, Mirian C H Janssen, Hana Hansikova, Ellen Crushell, Jolanta Sykut-Cegielska, Francis Bowling, Lars MØrkrid, John Vissing, Eva Morava, Monique van Scherpenzeel, Dirk J Lefeber
Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency results in a mixed phenotype of a Glycogen Storage Disorder and a Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (CDG). Screening for abnormal glycosylation has identified more than 40 patients, manifesting with a broad clinical and biochemical spectrum which complicates diagnosis. Together with the availability of D-galactose as dietary therapy, there is an urgent need for specific glycomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We performed glycomics profiling by high-resolution QTOF mass spectrometry in a series of 19 PGM1-CDG patients, covering a broad range of biochemical and clinical severity...
September 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Thorsten Hornemann, Irina Alecu, Niels Hagenbuch, Assem Zhakupova, Alessio Cremonesi, Matthias Gautschi, Hans H Jung, Fabian Meienberg, Stefan Bilz, Emanuel Christ, Matthias R Baumgartner, Michel Hochuli
BACKGROUND: 1-Deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs) are atypical sphingolipids. They are formed during sphingolipid de novo synthesis by the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase, due to the alternate use of alanine over its canonical substrate serine. Pathologically elevated 1-deoxySL are involved in several neurological and metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of 1-deoxySL in glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI). METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal observational study (median follow-up 1...
July 20, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Thomas A H Steunenberg, Fabian Peeks, Irene J Hoogeveen, John J Mitchell, Helen Mundy, Foekje de Boer, Charlotte M A Lubout, Carolina F de Souza, David A Weinstein, Terry G J Derks
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are a group of inherited disorders of carbohydrate metabolism for which dietary management is the cornerstone. Safety and acute complications associated with dietary management have been poorly documented. We hypothesized that safety issues and complications associated with dietary management are prevalent amongst patients with these ultra-rare disorders. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 40 questions and was distributed via eight GSD patient organizations from multiple countries...
July 18, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Ashwin S Akki, Sun M Chung, Bryan J Rudolph, Michelle R Ewart
Background: We describe the differential diagnosis of an obese 12-year-old boy of Mexican origin who presented with a 6-year history of abnormal lipid profile and elevated liver transaminase levels. Methods: The patient underwent routine clinical testing, an abdominal ultrasound and, ultimately, a liver biopsy. Based on the histologic findings, a serum leukocyte lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) assay and DNA sequencing of the lipase A (LIPA) gene were performed. Results: Liver biopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular steatosis with clusters of foamy histiocytes in the lobules and portal areas...
July 4, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Federica Raggi, Anna Livia Pissavino, Roberta Resaz, Daniela Segalerba, Andrea Puglisi, Cristina Vanni, Francesca Antonini, Genny Del Zotto, Alessandra Gamberucci, Paola Marcolongo, Maria Carla Bosco, Federica Grillo, Luca Mastracci, Alessandra Eva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD1b) is a rare metabolic and immune disorder caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) and characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis, myeloid dysfunction, and long-term risk of hepatocellular adenomas. Despite maximal therapy, based on a strict diet and on granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment, long-term severe complications still develop. Understanding the pathophysiology of GSD1b is a prerequisite to develop new therapeutic strategies and depends on the availability of animal models...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Allison M Keeler, Marina Zieger, Sophia H Todeasa, Angela L McCall, Jennifer C Gifford, Samantha Birsak, Sourav R Choudhury, Barry J Byrne, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Mai K ElMallah
Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive glycogen storage disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). GAA deficiency results in systemic lysosomal glycogen accumulation and cellular disruption in muscle and the central nervous system (CNS). Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy is ideal for Pompe disease, since a single systemic injection may correct both muscle and CNS pathologies. Using the Pompe mouse (B6;129-GaaTm1Rabn /J), this study sought to explore if AAVB1, a newly engineered vector with a high affinity for muscle and CNS, reduces systemic weakness and improves survival in adult mice...
July 25, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
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