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Diffusion Models

Diego R V Guelfi, Enric Brillas, Fábio Gozzi, Amílcar Machulek, Silvio C de Oliveira, Ignasi Sirés
The main objective of this work is to demonstrate the viability of solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) process to degrade pesticides in urban wastewater matrix, selecting the herbicide bentazon as a model molecule. In order to provide a correct assessment of the role of the different oxidants and catalysts involved, bentazon was comparatively treated by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2 O2 (AO-H2 O2 ), electro-Fenton (EF) and UVA-assisted EF (i.e., PEF) processes as well, either in sulfate or chloride media...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Masahiro Shimizu, Jun Matsuoka, Hiroshi Kato, Takeyuki Kato, Masayuki Nishi, Heidy Visbal, Kohji Nagashima, Masaaki Sakakura, Yasuhiko Shimotsuma, Hiroki Itasaka, Kazuyuki Hirao, Kiyotaka Miura
The Soret effect or thermodiffusion is the temperature-gradient driven diffusion in a multicomponent system. Two important conclusions have been obtained for the Soret effect in multicomponent silicate melts: first, the SiO2 component concentrates in the hot region; and second, heavier isotopes concentrate in the cold region more than lighter isotopes. For the second point, the isotope fractionation can be explained by the classical mechanical collisions between pairs of particles. However, as for the first point, no physical model has been reported to answer why the SiO2 component concentrates in the hot region...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wajee Jaikaew, Adrian Ruff, Panida Khunkaewla, Thomas Erichsen, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Albert Schulte
Robotic square wave voltammetry (SVW) in 24-well microtiter plates has been developed as a reliable non-manual procedure for quantifying drug release from pharmaceutical hydrogels. The assay was established using 1% agarose disks containing Paracetamol® (PCT) as a model preparation. Computerized buffer delivery and SVW in calibration and hydrogel sample wells were performed by a three-electrode arrangement combined with a thin plastic tube. For the glassy carbon working electrode of the assembly the upper limit of the linear response and the lower detection limit of sequential 'in-well' PCT-SVW were 1000 and 0...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Cavan P Bailey, Mary Figueroa, Sana Mohiuddin, Wafik Zaky, Joya Chandra
Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and brainstem gliomas are some of the most challenging cancers to treat in children, with no effective therapies and 5-year survival at ~2% for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) patients. The standard of care for pHGG as a whole remains surgery and radiation combined with chemotherapy, while radiation alone is standard treatment for DIPG. Unfortunately, these therapies lack specificity for malignant glioma cells and have few to no reliable biomarkers of efficacy. Recent discoveries have revealed that epigenetic disruption by highly conserved mutations in DNA-packaging histone proteins in pHGG, especially DIPG, contribute to the aggressive nature of these cancers...
October 18, 2018: Bioengineering
Hualing Jiang, Xueqin Li, Lei Tian, Tao Wang, Qi Wang, Pingping Niu, Pinghua Chen, Xubiao Luo
In this study, a laminated nanocomposite of Y-Zr-Al with significantly high surface area of 256.6 m2 /g was successfully prepared, and was used to investigate the defluoridation performance of sorbent based on Yttrium. The composite showed high fluoride sorption performance, especially at low F- concentration conditions. SEM, BET, Elemental Mapping and XPS were used to characterize physicochemical properties of the composite in detail. Several influence factors including pH, presence of coexisting anions and contacting time were detailly investigated...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Han Xiao, Dingbao Wang, Stephen C Medeiros, Matthew V Bilskie, Scott C Hagen, Carlton R Hall
Climate change such as altered frequency and intensity of storm surge from tropical cyclones can cause saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. In this study, a reference SEAWAT model and a diagnostic SEAWAT model are developed to simulate the temporal variation of surficial aquifer total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations after the occurrence of a storm surge for exploration of the effects of storm surge on the extent of saltwater intrusion into the surficial aquifer in coastal east-central Florida (USA)...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
J Sedlakova-Kadukova, A Kopcakova, L Gresakova, A Godany, P Pristas
Zinc biosorption and bioaccumulation by a novel extremely Zn tolerant Streptomyces K11 strain isolated from highly alkaline environment were examined. Temperature, similarly as biosorbent preparation, has negligible effect on the biosorption capacity but very strong effect on the process kinetics. Initial adsorption rate increased almost 10 times with the temperature increase from 10 to 50 °C and it was 30 times higher when non-dried biomass was used. The biosorption study revealed that the process was mainly chemically controlled, however at lower temperature intra-particle diffusion played significant role in the zinc biosorption...
October 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ahmed G Ibrahim, Alaaeldine Sh Saleh, Emad M Elsharma, Essam Metwally, Tharwat Siyam
Pollution of the environment associated with discharging the toxic heavy metals in water makes us focus the light to solve this problem. In continuation of our efforts, we aim in this work to utilize the graft copolymer (chitosan‑g‑maleic acid) to purify water from copper and nickel ions. The graft copolymer has been synthesized using gamma radiation and the grafting conditions have been optimized by studying the influence of acetic acid concentration (0.5-10% V/V), monomer concentration (5-17.5% w/v), chitosan concentration (0...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chamari Wijesooriya, Charles Nyamekye, Emily A Smith
Biological membranes serve as the fundamental unit of life, allowing the compartmentalization of cellular contents into subunits with specific functions. The bilayer structure, consisting of lipids, proteins, small molecules and sugars, also serves many other complex functions in addition to maintaining the relative stability of the inner compartments. Signal transduction, regulation of solute exchange, active transport, and energy transduction through ion gradients all take place at biological membranes, primarily with the assistance of membrane proteins...
October 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Pau Juan-García, Mehlika A Kiser, Oliver Schraa, Leiv Rieger, Lluís Corominas
This paper introduces the application of a fully dynamic air distribution model integrated with a biokinetic process model and a detailed process control model. By using a fully dynamic air distribution model, it is possible to understand the relationships between aeration equipment, control algorithms, process performance, and energy consumption, thus leading to a significantly more realistic prediction of water resource recovery facility (WRRF) performance. Consequently, this leads to an improved design of aeration control strategies and equipment...
October 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Csaba Varga, Marina L Brash, Durda Slavic, Patrick Boerlin, Rachel Ouckama, Alexandru Weis, Mike Petrik, Cynthia Philippe, Melanie Barham, Michele T Guerin
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of colibacillosis in poultry, an economically important disease worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, early and late systemic bacterial infections due to APEC were the most commonly reported diseases in broiler chickens. In 2016, Ontario poultry veterinarians submitted samples from 331 cases of broiler and broiler breeder chickens with a high suspicion of colibacillosis to the Animal Health Laboratory (Guelph, Ontario, Canada) for bacterial culture. Escherichia coli isolates from those samples were tested with multiplex PCR to detect the presence of 13 virulence-associated genes...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Botond Tyukodi, Damien Vandembroucq, Craig E Maloney
We present results on tagged particle diffusion in a mesoscale lattice model for sheared amorphous material in athermal quasistatic conditions. We find a short time diffusive regime and a long time diffusive regime whose diffusion coefficients depend on system size in dramatically different ways. At short time, we find that the diffusion coefficient, D, scales roughly linearly with system length, D∼L^{1.05}. This short time behavior is consistent with particle-based simulations. The long-time diffusion coefficient scales like D∼L^{1...
October 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jeffrey M Cochran, David R Busch, Anaïs Leproux, Zheng Zhang, Thomas D O'Sullivan, Albert E Cerussi, Philip M Carpenter, Rita S Mehta, Darren Roblyer, Wei Yang, Keith D Paulsen, Brian Pogue, Shudong Jiang, Peter A Kaufman, So Hyun Chung, Mitchell Schnall, Bradley S Snyder, Nola Hylton, Stefan A Carp, Steven J Isakoff, David Mankoff, Bruce J Tromberg, Arjun G Yodh
Ideally, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) assessment should predict pathologic complete response (pCR), a surrogate clinical endpoint for 5-year survival, as early as possible during typical 3- to 6-month breast cancer treatments. We introduce and demonstrate an approach for predicting pCR within 10 days of initiating NAC. The method uses a bedside diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) technology and logistic regression modeling. Tumor and normal tissue physiological properties were measured longitudinally throughout the course of NAC in 33 patients enrolled in the American College of Radiology Imaging Network multicenter breast cancer DOSI trial (ACRIN-6691)...
October 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Philip H Handle, Francesco Sciortino
We report a numerical test of the Adam-Gibbs relation for the TIP4P/2005 model of water. The configurational entropy is here evaluated as the logarithm of the number of different basins in the potential energy landscape sampled in equilibrium conditions. Despite the non-monotonic behaviour which characterise the density dependence of the diffusion coefficient, the Adam-Gibbs relation is satisfied within the numerical precision in a wide range of densities and temperatures. We also show that expressions based on the excess entropy (the logarithm of the number of sampled microstates in phase space) fail in the region of densities where a tetrahedral hydrogen bond network develops...
2018: Molecular Physics
Paola Monterroso Diaz, Samir V Jenkins, Kinan Alhallak, Daria Semeniak, Robert J Griffin, Ruud P M Dings, Narasimhan Rajaram
There is a critical need to identify patients with radiation-resistant tumors early after treatment commencement. In this study, we use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) to investigate changes in vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin concentration in A549 radiation-sensitive and resistant tumors treated with a clinically relevant dose fraction of 2 Gy. DRS spectra were acquired before, immediately after, 24, and 48 hours after radiation. Our data reveals a significantly higher reoxygenation (sO2 ) in the radiation-resistant tumors 24 and 48h after treatment, and provides promising evidence that DRS can discern between the reoxygenation trends of radiation-sensitive and resistant tumors...
August 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Settimio Pacelli, Sayantani Basu, Cory Berkland, Jinxi Wang, Arghya Paul
Introduction: Physical and mechanical properties of ceramic-based scaffolds can be modulated by introducing hydrogel coatings on their surface. For instance, hydrogels can be used as elastic layers to overcome the brittleness of synthetic ceramic materials or to control the delivery of essential osteogenic factors. In this work, we aimed to achieve both goals by fabricating a novel cytocompatible hydrogel made of gelatin-alginate as a coating for beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds...
June 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Mansour Ashoor, Abdollah Khorshidi, Leila Sarkhosh
Aim: One of the most important microvasculatures' geometrical variables is number of pores per capillary length that can be evaluated using MRI. The transportation of blood from inner to outer parts of the capillary is studied by the pores and the relationship among capillary wall thickness, size and the number of pores is examined. Background: Characterization of capillary space may obtain much valuable information on the performance of tissues as well as the angiogenesis...
January 2019: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Michal E Komlosh, Dan Benjamini, Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Sarah King, Margalit Haber, Alexandru V Avram, Lynne A Holtzclaw, Abhishek Desai, Carlo Pierpaoli, Peter J Basser
Double pulsed-field gradient (dPFG) MRI is proposed as a new sensitive tool to detect and characterize tissue microstructure following diffuse axonal injury. In this study dPFG MRI was used to estimate apparent mean axon diameter in a diffuse axonal injury animal model and in healthy fixed mouse brain. Histological analysis was used to verify the presence of the injury detected by MRI.
October 2018: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials: the Official Journal of the International Zeolite Association
Martin Gorges, Kelly Del Tredici, Jens Dreyhaupt, Heiko Braak, Albert C Ludolph, Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek
A sequential transaxonal disease spread of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated TDP-43 pathology in four stages has been defined by post-mortem data, which have been transferred to in vivo imaging by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies. Here, we aimed to investigate whether DTI meta-data are consistent with this proposed pattern of progression in ALS. A systematic literature search using the search engines PubMed and Scopus yielded a total of 370 publications. Of these, 57 studies with cross-sectional data and 10 longitudinal studies of human whole-brain analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA) were included in the final data analysis...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chen Chu, Fengxian Wang, Huayong Zhang, Yun Zhu, Chun Wang, Weibo Chen, Jian He, Lingyun Sun, Zhengyang Zhou
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has proven to be sensitive for detecting early injury to the parotid gland in pSS (primary Sjögren's syndrome). Here, we explored the application of ADC histogram and texture analyses for evaluating the disease activity of pSS. A total of 55 patients with pSS who met the classification criteria of the 2002 AECG criteria prospectively underwent 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including DWI (b = 0 and 1000 s/mm2 ). According to the ESSDAI score, 35 patients were categorized into the low-activity group (ESSDAI < 5) and 20 into the moderate-high-activity group (ESSDAI ≥ 5)...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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