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Diffusion Models

Xiang Zheng, Yunbin Chen, Youping Xiao, Dechun Zheng, Weibo Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of DKI in early detection of radio-insensitive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenografts in nude mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two nude mice were implanted with CNE-1 (low radio-sensitive) and CNE-2 (high radio-sensitive) NPC cell lines, and their respective xenografts were obtained. Then, the NPC-bearing nude mice were exposed to different doses of fraction irradiation, which are divided into non-irradiated group (G0), 10Gy group (G1), 20Gy group (G2), 30Gy group (G3), 3rd (G4) and 5th (G5) days after the entire dose (30y) of irradiation...
August 8, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
James P Charles, Chan-Hong Moon, William Anderst
Accurate individualized muscle architecture data is crucial for generating subject-specific musculoskeletal models to investigate movement and dynamic muscle function. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DTI) has emerged as a promising method of gathering muscle architecture data in vivo, however its accuracy in estimating parameters such as muscle fiber lengths for creating subject-specific musculoskeletal models has not been tested. Here we provide a validation of the method of using anatomical MRI and DTI to gather muscle architecture data in vivo, by directly comparing those data obtained from MR scans of 3 human cadaveric lower limbs to those from dissections...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Brent Munsell, Sonal Bhatia, William A Vandergrift, Chris Rorden, Carrie McDonald, Jonathan Edwards, Ruben Kuzniecky, Leonardo Bonilha
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether deep learning applied to whole-brain presurgical structural connectomes could be used to predict postoperative seizure outcome more accurately than inference from clinical variables in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Fifty patients with unilateral TLE were classified either as having persistent disabling seizures (SZ) or becoming seizure-free (SZF) at least 1 year after epilepsy surgery. Their presurgical structural connectomes were reconstructed from whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging...
August 10, 2018: Epilepsia
J M Wentz, A R Mendenhall, D M Bortz
Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled, in part, by the insulin-like signaling and heat shock response pathways. Following thermal stress, expression levels of small heat shock protein-16.2 show a spatial patterning across the 20 intestinal cells that reside along the length of the worm. Here, we present a hypothesized mechanism that could lead to this patterned response and develop a mathematical model of this system to test our hypothesis. We propose that the patterned expression of heat shock protein is caused by a diffusion-driven instability within the pseudocoelom, or fluid-filled cavity, that borders the intestinal cells in C...
August 10, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
M H Kabir, M Mimura, J C Tsai
The Neolithic transition began the spread of early agriculture throughout Europe through interactions between farmers and hunter-gatherers about 10,000 years ago. Archeological evidence produced by radiocarbon dating indicates that the expanding velocity of farming is roughly constant all over Europe. Theoretical understanding of such evidence has been performed from mathematical modeling viewpoint. However, the expanding velocity determined by existing modeling approaches is faster than the observed velocity...
August 10, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Alejo Mosqueira, Pablo A Camino, Francisco J Barrantes
Translational motion of neurotransmitter receptors is key for determining receptor number at the synapse and hence, synaptic efficacy. We combine live-cell STORM superresolution microscopy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) with single-particle tracking, mean-squared displacement (MSD), turning angle, ergodicity, and clustering analyses to characterize the lateral motion of individual molecules and their collective behaviour. nAChR diffusion is highly heterogeneous: subdiffusive, Brownian and, less frequently, superdiffusive...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chiaki Hori, Jill Gaskell, Dan Cullen, Grzegorz Sabat, Philip E Stewart, Kathleen Lail, Yi Peng, Kerrie Barry, Igor V Grigoriev, Annegret Kohler, Laure Fauchery, Francis Martin, Carolyn A Zeiner, Jennifer M Bhatnagar
Fungi play a key role cycling nutrients in forest ecosystems but the mechanisms remain uncertain. To clarify the enzymatic processes involved in wood decomposition, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics of extensively decayed lodgepole pine were examined by RNAseq and LC-MS/MS, respectively. Following de novo metatranscriptome assembly, 52,011 contigs were searched for functional domains and homology to database entries. Contigs similar to to basidiomycete transcripts dominated and many of these were most closely related to ligninolytic white rot fungi or cellulolytic brown rot fungi...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Khemayanto Hidayat, Hui-Juan Li, Bi-Min Shi
The associations between anthropometric factors and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) risk remain inconclusive. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify these associations. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant prospective observational studies. A random-effects model was used to generate the summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 22 prospective cohort studies, with over 20,000 NHL cases, were included in the present meta-analysis. The summary RRs of NHL risk were 1...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Zaina Algarni, Abhay Singh, Usha Philipose
Although various synthesis and characterization strategies have been employed for the synthesis of crystalline nanowires, there is very little work done on development of low-dimensional amorphous semiconductors. This paper presents a simple strategy to grow amorphous InSb ( a -InSb) nanowires (NWs) in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. The NWs were grown on Si substrate coated with indium film and the lack of crystallinity in the as-grown stoichiometric NWs was ascertained by Raman spectroscopy and electron transport measurements...
August 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
Iztok Urbančič, Juliane Brun, Dilip Shrestha, Dominic Waithe, Christian Eggeling, Jakub Chojnacki
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) acquires its lipid membrane from the plasma membrane of the infected cell from which it buds out. Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 envelope is an environment of very low mobility, with the diffusion of incorporated proteins two orders of magnitude slower than in the plasma membrane. One of the reasons for this difference is thought to be the HIV-1 membrane composition that is characterised by a high degree of rigidity and lipid packing, which has, until now, been difficult to assess experimentally...
August 8, 2018: Viruses
Nicola Cantore, Charles Fang Chin Cheng
Environmental goods are goods used or produced by industry that reduce air and water pollution and optimize the use of resources in production. Despite several Sustainable Development Goals explicitly calling for resilient and sustainable development, the diffusion of such goods is still low, especially in developing countries. Only sporadic research on the determinants of international trade of environmental goods is available. Based on the OECD classification of environmental goods, this gap is filled by adopting a gravity model, using trade data over a time span of 15 years from 1999 to 2014 across 71 countries...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yijun Yao, Yuting Xiao, Fang Mao, Huanyu Chen, Iason Verginelli
In this study we investigate the role of the sub-foundation soil texture in determining groundwater source-to-indoor air attenuation factors. A three-dimensional numerical model was used to simulate a series of two-layer scenarios, involving different sub-foundation and deep soil textures, foundation types and groundwater source depths. The results indicate that if the sub-foundation soil permeability is larger than 10-11  m2 , the convection dominates the soil gas transport into the building, and the indoor air concentration increases by half an order of magnitude with one order of magnitude increase of the sub-foundation soil permeability...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ajay Jose, K R Sunaja Devi, Dephan Pinheiro, S Lakshmi Narayana
The effect of surfactant and dopant on the properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles were studied by preparing polyethylene glycol (PEG) capped ZnO and tungsten doped PEG capped ZnO nanoparticles via the electrochemical method. These nanoparticles were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (UV-DRS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Dispersive Analysis of X Rays (EDAX). The photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye using these nanoparticles was studied under visible light...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Shima Nasri, Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee, Mohammad Bayat
We describe the synthesis of an end-functionalized fluorescent dye-labeled poly(N-(2-thiolethyl methacrylamide) as a metal chelating polymer with a very narrow size distribution and controllable molecular weights by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. In following, we apply this water-soluble metal-chelating polymer for surface modification of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) by ligand exchange method. The obtained poly(N-(2-thiolethyl methacrylamide)/CdTe QDs hybrid was fully characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
August 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
David Welch, Manuela Buonanno, Igor Shuryak, Gerhard Randers-Pehrson, Henry M Spotnitz, David J Brenner
Drug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a target for new antimicrobial technologies. Far-UVC technology is an emerging disinfection method that directly kills microorganisms using light. In contrast with conventional UV sterilization, far-UVC light has antimicrobial capabilities without apparent harm to mammalian cells. This study examines the application of 224 nm far-UVC light delivered from a laser using an optical diffuser towards the goal of protecting against bacterial invasion around skin penetrating devices...
2018: PloS One
S Panzuela, R Delgado-Buscalioni
The collective motion of membrane lipids over hundreds of nanometers and nanoseconds plays an essential role in the formation of submicron complexes of lipids and proteins in the cell membrane. These dynamics are difficult to access experimentally and are currently poorly understood. One of the conclusions of the celebrated Saffman-Debrück (SD) theory is that lipid disturbances smaller than the Saffman length (microns) are not affected by the hydrodynamics of the embedding solvent. Using molecular dynamics and coarse-grained models with implicit hydrodynamics we show that this is not true...
July 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Emilia Neag, Dana Malschi, Andrada Măicăneanu
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of Lemna minor for Toluidine Blue (TB) removal. Influence of the initial concentration over the removal process was considered. Experimental data have been analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Elovich isotherm models. In addition, several kinetic models, pseudo-first-, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle and film diffusion models were considered. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm suggested a favorable adsorption of TB by Lemna minor plants...
August 24, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Pai Li, Zhenyu Li, Jinlong Yang
Alkali metal atom adsorption energy is an important descriptor for anode material design. In this study, an energy decomposition model is developed to provide valuable insights in understanding how the adsorption behavior can be tuned. As an example, Li adsorption on graphene enhanced by a tensile strain is analyzed based on this model. Such an analysis then motivates us to find a system with similar electronic structure but larger lattice parameter compared to graphene as an anode material. Our first principles calculations indicate that B2S, as an isoelectronic system of graphene, is a good candidate...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
H A Badie, H Abbas
The study aims to elaborate novel self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) of resveratrol which has neuro-protective, anti-aging, anticancer activity. Resveratrol loaded LCNPs fabrication and optimization for transdermal delivery was assessed via a quality by design approach based on 23 full factorial designs. The cubic phase of LCNPs was successfully prepared using GMO (glyceryl monooleate) via the emulsification technique. Based on the factorial design, the independent operating variables significantly affected the five dependent responses...
August 10, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Jangwoen Lee, Gary Rockwood, Brian Logue, Erica Manandhar, Ilona Petrikovics, Changhoon Han, Vik Bebarta, Sari B Mahon, Tanya Burney, Matthew Brenner
INTRODUCTION: Cyanide (CN) poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current CN exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is capable of reacting with CN to form the less toxic thiocyanate with high efficiency, even without the sulfurtransferase rhodanese. We investigated a soluble DMTS formulation with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification which could be delivered via intramuscular (IM) injection in a mass casualty situation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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