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Functional impairment of adult adhd

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097761/social-function-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adults-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Anita K Chisholm, Vicki A Anderson, Natalie A Pride, Stephanie Malarbi, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1...
August 11, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084523/identification-of-neurophysiological-biotypes-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer-Carius, Ute Strehl, Augustin Kelava, Florian Benedikt Häußinger, Andreas Jochen Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
AIM: Findings on neurophysiological alterations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been proposed to underlie ADHD symptoms, with different etiological pathways for different patient biotypes. We aimed at determining whether neurophysiological deviations confirm distinct neurophysiological profiles in ADHD, thus providing direct evidence for the endophenotype concept. METHODS: Neurophysiological biotypes were investigated in 87 adult patients with ADHD using cluster analysis...
August 7, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079436/the-course-of-neurocognitive-functioning-and-prediction-of-behavioral-outcome-of-adhd-affected-and-unaffected-siblings
#3
M van Lieshout, M Luman, L J S Schweren, J W R Twisk, S V Faraone, D J Heslenfeld, C A Hartman, P J Hoekstra, B Franke, J K Buitelaar, N N J Rommelse, J Oosterlaan
Longitudinal studies on the course of neurocognitive functioning of children with ADHD and their unaffected siblings are scarce. Also, it is unclear to what extent that course is related to ADHD outcomes. A carefully phenotyped large sample of 838 Caucasian participants (ADHD-combined type: n = 339, unaffected siblings: n = 271, controls: n = 228; mean age at baseline = 11.4 years, mean age at follow-up = 17.3 years, SD = 3.2) was used to investigate differences in the course of neurocognitive functioning of ADHD affected and unaffected siblings versus controls, and to investigate the relationship between neurocognitive change and ADHD outcomes...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078337/executive-functioning-and-impairment-in-emerging-adult-college-students-with-adhd-symptoms
#4
Morgan M Dorr, Kevin J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To better understand current issues with adult ADHD assessment contributing to adult ADHD being under recognized and undertreated. METHOD: This study examined the relationship between symptoms, impairment, and executive functioning (EF) in a college sample. RESULTS: Among individuals screening negative for ADHD, those higher in EF experienced significantly less impairment than those lower in EF. Executive functioning was shown to have a negative relationship with impairment while ADHD symptomology was shown to have a positive relationship with impairment...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013920/neural-correlates-of-cognitive-function-and-symptoms-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adults
#5
Kuaikuai Duan, Jiayu Chen, Vince D Calhoun, Dongdong Lin, Wenhao Jiang, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Martine Hoogman, Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu
While gray matter (GM) anomalies have been reported for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating their associations with cognitive deficits and individual symptom domains can help pinpoint the neural underpinnings critical for the pathology of ADHD, particularly the persist form of ADHD. In this work, we performed both independent component analysis and voxel-based morphometry analysis on whole brain GM of 486 adults including 214 patients, 96 unaffected siblings, and 176 healthy controls, in relation to cognition and symptoms...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986411/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-tourette-syndrome-a-historical-perspective-its-current-use-and-the-influence-of-comorbidities-in-treatment-response
#6
REVIEW
Marco Grados, Rachel Huselid, Laura Duque-Serrano
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of impairing motor and vocal tics which often persists adolescent and adult years. In this older refractory group, standard treatments such as pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic interventions may only have limited effects. Based on electrical cortical dysregulation in individuals with TS, a novel approach has employed brain stimulation strategies to modulate the putative aberrant neural electrical activity in pathways that may underlie tics, such as insula-supplementary motor area (SMA) connectivity...
July 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957167/young-adult-mental-health-and-functional-outcomes-among-individuals-with-remitted-persistent-and-late-onset-adhd
#7
Jessica C Agnew-Blais, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Andrea Danese, Jasmin Wertz, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with mental health problems and functional impairment across many domains. However, how the longitudinal course of ADHD affects later functioning remains unclear.AimsWe aimed to disentangle how ADHD developmental patterns are associated with young adult functioning. METHOD: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study is a population-based cohort of 2232 twins born in England and Wales in 1994-1995...
June 29, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878817/distinct-dimensions-defining-the-adult-adhd-self-report-scale-implications-for-assessing-inattentive-and-hyperactive-impulsive-symptoms
#8
Kasey Stanton, Miriam K Forbes, Mark Zimmerman
There has been growing interest in studying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood as a result of research indicating that ADHD often persists into adulthood and frequently is comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Adult ADHD symptoms are most commonly assessed via self-report, but prior research examining the structure of self-reported adult ADHD symptoms has yielded discrepant results. Explicating the factor structure of ADHD symptom measures is essential to determine if such self-report measures assess symptom dimensions showing distinctive relations with other psychopathology and psychosocial functioning...
June 7, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874283/olfactory-functioning-in-adults-with-tourette-syndrome
#9
Martin Kronenbuerger, Patrizia Belenghi, Justus Ilgner, Jessica Freiherr, Thomas Hummel, Irene Neuner
Tourette syndrome is a chronic tic disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder can be found. The overlap between neuroanatomical regions and neurotransmitter systems in the olfactory system and the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome let us hypothesize altered olfactory performance in Tourette syndrome. The main objective of this study was to systematically assess olfactory functioning in subjects with Tourette syndrome and to compare it to healthy controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847836/the-effect-of-methylphenidate-on-decision-making-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Hila Z Gvirts, Yael D Lewis, Shira Dvora, Kfir Feffer, Uriel Nitzan, Ziv Carmel, Yechiel Levkovitz, Hagai Maoz
Impaired decision making in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been reported in several studies. Although methylphenidate (MPH) is known to ameliorate impaired decision making in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has not yet been examined in patients with BPD. We therefore assessed the efficacy of a single dose of MPH on cognitive functions and decision making in patients with BPD. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. The study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled, random block order cross-over trial...
July 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758392/effects-of-mindfulness-and-psychoeducation-on-working-memory-in-adult-adhd-a-randomised-controlled-fmri-study
#11
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)...
July 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754497/the-compensatory-adhd-behaviors-scale-cabs-development-and-initial-validation
#12
Peter J Castagna, Scott Roye, Matthew Calamia
Several measures are available that assess inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and executive functioning deficits. Treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and skill-based academic interventions focus on improving compensatory strategies to ameliorate functional impairment; however, no measure exists that examines the compensatory behaviors adults utilize to compensate for the functional deficits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The current study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Compensatory ADHD Behaviors Scale (CABS)...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690816/is-motor-activity-during-cognitive-assessment-an-indicator-for-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-adults
#13
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Tabea S Send, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVES: Several approaches, ranging from self-ratings of symptoms and impairments to objective neuropsychological testing, have been utilized during clinical evaluation in order to assess symptom and performance validity of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Motor activity has not been considered yet in this context, which is surprising given that hyperactivity is a prominent characteristic of ADHD. Hence, the goal of the present study was to explore the incremental value of motor activity when assessing the credibility of individuals with adult ADHD at clinical evaluation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683192/investigating-late-onset-adhd-a-population-cohort-investigation
#14
Miriam Cooper, Gemma Hammerton, Stephan Collishaw, Kate Langley, Ajay Thapar, Søren Dalsgaard, Evie Stergiakouli, Kate Tilling, George Davey Smith, Barbara Maughan, Michael O'Donovan, Anita Thapar, Lucy Riglin
BACKGROUND: Adult ADHD has been assumed to be a continuation of childhood-onset ADHD. However, recent studies have identified individuals with ADHD in adulthood who have not had ADHD in childhood. Whether or not these individuals have a 'typical' neurodevelopmental profile is not clear. METHODS: We tested two explanations for the emergence of apparent late-onset ADHD symptomatology using the ALSPAC epidemiological cohort, by grouping individuals according to their scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) hyperactivity subscale at ages 12 and 17 years...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660590/detection-of-neurodevelopmental-diversity-in-memory-clinics-validation-of-a-self-report-measure
#15
Alon Seifan, Chiashin Shih, Katherine Hackett, Max J Pensack, Matthew W Schelke, Michael Lin, Hemali Patel, Christine A Ganzer, Mahreen Ahmed, Robert Krikorian, Peter Tamboer, Adolfo M Henriquez, Richard S Isaacson, Sheila Steinhof
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental learning and attentional disorders (NLAD) such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect at least 6% of the adult population or more. They are associated with atypical cognitive patterns in early and adult life. The cognitive patterns of affected individuals in late life have never been described. One main challenge is detecting individuals in clinical settings during which mild cognitive changes could be confounding the clinical presentation...
June 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629842/the-prevalence-of-late-onset-adhd-in-a-clinically-referred-adult-sample
#16
Mary V Solanto
OBJECTIVE: Three recent prospective longitudinal studies of population cohorts reported nontrivial rates of "adult-onset" ADHD. Given that this result is at odds with the neurodevelopmental conceptualization of ADHD, as well as with general clinical experience, we obtained report of onset of symptoms in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. METHOD: One hundred four adults diagnosed with ADHD completed retrospective ratings of DSM-IV/DSM-5 ADHD symptoms between the ages of 5 and 12 years...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624671/practitioner-review-emotional-dysregulation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-implications-for-clinical-recognition-and-intervention
#17
REVIEW
Stephen V Faraone, Anthony L Rostain, Joseph Blader, Betsy Busch, Ann C Childress, Daniel F Connor, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Because emotional symptoms are common in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and associate with much morbidity, some consider it to be a core feature rather than an associated trait. Others argue that emotional symptoms are too nonspecific for use as diagnostic criteria. This debate has been difficult to resolve due, in part, to the many terms used to describe emotional symptoms in ADHD and to concerns about overlap with mood disorders. METHODS: We sought to clarify the nature of emotional symptoms in ADHD by reviewing conceptual and measurement issues and by examining the evidence base regarding specificity of such symptoms for ADHD...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596328/performance-of-the-adult-adhd-self-report-scale-v1-1-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Boadie W Dunlop, Ruizhe Wu, Kathleen Helms
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an under-recognized comorbid disorder among patients with mood disorders. ADHD is an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior and contributes to many aspects of impaired function in adults. Diagnosis of ADHD in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients is challenging due to the overlap in cognitive symptoms between the two disorders. The ADHD Self-Report Scale, version 1.1 (ASRS-v1.1) is a widely used screening instrument for ADHD in adults but its accuracy has not been evaluated previously in treatment-seeking MDD patients...
March 29, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557078/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-study-to-determine-the-efficacy-safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-controlled-release-cr-formulation-of-mazindol-in-adults-with-dsm-5-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#19
Tim L Wigal, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Nelson Handal, Sharon B Wigal, Ioulietta Mulligan, Virginia Schmith, Eric Konofal
BACKGROUND: Mazindol is under investigation for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because of its alertness-enhancing properties. A novel controlled-release (CR) formulation of mazindol was developed to allow once-daily dosing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mazindol CR in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-week trial. METHODS: Subjects diagnosed with ADHD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Structured Interview (MINI) and with an ADHD Rating Scale, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (ADHD-RS-DSM5) score ≥ 28 were randomized to receive placebo or 1-3 mg/day of mazindol for 6 weeks...
March 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547978/a-neurocomputational-account-of-reward-and-novelty-processing-and-effects-of-psychostimulants-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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