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Functional impairment of adult adhd

Steve D Lukito, Owen G O'Daly, David J Lythgoe, Susannah Whitwell, Amanda Debnam, Clodagh M Murphy, Karen Ashwood, Vladimira Stoencheva, Emily Simonoff, Katya Rubia
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur and share neurocognitive deficits. One such shared impairment is in duration discrimination. However, no studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have investigated whether these duration discrimination deficits are underpinned by the same or different underlying neurofunctional processes. In this study, we used fMRI to compare the neurofunctional correlates of duration discrimination between young adult males with ASD ( n = 23), ADHD ( n = 25), the comorbid condition of ASD+ADHD ( n = 24), and typical development (TD, n = 26) using both region of interest (ROI) and whole brain analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yunhye Oh, Hee Joon Yoon, Ji-Hae Kim, Yoo Sook Joung
Objective: Anxiety has been shown to influence functional impairment in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to compare functional impairment in subjects with and without adult ADHD and to investigate the associations among trait anxiety, functional impairment, and ADHD symptom severity. Moreover, the effects of ADHD symptom subtypes on trait anxiety and functional impairment were also examined. Methods: The sample included 209 adults between the ages of 20 and 31 years...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dongren Yao, Xiaojie Guo, Qihua Zhao, Lu Liu, Qingjiu Cao, Yufeng Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Li Sun, Jing Sui
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists into adulthood, resulting in adverse effects on work performance and social function. The current diagnosis of ADHD primarily depends on the judgment of clinical symptoms, which highlights the need for objective imaging biomarkers. In this study, we aim to classify ADHD (both children and adults [34/112]) from age-matched healthy controls (HCs [28/77]) with functional connectivity (FCs) pattern derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Yuyang Luo, Kurt P Schulz, Tara L Alvarez, Jeffrey M Halperin, Xiaobo Li
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood in a sizeable portion of afflicted children. The persistence of ADHD elevates the risk for adverse outcomes that result in substantial individual and societal burden. The objective of this study is to assess neurobiological substrates associated with variability of clinical outcomes in childhood ADHD, which has considerable value for the development of novel interventions that target mechanisms associated with recovery...
October 13, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Imke Jansen, Alexandra Philipsen, Daniela Dalin, Isabella Katharina Wiesmeier, Christoph Maurer
BACKGROUND: Apart from inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, ADHD in childhood presents with an impairment of motor coordination and balance functions. Until now, literature is scarce about sensorimotor deficits in adult ADHD. This is a pilot study that identifies and quantifies the role of sensory, motor, and central adaptation mechanisms for adult ADHD patients' sensorimotor deficits in a systematic way, using postural control. METHODS: We analyzed spontaneous and externally perturbed stance in ten adult patients suffering from ADHD...
January 2019: Gait & Posture
Bartosz Helfer, Ruth E Cooper, Natali Bozhilova, Stefanos Maltezos, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson
Mind wandering, emotional lability and sleep quality are currently mostly independently investigated but are all interlinked and play a major role is adult attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Emotional lability is a core feature of the disorder, excessive mind wandering has recently been linked to symptoms and impairments of ADHD and poor sleep quality is experienced by a clear majority of adults with ADHD. All three phenomena lead to functional impairment in ADHD, however their relationship to each other and to ADHD symptom severity is not well understood...
October 29, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Jane Ann Sedgwick, Andrew Merwood, Philip Asherson
The behavioural characteristics of ADHD do not exist in binary form (i.e. normal vs. abnormal); instead, they exist on a spectrum or continuum. This implies that some aspects of ADHD can be adaptive rather than impairing, or some adults may possess certain strengths or attributes that mediate and/or compensate for their ADHD-related deficits or impairments. More research is needed to clarify these observations. To explore and describe positive aspects of ADHD from the perspective of successful adults with ADHD...
October 29, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Theresa Vera Masuch, Myriam Bea, Barbara Alm, Peter Deibler, Esther Sobanski
The objective of this study is to assess internalized stigma, perceived public stigma, anticipated discrimination and their associations with demographic, psychiatric and psychosocial characteristics in adult ADHD. Stigmatization was assessed with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, the Questionnaire on Anticipated Discrimination and the Questionnaire on Public Stereotypes Perceived by Adults with ADHD. The sample comprised n = 104 adults with ADHD, of whom n = 24 (23.3%) reported high internalized stigma, n = 92 (88...
October 19, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Arthur D P Mak, Alicia K W Chan, Phyllis K L Chan, C P Tang, Kelly Lai, Sheila Wong, Patrick Leung, S F Hung, Linda C W Lam, Sing Lee
OBJECTIVE: We examined adulthood diagnostic, functioning, and social outcomes of childhood ADHD in a Hong Kong Chinese clinical sample. METHOD: We identified from the central registry 499 Chinese adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD aged 6 to 12 in 2002-2005 in four Hong Kong child psychiatric centers. Assessments included ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID), and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS)...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Chao Gu, Zhong-Xu Liu, Rosemary Tannock, Steven Woltering
Individuals with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are often characterized by deficits in working memory (WM), which manifest in academic, professional, and mental health difficulties. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these presumed WM deficits, we compared adults with ADHD to their peers on behavioral and neural indices of WM. We used a visuospatial change detection task with distractors which was designed to assess the brain's ability to effectively filter out distractors from WM, in addition to testing for effects of WM load...
2018: PeerJ
Smadar Valérie Tourjman, Stéphane Potvin, Fernando Corbalan, Akram Djouini, Scot E Purdon, Emmanuel Stip, Robert-Paul Juster, Edouard Kouassi
Cognitive impairments constitute a core feature of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), but are infrequently assessed in the clinical setting. We have previously demonstrated the ability of an objective cognitive battery, the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP), to differentiate adult ADHD patients from healthy controls in five cognitive domains. Here, we further characterize these subtle cognitive deficits by conducting additional univariate analyses on our ADHD dataset to assess the contributions of various demographic characteristics on SCIP performance and to determine correlations between SCIP scores and scores on other measures evaluating illness severity, perceived cognitive deficits, and overall functioning...
September 17, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Sébastien Weibel, Margaret Weiss, Marie Gachet, Kelly Guichard, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers, Régis Lopez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the French version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Self Report (WFIRS-S) in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. METHOD: Patients ( N = 363) were diagnosed with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria. Psychometric properties of the French version of the WFIRS-S were tested including construct validity with a confirmatory factor analysis, internal structural validity with Cronbach's alpha coefficient, external validity by correlations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Giuseppe Plazzi, Heather M Clawges, Judith A Owens
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic and lifelong neurologic disorder with onset commonly occurring in childhood or adolescence, and affecting approximately 0.025% to 0.05% of the general population. The primary symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness, which is accompanied by cataplexy in 70% of patients. Other common symptoms include sleep paralysis, hallucinations upon falling asleep or waking, and disrupted nocturnal sleep. Narcolepsy is associated with a considerable burden of illness (BOI), which has been well characterized in adults, and is exacerbated by delays in symptom recognition, diagnosis, and intervention...
August 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Dominik P Kiser, Sandy Popp, Angelika G Schmitt-Böhrer, Tatyana Strekalova, Daniel L van den Hove, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Olga Rivero
OBJECTIVE: Cadherin-13 (CDH13), a member of the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule family, has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders, but also to depression. In the adult brain, CDH13 expression is restricted e.g. to the presynaptic compartment of inhibitory GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus and Cdh13 knockout mice show an increased inhibitory drive onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, leading to a shift in excitatory/inhibitory balance...
August 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Carolina Miguelez-Fernandez, Santiago J de Leon, Itziar Baltasar-Tello, Inmaculada Peñuelas-Calvo, María Luisa Barrigon, Alba Sedano Capdevila, David Delgado-Gómez, Enrique Baca-García, Juan J Carballo
Ecological momentary assessment is an excellent tool for the measurement of different day-to-day domains in patients and capturing real-world and real-time data. The purpose of this review is to evaluate feasibility in current ecological momentary assessment studies on emotional and behavioral functioning, functional impairments, and quality of life patients with an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. This systematic review follows the recommendation of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines selecting articles published from January 1, 1990, up to the latest access on May 2018, identifying a pool of 23 eligible studies...
December 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
L Alexander, N Farrelly
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder in childhood, which progresses to adulthood in about a fifth of cases. For various reasons, adult ADHD is a disorder not comprehensively assessed by psychiatrists, not least because the biological underpinnings are only recently being unmasked.AimsThis selective review targets psychiatrists without a background in neuroscience and aims to describe the neurobiological basis of ADHD. METHODS: In total, 40 articles from a PubMed search were selected for inclusion based on sample population and methodology (neuroimaging studies)...
September 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Anita K Chisholm, Vicki A Anderson, Natalie A Pride, Stephanie Malarbi, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer-Carius, Ute Strehl, Augustin Kelava, Florian Benedikt Häußinger, Andreas Jochen Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
AIM: Findings on neurophysiological alterations in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been proposed to underlie ADHD symptoms, with different etiological pathways for different patient biotypes. We aimed at determining whether neurophysiological deviations confirm distinct neurophysiological profiles in ADHD, thus providing direct evidence for the endophenotype concept. METHODS: Neurophysiological biotypes were investigated in 87 adult patients with ADHD using cluster analysis...
November 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
M van Lieshout, M Luman, L J S Schweren, J W R Twisk, S V Faraone, D J Heslenfeld, C A Hartman, P J Hoekstra, B Franke, J K Buitelaar, N N J Rommelse, J Oosterlaan
Longitudinal studies on the course of neurocognitive functioning of children with ADHD and their unaffected siblings are scarce. Also, it is unclear to what extent that course is related to ADHD outcomes. A carefully phenotyped large sample of 838 Caucasian participants (ADHD-combined type: n = 339, unaffected siblings: n = 271, controls: n = 228; mean age at baseline = 11.4 years, mean age at follow-up = 17.3 years, SD = 3.2) was used to investigate differences in the course of neurocognitive functioning of ADHD affected and unaffected siblings versus controls, and to investigate the relationship between neurocognitive change and ADHD outcomes...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Morgan M Dorr, Kevin J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To better understand current issues with adult ADHD assessment contributing to adult ADHD being under recognized and undertreated. METHOD: This study examined the relationship between symptoms, impairment, and executive functioning (EF) in a college sample. RESULTS: Among individuals screening negative for ADHD, those higher in EF experienced significantly less impairment than those lower in EF. Executive functioning was shown to have a negative relationship with impairment while ADHD symptomology was shown to have a positive relationship with impairment...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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