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Functional impairment of adult adhd

Arthur D P Mak, Alicia K W Chan, Phyllis K L Chan, C P Tang, Kelly Lai, Sheila Wong, Patrick Leung, S F Hung, Linda C W Lam, Sing Lee
OBJECTIVE: We examined adulthood diagnostic, functioning, and social outcomes of childhood ADHD in a Hong Kong Chinese clinical sample. METHOD: We identified from the central registry 499 Chinese adults clinically diagnosed with ADHD aged 6 to 12 in 2002-2005 in four Hong Kong child psychiatric centers. Assessments included ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID), and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS)...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Chao Gu, Zhong-Xu Liu, Rosemary Tannock, Steven Woltering
Individuals with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are often characterized by deficits in working memory (WM), which manifest in academic, professional, and mental health difficulties. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these presumed WM deficits, we compared adults with ADHD to their peers on behavioral and neural indices of WM. We used a visuospatial change detection task with distractors which was designed to assess the brain's ability to effectively filter out distractors from WM, in addition to testing for effects of WM load...
2018: PeerJ
Smadar Valérie Tourjman, Stéphane Potvin, Fernando Corbalan, Akram Djouini, Scot E Purdon, Emmanuel Stip, Robert-Paul Juster, Edouard Kouassi
Cognitive impairments constitute a core feature of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), but are infrequently assessed in the clinical setting. We have previously demonstrated the ability of an objective cognitive battery, the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP), to differentiate adult ADHD patients from healthy controls in five cognitive domains. Here, we further characterize these subtle cognitive deficits by conducting additional univariate analyses on our ADHD dataset to assess the contributions of various demographic characteristics on SCIP performance and to determine correlations between SCIP scores and scores on other measures evaluating illness severity, perceived cognitive deficits, and overall functioning...
September 17, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Sébastien Weibel, Margaret Weiss, Marie Gachet, Kelly Guichard, Stéphanie Bioulac, Pierre Philip, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers, Régis Lopez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the psychometric properties of the French version of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Self Report (WFIRS-S) in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. METHOD: Patients ( N = 363) were diagnosed with ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria. Psychometric properties of the French version of the WFIRS-S were tested including construct validity with a confirmatory factor analysis, internal structural validity with Cronbach's alpha coefficient, external validity by correlations with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Giuseppe Plazzi, Heather M Clawges, Judith A Owens
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic and lifelong neurologic disorder with onset commonly occurring in childhood or adolescence, and affecting approximately 0.025% to 0.05% of the general population. The primary symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness, which is accompanied by cataplexy in 70% of patients. Other common symptoms include sleep paralysis, hallucinations upon falling asleep or waking, and disrupted nocturnal sleep. Narcolepsy is associated with a considerable burden of illness (BOI), which has been well characterized in adults, and is exacerbated by delays in symptom recognition, diagnosis, and intervention...
June 30, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Dominik P Kiser, Sandy Popp, Angelika G Schmitt-Böhrer, Tatyana Strekalova, Daniel L van den Hove, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Olga Rivero
OBJECTIVE: Cadherin-13 (CDH13), a member of the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule family, has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders, but also to depression. In the adult brain, CDH13 expression is restricted e.g. to the presynaptic compartment of inhibitory GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus and Cdh13 knockout mice show an increased inhibitory drive onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, leading to a shift in excitatory/inhibitory balance...
August 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Carolina Miguelez-Fernandez, Santiago J de Leon, Itziar Baltasar-Tello, Inmaculada Peñuelas-Calvo, María Luisa Barrigon, Alba Sedano Capdevila, David Delgado-Gómez, Enrique Baca-García, Juan J Carballo
Ecological momentary assessment is an excellent tool for the measurement of different day-to-day domains in patients and capturing real-world and real-time data. The purpose of this review is to evaluate feasibility in current ecological momentary assessment studies on emotional and behavioral functioning, functional impairments, and quality of life patients with an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. This systematic review follows the recommendation of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines selecting articles published from January 1, 1990, up to the latest access on May 2018, identifying a pool of 23 eligible studies...
August 21, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
L Alexander, N Farrelly
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder in childhood, which progresses to adulthood in about a fifth of cases. For various reasons, adult ADHD is a disorder not comprehensively assessed by psychiatrists, not least because the biological underpinnings are only recently being unmasked.AimsThis selective review targets psychiatrists without a background in neuroscience and aims to describe the neurobiological basis of ADHD. METHODS: In total, 40 articles from a PubMed search were selected for inclusion based on sample population and methodology (neuroimaging studies)...
September 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Anita K Chisholm, Vicki A Anderson, Natalie A Pride, Stephanie Malarbi, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1...
September 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer-Carius, Ute Strehl, Augustin Kelava, Florian Benedikt Häußinger, Andreas Jochen Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
AIM: Findings on neurophysiological alterations in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been proposed to underlie ADHD symptoms, with different etiological pathways for different patient biotypes. We aimed at determining whether neurophysiological deviations confirm distinct neurophysiological profiles in ADHD, thus providing direct evidence for the endophenotype concept. METHODS: Neurophysiological biotypes were investigated in 87 adult patients with ADHD using cluster analysis...
August 7, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
M van Lieshout, M Luman, L J S Schweren, J W R Twisk, S V Faraone, D J Heslenfeld, C A Hartman, P J Hoekstra, B Franke, J K Buitelaar, N N J Rommelse, J Oosterlaan
Longitudinal studies on the course of neurocognitive functioning of children with ADHD and their unaffected siblings are scarce. Also, it is unclear to what extent that course is related to ADHD outcomes. A carefully phenotyped large sample of 838 Caucasian participants (ADHD-combined type: n = 339, unaffected siblings: n = 271, controls: n = 228; mean age at baseline = 11.4 years, mean age at follow-up = 17.3 years, SD = 3.2) was used to investigate differences in the course of neurocognitive functioning of ADHD affected and unaffected siblings versus controls, and to investigate the relationship between neurocognitive change and ADHD outcomes...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Morgan M Dorr, Kevin J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To better understand current issues with adult ADHD assessment contributing to adult ADHD being under recognized and undertreated. METHOD: This study examined the relationship between symptoms, impairment, and executive functioning (EF) in a college sample. RESULTS: Among individuals screening negative for ADHD, those higher in EF experienced significantly less impairment than those lower in EF. Executive functioning was shown to have a negative relationship with impairment while ADHD symptomology was shown to have a positive relationship with impairment...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Kuaikuai Duan, Jiayu Chen, Vince D Calhoun, Dongdong Lin, Wenhao Jiang, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Martine Hoogman, Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu
While gray matter (GM) anomalies have been reported for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating their associations with cognitive deficits and individual symptom domains can help pinpoint the neural underpinnings critical for the pathology of ADHD, particularly the persist form of ADHD. In this work, we performed both independent component analysis and voxel-based morphometry analysis on whole brain GM of 486 adults including 214 patients, 96 unaffected siblings, and 176 healthy controls, in relation to cognition and symptoms...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Marco Grados, Rachel Huselid, Laura Duque-Serrano
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of impairing motor and vocal tics which often persists adolescent and adult years. In this older refractory group, standard treatments such as pharmacotherapy and psychotherapeutic interventions may only have limited effects. Based on electrical cortical dysregulation in individuals with TS, a novel approach has employed brain stimulation strategies to modulate the putative aberrant neural electrical activity in pathways that may underlie tics, such as insula-supplementary motor area (SMA) connectivity...
July 6, 2018: Brain Sciences
Jessica C Agnew-Blais, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Andrea Danese, Jasmin Wertz, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with mental health problems and functional impairment across many domains. However, how the longitudinal course of ADHD affects later functioning remains unclear.AimsWe aimed to disentangle how ADHD developmental patterns are associated with young adult functioning. METHOD: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study is a population-based cohort of 2232 twins born in England and Wales in 1994-1995...
September 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Kasey Stanton, Miriam K Forbes, Mark Zimmerman
There has been growing interest in studying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood as a result of research indicating that ADHD often persists into adulthood and frequently is comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Adult ADHD symptoms are most commonly assessed via self-report, but prior research examining the structure of self-reported adult ADHD symptoms has yielded discrepant results. Explicating the factor structure of ADHD symptom measures is essential to determine if such self-report measures assess symptom dimensions showing distinctive relations with other psychopathology and psychosocial functioning...
June 7, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Martin Kronenbuerger, Patrizia Belenghi, Justus Ilgner, Jessica Freiherr, Thomas Hummel, Irene Neuner
Tourette syndrome is a chronic tic disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder can be found. The overlap between neuroanatomical regions and neurotransmitter systems in the olfactory system and the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome let us hypothesize altered olfactory performance in Tourette syndrome. The main objective of this study was to systematically assess olfactory functioning in subjects with Tourette syndrome and to compare it to healthy controls...
2018: PloS One
Hila Z Gvirts, Yael D Lewis, Shira Dvora, Kfir Feffer, Uriel Nitzan, Ziv Carmel, Yechiel Levkovitz, Hagai Maoz
Impaired decision making in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been reported in several studies. Although methylphenidate (MPH) is known to ameliorate impaired decision making in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has not yet been examined in patients with BPD. We therefore assessed the efficacy of a single dose of MPH on cognitive functions and decision making in patients with BPD. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. The study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled, random block order cross-over trial...
July 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)...
July 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Peter J Castagna, Scott Roye, Matthew Calamia
Several measures are available that assess inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and executive functioning deficits. Treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and skill-based academic interventions focus on improving compensatory strategies to ameliorate functional impairment; however, no measure exists that examines the compensatory behaviors adults utilize to compensate for the functional deficits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The current study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Compensatory ADHD Behaviors Scale (CABS)...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
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